History of Herzegovina
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|History of Herzegovina|
A pre-Slavic, Indo-European tribal people called Illyrians were one of the first significant people to inhabit Herzegovina, along with Bosnia, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Albania and Greece as far back as 2000 B.C. They intermingled with the indigenous pre-Indo-European mountain population, and Illyrians were known for being a fierce mountain warrior race by the Greeks and Romans.
The Ottomans were the first to begin officially using the name Herzegovina for the region. The beg of Bosnia Isa-beg Ishaković mentioned the name in a letter from 1454.
Herzegovina’s unofficial capital of Mostar was first mentioned in 1452. Only a few years later it was invaded by the Ottomans and most likely fell in the year 1466. It was during the time of Ottoman rule that the city gained importance. It soon became a kadiluk and from 1522 it was the centre of the Herzegovina sanjak. By the late 16th century it was incorporated into the newly enlarged Bosnian pashaluk.
As a result of the Treaty of Karlowitz of 1699, the Ottomans gained access to the Adriatic Sea through the Neum-Klek coastal area. The Republic of Dubrovnik seceded this to distance themselves from the Venetian Republic's influence. The Ottomans benefitted from this in gaining the region's salt.
As a result of the Bosnian Uprising, Herzegovina was split from the Pashaluk of Bosnia in 1833 and was turned into separate pashaluk known as the Pashaluk of Herzegovina ruled by semi-independent vizier Ali-paša Rizvanbegović. After his death in 1851, Pashaluk of Herzegovina was united with Pashaluk of Bosnia to form the Pashaluk of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was the first time the region was called Bosnia and Herzegovina and the name has persisted since then.
In 1852, the region gained its own Franciscan Custody. The custody became the Franciscan Province of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1892.
In the late Ottoman period, Croatian and Serbian serfs launched the Herzegovinian rebellion which began a series of wars in Europe against the Ottomans. The rebellion was largely in protest of the country's tax system.
As a result of the Treaty of Berlin, the Ottoman Empire conceded Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria-Hungary. In 1878 Austro-Hungarian armies occupied the country. The Croatian generals Josip Filipović and Stjepan Jovanović led the invasion. Stjepan Jovanović's troops took Herzegovina, while Filipović's marched into Bosnia from Slavonia.
The Catholic Church was reformed in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1881 following the expulsion of the Ottomans from the country. Herzegovina's churches became a part of the Mostar-Duvno Bishopric and the Trebinje Bishopric. In 1890 the Trebinje Bishopric was absorbed by the Mostar-Duvno Bishopric. The Franciscan order also opened the first university in Herzegovina in 1895 in Mostar.
Antebellum and World War II
During the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, large parts of western and central Herzegovina came under control of the Croatian republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (which later joined the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) while eastern Herzegovina became a part of Republika Srpska.