History of Kuwait
Part of a series on the
|History of Kuwait|
|Prehistoric and ancient|
|20th century to 1961|
|Kuwait since 1961|
- 1 Ancient history
- 2 Founding of modern Kuwait
- 3 Early government
- 4 Kuwait–Najd War (1919-1920)
- 5 Discovery of oil
- 6 Independence
- 7 Gulf War
- 8 See also
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 References
Kuwait was historically part of the region of the Mesopotamia, including the Ubaid period (ca. 6500 BC). The world's oldest reed-boat was discovered in Kuwait in the north. Mesopotamians first settled in the Kuwaiti islands of Akkaz and Failaka in 2000 B.C. Traders from the Sumerian city of Ur inhabited Failaka and ran a mercantile business. The island had many Mesopotamian-style buildings typical of those found in Iraq dating from around 2000 B.C. The Neolithic inhabitants of Kuwait were among the world's earliest maritime traders.
The earliest recorded mention of Kuwait was in 150 AD in the geographical treatise Geography by Greek scholar Ptolemy. Ptolemy visited the area on the orders of Alexander the Great. Ptolemy mentioned the Bay of Kuwait as Hieros Kolpos (Sacer Sinus in the Latin versions).
In 4000 BC until 2000 BC, the Bay of Kuwait was home to the Dilmun civilization. Dilmun's control of the bay of Kuwait included Kuwait City's Shuwaikh Port (formerly Akkaz Island), Umm an Namil Island and Failaka island. At its peak in 2000 BC, the Dilmun empire controlled the trade routes from Mesopotamia to India and the Indus Valley civilization. The commercial power of the Dilmun civilization began to decline after 1800 BC. Piracy flourished throughout the region during Dilmun's decline. After 600 BC, the Babylonians added Dilmun to their empire. Following the Dilmun civilization, the bay of Kuwait was inhabited by the Kassites of Mesopotamia, and was formally under the control of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon.
Under Nebuchadnezzar II, the bay of Kuwait was under Babylonian control. Cuneiform documents found in Kuwait's islands indicate the presence of Babylonians in the island's population. Babylonian Kings were present in some of Kuwait's islands during the Neo-Babylonian Empire period, Nabonidus had a governor in Failaka and Nebuchadnezzar II had a palace and temple in Falaika. The island of Failaka also contained temples dedicated to the worship of Shamash, the Mesopotamian sun god in the Babylonian pantheon.
In 3rd century BC, the ancient Greeks colonized the Bay of Kuwait under Alexander the Great, the ancient Greeks named mainland Kuwait Larissa and the island of Failaka was named Ikaros. According to Strabo and Arrian, Alexander the Great named Failaka Ikaros because it resembled the Aegean island of that name in size and shape. Remains of Greek colonization include a large Hellenistic fort and two Greek temples.
In 224 AD, Kuwait became part of the Sassanid Empire. At the time of the Sassanid Empire, Kuwait was known as Meshan, which was an alternative name of the kingdom of Characene. In Shuwaikh Port in Kuwait City, the Sassanid religion's tower of silence was discovered.
Battle of Chains
In 636 AD, the Battle of Chains between the Sassanid Empire and Rashidun Caliphate was fought in Kuwait near the town of Kazma. At the time, Kuwait was under the control of the Sassanid Empire. The Battle of Chains was the first battle of the Rashidun Caliphate in which the Muslim army sought to extend its frontiers.
As a result of the Rashidun victory in the 7th century, Kuwait became known as an early Islamic city known as Kazima or Kadhima. Kuwait was known as Kazima for many centuries and was controlled by the kingdom of Al-Hirah in Iraq. During the early Islamic period, Kuwait was well known for being a fertile area. During the 7th century, Muslim armies were stationed in Kuwait due to its strategic location. Kuwait became a famous trading station by the 9th century.
Kazima was a stop for caravans coming from Persia and Mesopotamia en route to the Arabian Peninsula. One of the most prominent Kuwaitis born in Kazima is the poet Al-Farazdaq. Al-Farazdaq is recognized as one of the greatest classical poets of the Arabs.
Founding of modern Kuwait
In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. Kuwait was initially under the control of the Bani Khalid clan, who built fishing villages in present-day Kuwait Bay. In 1650, the Bani Utubs settled in Kuwait. The Bani Utub settlers gradually migrated in the sixteenth century from Najd to Basra and Kuwait. The Bani Utubs had originally migrated to Basra, they occupied 2000 houses and were described as a powerful group who owned 150 ships, which they used for merchant shipping and for transporting goods for Basra's merchants.
In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat, Baghdad and Arabia. By the mid 1700s, Kuwait had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo. During the Persian siege of Basra in 1775—1779, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities. As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed.
Between the years 1775 and 1779, the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo, Smyrna and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait. The East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792. The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait, India and the east coasts of Africa. After the Persians withdrew from Basra in 1779, Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra. The flight of many of Basra's leading merchants to Kuwait continued to play a significant role in Basra's commercial stagnation well into the 1850s.
Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century. Kuwait became prosperous due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century. In the late 18th century, Kuwait partly functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants fleeing Ottoman government persecution. Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region. Kuwaiti ship vessels were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean. Kuwaitis also developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf.
In the 19th century, Kuwait became significant in the horse trade, horses were regularly shipped by the way of sailing boats from Kuwait. In the mid 19th century, it was estimated that Kuwait was exporting an average of 800 horses to India annually.
In the early 20th century, Kuwait was dubbed the "Marseilles of the Gulf" because its economic vitality attracted a large variety of people. In a good year, Kuwait's annual revenue actually came up to 100,000 riyals, the governor of Basra considered Kuwait's annual revenue an astounding figure. A Western author's account of Kuwait in 1905:
|“||Kuwait was the Marseilles of the Persian Gulf. Its population was good natured, mixed, and vicious. As it was the outlet from the north to the Gulf and hence to the Indies, merchants from Bombay and Tehran, Indians, Persians, Syrians from Aleppo and Damascus, Armenians, Turks and Jews, traders from all the East, and some Europeans came to Kuwait. From Kuwait, the caravans set out for Central Arabia and for Syria.
H. C. Armstrong, Lord of Arabia
In the first decades of the twentieth century, Kuwait had a well-established elite: wealthy trading families who were linked by marriage and shared economic interests. The elite were long-settled, urban, Sunni families, the majority of which claim descent from the original 30 Bani Utubi families. The wealthiest families were trade merchants who acquired their wealth from long-distance commerce, shipbuilding and pearling. They were a cosmopolitan elite, they traveled extensively to India, Africa and Europe. The elite educated their sons abroad more than other Gulf Arab elite. Western visitors noted that the Kuwaiti elite used European office systems, typewriters and followed European culture with curiosity. The richest families were involved in general trade. The merchant families of Al-Ghanim and Al-Hamad were estimated to be worth millions before the 1940s.
Downfall of economy
In the early 20th century, Kuwait immensely declined in regional economic importance, mainly due to many trade blockades and the world economic depression. Before Mary Bruins Allison visited Kuwait in 1934, Kuwait lost its prominence in long distance trade. During World War I, the British Empire imposed a trade blockade against Kuwait because Kuwait's ruler supported the Ottoman Empire. The British economic blockade heavily damaged Kuwait's economy.
The Great Depression negatively impacted Kuwait's economy starting in the late 1920s. International trading was one of Kuwait's main sources of income before oil. Kuwaiti merchants were mostly intermediary merchants. As a result of European decline of demand for goods from India and Africa, the economy of Kuwait suffered. The decline in international trade resulted in an increase in gold smuggling by Kuwaiti ships to India. Some Kuwaiti merchant families became rich due to gold smuggling to India.
Kuwait's pearling industry also collapsed as a result of the worldwide economic depression. At its height, Kuwait's pearling industry led the world's luxury market, regularly sending out between 750 and 800 ship vessels to meet the European elite's need for luxuries pearls. During the economic depression, luxuries like pearls were in little demand. The Japanese invention of cultured pearls also contributed to the collapse of Kuwait's pearling industry.
Following the Kuwait–Najd War of 1919-1920, Ibn Saud imposed a tight trade blockade against Kuwait from the years 1923 until 1937. The goal of the Saudi economic and military attacks on Kuwait was to annex as much of Kuwait's territory as possible. At the Uqair conference in 1922, the boundaries of Kuwait and Najd were set. Kuwait had no representative at the Uqair conference. Ibn Saud persuaded Sir Percy Cox to give him two-thirds of Kuwait's territory. More than half of Kuwait was lost due to Uqair. After the Uqair conference, Kuwait was still subjected to a Saudi economic blockade and intermittent Saudi raiding.
|“||Poverty has settled in Kuwait more heavily since my last visit five years ago, both by sea, where the pearl trade continues to decline, and by land, where the blockade established by Saudi Arabia now harms the merchants.||”|
Some prominent merchant families left Kuwait in the early 1930s due to the prevalence of economic hardship. At the time of the discovery of oil in 1937, most of Kuwait's inhabitants were impoverished.
Kuwait's merchants had the most power and influence in Kuwait before the discovery of oil. Al Sabah family rule remained limited until well into the 1930s because the merchants, owing to their financial power, were the primary sources of income in Kuwait. Many of the merchants migrated from Basra to Kuwait to continue trade. One of the well known merchants, Hussain Al-Roumi, was known as the leader in sea trade throughout the region, sustaining the economy for decades before the discovery of oil. The financial influence of the merchants came from their control of trade and imports, duties on which sustained the Shaikh. Because wealth was imbedded in movable property, refuge was tolerated by neighbouring Shaikhs, and Britain intervened only when important interests were at stake, secession was an effective merchant tactic. A large secession could reduce the area's economic and military power and create a refuge for future dissidents.
Al Sabah became Kuwait's monarchy in 1938. One tradition has it that political power went to the Sabahs as part of an explicit agreement in 1890; merchant families focused on the trade while the House of Sabah and other notable Kuwaiti families provided protection of city housed within Kuwait's wall. The man chosen was a Sabah, Sabah I bin Jaber. Sabah diplomacy may have also been important with neighbouring tribes, especially as Bani Khalid power declined. This selection is usually dated to 1756.
In 1762, Sabah I died and was succeeded by his youngest son, Abdullah. Shortly after Sabah's death, in 1766, the al-Khalifa and, soon after, the al-Jalahima, left Kuwait en masse for Zubara in Qatar. Domestically, the al-Khalifa and al-Jalahima had been among the top contenders for power. Their emigration left the Sabahs in undisputed control, and by the end of Abdullah I's long rule (1762–1812), Sabah rule was secure, and the political hierarchy in Kuwait was well established, the merchants deferring to direct orders from the Shaikh. By the 19th century, not only was the ruling Sabah much stronger than a desert Shaikh but also capable of naming his son successor. This influence was not just internal but enabled the al-Sabah to conduct foreign diplomacy. They soon established good relations with the British East India Company in 1775.
The assassination of Muhammad Bin Sabah Although Kuwait was nominally governed from Basra, the Kuwaitis had traditionally maintained a relative degree of autonomous status. In the 1870s, Ottoman officials were reasserting their presence in the Persian Gulf, with a military intervention in 1871—which was not effectively pursued—where family rivalries in Kuwait were breeding chaos. The Ottomans were bankrupt and when the European banks took control of the Ottoman budget in 1881, additional income was required from Kuwait and the Arabian peninsula. Midhat Pasha, the governor of Iraq, demanded that Kuwait submit to Ottoman rule. The al-Sabah found diplomatic allies in the British Foreign Office. However, under Abdullah II Al-Sabah, Kuwait pursued a general pro-Ottoman foreign policy, formally taking the title of Ottoman provincial governor, this relationship with the Ottoman Empire did result in Ottoman interference with Kuwaiti laws and selection or rulers. In May 1896, Shaikh Muhammad Al-Sabah was assassinated by his half-brother, Mubarak, who, in early 1897, was recognized, by the Ottoman sultan, as the qaimmaqam (provincial sub-governor) of Kuwait.
- Mubarak the Great
Mubarak's seizure of the throne via murder left his brother's former allies as a threat to his rule, especially as his opponents gained the backing of the Ottomans. In July, Mubarak invited the British to deploy gunboats along the Kuwaiti coast. Britain saw Mubarak's desire for an alliance as an opportunity to counteract German influence in the region and so agreed. This led to what is known as the First Kuwaiti Crisis, in which the Ottomans demanded that the British stop interfering with their empire. In the end, the Ottoman Empire backed down, rather than go to war.
In January 1899, Mubarak signed an agreement with the British which pledged that Kuwait would never cede any territory nor receive agents or representatives of any foreign power without the British Government's consent. In essence, this policy gave Britain control of Kuwait's foreign policy. The treaty also gave Britain responsibility for Kuwait's national security. In return, Britain agreed to grant an annual subsidy of 15,000 Indian rupees (£1,500) to the ruling family. In 1911, Mubarak raised taxes. Therefore, three wealthy business men Ibrahim Al-Mudhaf, Helal Al-Mutairi, and Shamlan Ali bin Saif Al-Roumi (brother of Hussain Ali bin Saif Al-Roumi), led a protest against Mubarak by making Bahrain their main trade point, which negatively affected the Kuwaiti economy. However, Mubarak went to Bahrain and apologized for raising taxes and the three business men returned to Kuwait. In 1915, Mubarak the Great died and was succeeded by his son Jaber II Al-Sabah, who reigned for just over one year until his death in early 1917. His brother Sheikh Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah succeeded him.
- The Anglo-Ottoman convention
Despite the Kuwaiti government's desire to either be independent or under British rule, in the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, the British concurred with the Ottoman Empire in defining Kuwait as an autonomous caza of the Ottoman Empire and that the Shaikhs of Kuwait were not independent leaders, but rather qaimmaqams (provincial sub-governors) of the Ottoman government.
The convention ruled that Shaikh Mubarak had authority over an area extending out to a radius of 80 km, from the capital. This region was marked by a red circle and included the islands of Auhah, Bubiyan, Failaka, Kubbar, Mashian, and Warba. A green circle designated an area extending out an additional 100 km, in radius, within which the qaimmaqam was authorized to collect tribute and taxes from the natives.
Kuwait–Najd War (1919-1920)
The Kuwait-Najd War erupted in the Aftermath of World War I, when the Ottoman Empire was defeated and the British invalidated the Anglo-Ottoman Convention. The power vacuum, left by the fall of the Ottomans, sharpened the conflict between Kuwait and Najd (Ikhwan). The war resulted in sporadic border clashes throughout 1919-1920.
Battle of Jahra
The Battle of Jahra was a battle during the Kuwait-Najd War. The battle took place in Al Jahra, west of Kuwait City on October 10, 1920 between Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah ruler of Kuwait and Ikhwan Wahhabi followers of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia, king of Saudi Arabia.
The Uqair protocol
In response to the various Bedouin raids, the British High Commissioner in Baghdad, Sir Percy Cox, imposed the Uqair Protocol of 1922 which defined the boundaries between Iraq, Kuwait and Nejd. On 1 April 1923, Shaikh Ahmad al-Sabah wrote the British Political Agent in Kuwait, Major John More, "I still do not know what the border between Iraq and Kuwait is, I shall be glad if you will kindly give me this information." More, upon learning that al-Sabah claimed the outer green line of the Anglo-Ottoman Convention (4 April), would relay the information to Sir Percy.
On 19 April, Sir Percy stated that the British government recognized the outer line of the Convention as the border between Iraq and Kuwait. This decision limited Iraq's access to the Persian Gulf at 58 km of mostly marshy and swampy coastline. As this would make it difficult for Iraq to become a naval power (the territory did not include any deepwater harbours), the Iraqi King Faisal I (whom the British installed as a puppet king in Iraq) did not agree to the plan. However, as his country was under British mandate, he had little say in the matter. Iraq and Kuwait would formally ratify the border in August. The border was re-recognized in 1932.
In 1913, Kuwait was recognized as a separate province from Iraq and given autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty in the draft Anglo-Ottoman Convention, however this was not signed before the outbreak of the first World War. The border was revisited by a memorandum sent by the British high commissioner for Iraq in 1923, which became the basis for Kuwait's northern border. In Iraq's 1932 application to the League of Nations it included information about its borders, including its border with Kuwait, where it accepted the boundary established in 1923.
Discovery of oil
In 1937, the 15-year trade blockades against Kuwait were lifted and Kuwait's large oil reserves were discovered by the US-British Kuwait Oil Company. Exploration was delayed until after World War II, the use of oil only began in 1951. Between World War II and 1948, Kuwait's inhabitants were still largely impoverished. A few years after the end of World War II, oil exploration finally began. In 1951, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a better standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest exporter of oil in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from India.
By early 1961, the British had withdrawn their special court system, which handled the cases of foreigners resident in Kuwait, and the Kuwaiti Government began to exercise legal jurisdiction under new laws drawn up by an Egyptian jurist. On 19 June 1961, Kuwait became fully independent following an exchange of notes with the United Kingdom.
When Kuwait became independent in 1961, Iraq claimed Kuwait, under the rationale that Kuwait had been part of the Ottoman Empire subject to Iraqi suzerainty. Iraq appeared to be mobilizing for a military invasion and on 27 June 1961 the Amir of Kuwait requested assistance from the British Government. Britain rapidly deployed troops, aircraft and ships to the area (Operation Vantage). In 1963, after Iraqi prime minister Abd al-Karim Qasim had been killed in a coup, Iraq reaffirmed its acceptance of Kuwaiti sovereignty and the boundary it had agreed to in 1913 and 1932, in the "Agreed Minutes between the State of Kuwait and the Republic of Iraq Regarding the Restoration of Friendly Relations, Recognition, and Related Matters." In the 1960s and 1970s however there were still periodic border clashes.
In 1983, Kuwait supported Iraq in the Iran–Iraq War. As a consequence of this, Iran attacked Kuwait's oil tankers and Kuwait was forced to seek protection from the United States, which sent warships to the Persian Gulf.
The invasion of Kuwait and annexation by Iraq took place on 2 August 1990. Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein's primary justifications included a charge that Kuwaiti territory was in fact an Iraqi province, and that annexation was retaliation for "economic warfare" Kuwait had waged through slant drilling into Iraq's oil supplies. However, the initial casus belli was claimed to be support for a Kuwaiti rebellion. The monarchy was deposed and an Iraqi-backed puppet leader named Alaa Hussein Ali was installed as head of the "Provisional Government of Free Kuwait." Iraq annexed Kuwait on 8 August. The war was traumatic to the Kuwaiti population. The underground resistance was punished by summary executions and torture. Almost all Kuwaitis at the time lost some family member. In addition, half the population, both native and foreign-born fled.
U.S. President George H.W. Bush condemned the invasion, and led efforts to drive out the Iraqi forces. Authorized by the United Nations Security Council, an American-led coalition of 34 nations fought the First Persian Gulf War to reinstate the Kuwaiti Emir. Following several weeks of aerial bombardment, a U.S.-led United Nations (UN) coalition began a ground assault on 23 February 1991 that completely removed Iraqi forces from Kuwait in four days. After liberation, the UN, under Security Council Resolution 687, demarcated the Iraq-Kuwait boundary on the basis of the 1932 and the 1963 agreements between the two states. In November 1994, Iraq formally accepted the UN-demarcated border with Kuwait, which had been further spelled out in Security Council Resolutions 773 (1992) and 833 (1993).
A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War. During the Gulf War, more than 200,000 Palestinians voluntarily fled Kuwait during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait due to harassment and intimidation by Iraqi security forces, in addition to getting fired from work by Iraqi authority figures in Kuwait. After the Gulf War, the Kuwaiti authorities forcibly pressured nearly 200,000 Palestinians to leave Kuwait in 1991. Kuwait's policy, which led to this exodus, was a response to alignment of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and the PLO with the dictator Saddam Hussein, who had earlier invaded Kuwait.
Prior to the exodus, Palestinians numbered 400,000 of Kuwait's population of 2.2 million. The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanian citizens. In 2013, there were 280,000 Jordanian citizens of Palestinian origin in Kuwait. In 2012, 80,000 Palestinians (without Jordanian citizenship) lived in Kuwait. In total, there are 360,000 Palestinians in Kuwait as of 2012-2013.
- Al-Hijji, Yacoub Yusuf ; translated by Fahad Ahmad ʻIsa Bishara. (2010). Kuwait and the sea : a brief social and economic history. London: Arabian Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9558894-4-8.
- Lorimer, John Gordon (1986) . Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia. Volume 1: Geographical (Archive ed.). ISBN 978-1-85207-031-1.
- "Kuwaiti-Slovak Archaeological Mission (KSAM)". Retrieved 24 September 2010.
- "The Rocky Road That Faces Many Kuwaiti Merchants". LA Times.
Before oil was discovered in Kuwait 53 years ago, the country was largely a nation of merchant traders. Its natural harbor made Kuwait a hub of Middle East commerce and a center for boat building.
- "Kuwait: A Trading City". Eleanor Archer. 2013.
- "Democracy in Kuwait". The Weekly Standard.
Home to one of only two natural ports in the Persian Gulf, Kuwait has for hundreds of years been a commercial and cosmopolitan center.
- Kaveh Farrokh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. p. 124.
- Barbara Marciniak (1994). Earth. p. 78.
- Fundamentals of Soil Ecology. 2004. p. 1.
The Mesopotamian region encompasses present-day Iraq and Kuwait.
- Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History. p. 1182.
- The World and the Word: An Introduction to the Old Testament. 2009. p. 18.
- Medvedev-Mead, Igor (2005). "The San Francisco Jung Institute Library Journal" 24 (3).
- Alleles and Genotypes Among Old Ethnic Groups in Mesopotamia to the Oxus Region
- "Secrets of world's oldest boat are discovered in Kuwait sands". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Traders from Ur?". Archaeology Magazine. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Robert Carter (2011). "THE HISTORY AND PREHISTORY OF PEARLING IN THE PERSIAN GULF" 24 (3). pp. 44–47.
- "THE EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF KUWAIT". Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Kuwait's archaeological sites reflect human history & civilizations (2:50 - 3:02)". Ministry of Interior News.
- Potts, D.T. (2009). "Potts 2009 - The archaeology and early history of the Persian Gulf". p. 35.
- "Brill's New Pauly: encyclopedia of the ancient world". 2007. p. 212.
- "The Archaeology of Seafaring in Ancient South Asia". Himanshu Prabha Ray. 2003. p. 101.
- "From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire". Pierre Briant. 2002. p. 761.
- "The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia". Trevor Bryce. 2009. p. 198.
- George Fadlo Hourani, John Carswell, Arab Seafaring: In the Indian Ocean in Ancient and Early Medieval Times Princeton University Press,page 131
- Bennett D. Hill, Roger B. Beck, Clare Haru Crowston (2008). A History of World Societies, Combined Volume. p. 165.
Centered in the fertile Tigris- Euphrates Valley, but with access to the Persian Gulf and extending south to Meshan (modern Kuwait), the Sassanid Empire's economic prosperity rested on agriculture; its location also proved well suited for commerce.
- Avner Falk (1996). A Psychoanalytic History of the Jews. p. 330.
In 224 he defeated the Parthian army of Ardavan Shah (Artabanus V), taking Isfahan, Kerman, Elam (Elymais) and Meshan (Mesene, Spasinu Charax, or Characene).
- Abraham Cohen (1980). Ancient Jewish Proverbs.
The large and small measures roll down and reach Sheol; from Sheol they proceed to Tadmor (Palmyra), from Tadmor to Meshan (Mesene), and from Meshan to Harpanya (Hipparenum).
- "LE TELL D’AKKAZ AU KOWEÏT TELL AKKAZ IN KUWAIT". p. 2.
- Kurt Ray (2003). A Historical Atlas of Kuwait. p. 10.
- "Kuwait in Pictures". Francesca Davis DiPiazza. 2008. pp. 20–21.
- "Kadhima : an Early Islamic settlement and landscape on Kuwait Bay". Durham University. Retrieved 2013-07-28.
- Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies Volumes 9–12. 1979. p. 53.
Although the town of al-Hira might have been too far northward to be considered a part of Eastern Arabia it is dealt with here as such because the kingdom of al- Hira controlled Kazima (Kuwait).
- "Culture in rehabilitation: from competency to proficiency". Jeffrey L. Crabtree, Abdul Matin Royeen. 2006. p. 194.
During the early Islamic period, Kazima had become a very famous fertile area and served as a trading stations for travelers in the region.
- "Kuwait in History".
- "A CONCISE BIOGRAPHY OF AL-FARAZDAQ A POETIC COLOSSUS OF THE UMAYYAH ERA". University of Ilorin. pp. 1–2.
- Joel Thomas Walker. The Legend of Mar Qardagh: Narrative and Christian Heroism in Late Antique Iraq. p. 95.
- "Kuwait: Prosperity from a Sea of Oil". G. Aloun Klaum. 1980. p. 30.
- "The Encyclopaedia of Islam". Sir H. A. R. Gibb. 1980. p. 572.
- The Origins of Kuwait. p. 71.
- Shadows on the Sand: The Memoirs of Sir Gawain Bell. Gawain Bell. 1983. p. 222.
- ʻAlam-i Nisvāṉ - Volume 2, Issues 1-2. p. 18.
Kuwait became an important trading port for import and export of goods from India, Africa and Arabia.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. 2009. p. 66.
- "Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader". Phyllis Bennis. p. 42.
- The Kuwait Crisis: Basic Documents. 1991. p. 4.
- Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City. 2009. p. 67.
- Thabit Abdullah. Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Basra. p. 72.
- "Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City". Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar. p. 68.
- "Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople". Mohibbul Hasan. 2007. p. 18.
For owing to Basra's misfortunes, Kuwait and Zubarah became rich.
- "The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745-1900". Hala Mundhir Fattah. 1997. p. 114.
- The impact of economic activities on the social and political structures of Kuwait (1896-1946). p. 108.
- "The Postal Agencies in Eastern Arabia and the Gulf". Neil Donaldson. 2008. p. 93.
- Mary Bruins Allison (1994). Doctor Mary in Arabia: Memoirs. p. 1.
- "Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire". 2009. p. 321.
- "Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman: People of the Dhow". Dionisius A. Agius. 2012. p. 48.
- "The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745-1900". Hala Mundhir Fattah. 1997. p. 181.
- "The Persian Gulf in History". Lawrence G. Potter. 2009. p. 272.
- "Lord of Arabia". H. C. Armstrong. 1905. pp. 18–19.
- "Oil and Politics in the Gulf: Rulers and Merchants in Kuwait and Qatar". Jill Crystal. 1995. p. 37.
- Mary Ann Tétreault (1995). The Kuwait Petroleum Corporation and the Economics of the New World Order. pp. 2–3.
- David Lea (2001). A Political Chronology of the Middle East. p. 142.
- Lewis R. Scudder (1998). The Arabian Mission's Story: In Search of Abraham's Other Son. p. 104.
- Mohammad Khalid A. Al-Jassar (2009). Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya. p. 80.
- "The History of Kuwait". Michael S. Casey. 2007. p. 57.
- "Economic Development and Political Reform: The Impact of External Capital on the Middle East". Bradley Louis Glasser. 2003. pp. 54–57.
- Michael Herb (1999). All in the Family: Absolutism, Revolution, and Democracy in Middle Eastern Monarchies. pp. 68–69.
- Crystal, Jill. "Kuwait: Ruling Family". Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Library of Congress. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Anscombe 1997, p. [page needed]
- The blood red place of Jahra, Kuwait Times.
- Crystal, Jill. "Kuwait – Persian Gulf War". The Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Library of Congress. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- White, Christopher J; Robinson, Peter (2008–2010). "Gulf War Part 1: Operation Vantage". Historical RFA. Retrieved 16 Jan 2010.
- Crystal, Jill. "Kuwait: Post-War Society". The Persian Gulf States: A Country Study. Library of Congress. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Shafeeq Ghabra (May 8, 1991). "The PLO in Kuwait".
- Yann Le Troquer and Rozenn Hommery al-Oudat (Spring 1999). "From Kuwait to Jordan: The Palestinians' Third Exodus". Journal of Palestine Studies. pp. 37–51.
- "Jordanians of Kuwait". Joshua Project. 2013.
- "Palestinians Open Kuwaiti Embassy". Al Monitor. 23 May 2013.