History of Mangalore
The History of Mangalore dates back to the Mythological times and is accounted to as part of Parashurama Shristi. Mangalore has been ruled by a number of rulers like the Kadambas and Vira Harihararaya II. It was later conquered by the Portuguese, who lost it to Hyder Ali. Until India's independence Mangalore remained under the rule of the British who had taken over,by defeating Tippu Sultan.Mangalore which was a part of the Madras Presidency was merged into a unified Mysore State in 1956.
According to Hindu mythology, the region covering Mangalore was a part of the Parashurama Shristi, the coastal belt reclaimed from the sea by the legendary sage Parashurama. As for other mythological associations, Rama was the Lord of Tulu Nadu during the days of the Ramayana. Sahadeva, the youngest of the Pandavas, was the Governor of this place during the days of the Mahabharatha. The Pandavas lived in Banavasi during their exile visiting Sarapady near Mangalore. Arjuna, the hero of Mahabharata also appears to have visited this place when he travelled from Gokarna to Adur near Kasargod. It was the land of enchantment of Sahyadri mountains, where the great sages Kanva, Vysa, Vashista, Vishvamitra and others spent their days of meditation.
There are many historical references regarding to the town. Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek monk referred to the port of Mangarouth. Pliny, a Roman historian made references of a place called Nithrias, and Greek historian Ptolemy referred to Nitre. Both the references were probably to the River Netravathi. Ptolemy had also mentioned this city of Mangalore in his work as Maganoor. Roman writer Arien called Mangalore Mandegora. A 7th-century copper inscription referred to Mangalore as Mangalapura.
The Kadambas had ruled this place from 200 to 600 A.D. The ancient history proved that Mangalore had been the capital of Alupa dynasty until the 14th century. A traveler, Ibn Battuta who had visited the town in 1342 stated that he arrived at a place named Manjurun or Mandjaur situated on a large estuary. He had mentioned that the town was a trading centre and Persian and Yemeni merchants disembarked at Mangalore. In 1448, Abdul Razak, a Persian Ambassador passed via this route to Vijayanagar. He said that he had seen a glorious temple here. The inscriptions at Moodabidri stated a King Mangaras Odeya was the governor of Mangaluru Raajya during the reign of Vira Harihararaya II of Vijayanagar dynasty. Another inscription stated that Deeva Raaja Odeya ruled the Mangaluru Raajya in 1429 during the reign of Vijayanagara King Veera Devaraya II. Various powers have fought for control over Mangalore. The major dynasties that ruled the town till the arrival of Portuguese were the Western Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Hoysalas.
The European influence in Mangalore can be traced back to the year 1498, when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama had landed at St Mary's Islands near Mangalore on his voyage from Portugal to India. In 1520 the Portuguese took control of the area from Vijayanagara rulers. In 1526, the Portuguese viceroy Lopo Vaz de Sampaio succeeded in defeating the Bangara king and his allies and the trade passed out of Muslim hands into Portuguese hands. During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Portuguese commanded the Arabian Sea from the port of Mangalore and they intruded actively in the affairs of the local chieftains. In 1695, the town was burnt by the Arabs in retaliation for Portuguese restrictions on Arab trade.
Kingdom of Mysore
Hyder Ali (1722–1782) the ruler of Mysore conquered Mangalore in 1763, and it was under his administration till 1768, before being annexed by the British between 1768 and 1794. Later in 1794 Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan again took control of the area. During his regime, the city was caught in the crossfires of Anglo-Mysore relations. The Second Anglo-Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Mangalore which was signed in Mangalore between Tippu Sultan and the British East India Company on 11 March 1784.
The English again captured Mangalore in 1791, but Tippu besieged it in 1793 and the English surrendered the city in 1794. With the death of Tippu Sultan and the fall of Srirangapatna during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War in 1799, the city was re-conquered by the British, and it remained under British administration till India's independence in 1947.
The city had a peaceful administration under British rule and permanent visible improvements effected during this period. It flourished gradually in education and in industry and became a commercial centre for export and import trade. The linking of Mangalore, in 1907, with the Southern Railway and later the advent of motor vehicles further increased the trade and communication with the rich hinterland. The opening of the Basel Mission in 1834 brought many industries into the city.
After India's independence in 1947, Mangalore which was a part of the Madras Presidency was merged into a unified Mysore State in 1956. Thereafter, Mangalore gained a very important position in the state since it gave the erstwhile Mysore state the benefit of a coastline. The late twentieth century witnessed Mangalore develop as a business and commercial centre. In spite of this, Mangalore still retained its old world charm such as tile-roofed buildings amidst coconut groves, fishing boats silhouetted against the darkening skyline. The present day city bustles with great activity in the upcoming IT Sector and the prognosis of a prosperity in this international trade looms.
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