Mordovia

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Republic of Mordovia
Республика Мордовия (Russian)
Мордовия Республикась (Mordvin)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Republic of Mordovia
Coordinates: 54°26′N 44°27′E / 54.433°N 44.450°E / 54.433; 44.450Coordinates: 54°26′N 44°27′E / 54.433°N 44.450°E / 54.433; 44.450
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Volga-Vyatka[2]
Established January 10, 1930
Capital Saransk
Government (as of May 2012)
 - Head[4] Vladimir Volkov[3]
 - Legislature State Assembly[4]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[5]
 - Total 26,200 km2 (10,100 sq mi)
Area rank 68th
Population (2010 Census)[6]
 - Total 834,755
 - Rank 60th
 - Density[7] 31.86 /km2 (82.5 /sq mi)
 - Urban 60.4%
 - Rural 39.6%
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[8]
ISO 3166-2 RU-MO
License plates 13, 113
Official languages Russian;[9] Mordvin (Moksha and Erzya)[10]
Official website

The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: Респу́блика Мордо́вия, tr. Respublika Mordoviya; IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə mɐrˈdovʲɪjə]; Moksha/Erzya: Мордовия Республикась,[11] Mordoviya Respublikas), also known as Mordvinia, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Saransk. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the republic was 834,755.[6] A large part of the population is Mordvin; another large fraction is ethnic Russian.

Geography[edit]

The republic is located in the eastern part of the East European Plain of Russia. The western part of the republic is situated in the Oka Don Plain; its eastern and central parts in the Volga Elevation.

Rivers[edit]

There are 114 rivers in the republic. Major rivers include:

Lakes[edit]

There are approximately five hundred lakes in the republic.

Natural resources[edit]

Natural resources include peat, mineral waters, and others.

Climate[edit]

Climate is moderately continental.

  • Average January temperature: −11 °C (12 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +19 °C (66 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: ~500 millimeters (20 in)

Administrative divisions[edit]

History[edit]

Map of the Republic of Mordovia
Old map of Mordovia

Early history[edit]

Earliest archaeological signs of human beings in the area of Mordovia are from the Neolithic era. Finno-Ugric Mordvins are mentioned in written sources in 6th century. Later, Mordvins were under the influence of both Volga Bulgaria and Kievan Rus. Mordvin princes sometimes raided Muroma and Volga Bulgaria, and often despoiled each other's holdings.

Mongol rule[edit]

The Mongols conquered vast areas of Eastern Europe in the 13th century. They established the khanate of the Golden Horde in 1241, subjugating the area of Mordovia. Mordvins fought against Mongols and later alongside Russians.[citation needed] Mordvin lands territorially belonged to Mukhsha Ulus. The Golden Horde disintegrated in 1430s, which resulted in some Mordvins becoming subjects of the Khanate of Kazan, whereas others were incorporated into Muscovy.

Russian rule[edit]

When Ivan IV of Russia annexed the Khanate of Kazan in 1552, the Mordvin lands were subjugated to the Russian tsars. The Mordvin elite rapidly adopted Russian language and customs, whereas 1821 saw the publication of the New Testament in Erzya to address the non-elite population. In rural areas, Mordvin culture was preserved. Russians started to convert Mordvins to Orthodox Christianity in the mid-18th century. Mordvins gave up their own shamanist religion only slowly, however, and many of shamanist features were preserved as parts of local culture though the population became nominally Christian. Translations of literature to Mordvin languages were mostly religious books. In the 18th century, the Latin alphabet was used in writing Mordvin, but from the mid-19th century, Cyrillic was used.

Part of the Soviet Union[edit]

During the Russian revolution and civil war, Mordovia was held mostly by opponents of Bolsheviks. When the Bolsheviks prevailed in the war, Mordovia became a part of the Russian SFSR. In 1925, the Soviet government founded autonomous districts and village councils in the area of the Mordvins. During the Soviet era, two written languages were developed, one based on the Erzya dialect in 1922 and one on the Moksha dialect in 1923, both using Cyrillic script. The Mordovian Okrug was founded on July 16, 1928, and it was elevated to the status of an autonomous oblast on January 10, 1930. The autonomous oblast was transformed into the Mordovian Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic on December 20, 1934.

Part of the Russian Federation[edit]

When the Soviet Union disintegrated, the Mordovian ASSR proclaimed itself the Republic of Mordovia in 1990, and remained a part of the Russian Federation. The Republic of Mordovia in its present form has existed since January 25, 1994.

Politics[edit]

Seat of the Government, completed in 1986

The supreme law is the Constitution of the Republic of Mordovia.

In a "wave" of sovereignty common among other former Russian autonomous republics, Mordovia established a presidency in 1991

In that same year, Vasilly Guslyannikov, a physicist by training, was elected in the general election. Guslyannikov had previously been a senior researcher at the Institute of Power Electronics and was the leader of the republican branch of the Democratic Russia political movement.

In 1993, the Supreme Council of Mordovia abolished the post of president, on the basis of what Guslyannikov was removed from his post. Guslyannikov appealed the action of the supreme legislative body of the republic in the Russian Constitutional Court, however, the Constitutional Court declared their conformity with the Constitution of Russia.

The head of the government in the Republic of Mordovia is the Head of the Republic. The office is currently held by the long-time Prime Minister, Vladimir Volkov who was sworn in on May 14, 2012. His predecessor was Nikolay Merkushkin who held the office from 1995 to 2012.

The State Assembly is the legislature of the republic.

Economy[edit]

The most developed industries are machine building, chemical, woodworking, and food industries. Most of the industrial enterprises are located in the capital Saransk, as well as in the towns of Kovylkino and Ruzayevka, and in the urban-type settlements of Chamzinka and Komsomolsky.

Demographics[edit]

Population: 834,755 (2010 Census);[6] 888,766 (2002 Census);[12] 964,132 (1989 Census).[13]

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 1 026 15 423 9 048 6 375 15.0 8.8 6.2
1975 1 003 14 983 9 689 5 294 14.9 9.7 5.3
1980 984 14 320 10 287 4 033 14.6 10.5 4.1
1985 964 15 123 11 152 3 971 15.7 11.6 4.1
1990 963 12 910 11 018 1 892 13.4 11.4 2.0 1,87
1991 961 11 537 11 079 458 12.0 11.5 0.5 1,73
1992 961 10 215 11 574 - 1 359 10.6 12.0 - 1.4 1,55
1993 959 9 276 13 217 - 3 941 9.7 13.8 - 4.1 1,42
1994 956 8 916 14 748 - 5 832 9.3 15.4 - 6.1 1,37
1995 952 8 589 13 460 - 4 871 9.0 14.1 - 5.1 1,32
1996 946 7 883 13 579 - 5 696 8.3 14.4 - 6.0 1,22
1997 939 7 493 13 631 - 6 138 8.0 14.5 - 6.5 1,16
1998 931 7 469 13 116 - 5 647 8.0 14.1 - 6.1 1,16
1999 923 6 994 14 200 - 7 206 7.6 15.4 - 7.8 1,09
2000 913 7 148 14 838 - 7 690 7.8 16.2 - 8.4 1,12
2001 903 7 049 14 200 - 7 151 7.8 15.7 - 7.9 1,11
2002 891 7 131 14 918 - 7 787 8.0 16.7 - 8.7 1,12
2003 880 7 433 15 170 - 7 737 8.4 17.2 - 8.8 1,16
2004 873 7 689 14 768 - 7 079 8.8 16.9 - 8.1 1,20
2005 865 7 394 14 823 - 7 429 8.5 17.1 - 8.6 1,14
2006 858 7 367 13 981 - 6 614 8.6 16.3 - 7.7 1,14
2007 851 7 728 13 320 - 5 592 9.1 15.6 - 6.6 1,19
2008 846 8 215 13 167 - 4 952 9.7 15.6 - 5.9 1,28
2009 841 8 103 13 027 - 4 924 9.6 15.5 - 5.9 1,27
2010 835 7 974 13 106 - 5 132 9.5 15.7 - 6.1 1,24
2011 830 7 896 12 310 - 4 414 9.5 14.8 - 5.3 1,25
2012 822 8 168 11 859 - 3 691 9.9 14.4 - 4.5 1,32
2013 815 8 266 12 121 - 3 855 10.1 14.8 - 4.7 1,36(e)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Main article: Mordvin people

The Mordvin people are a Finnic group speaking two related languages, Moksha and Erzya. The Mordvins identify themselves as separate ethnic groups:[14] the Erzya and Moksha. Only one third of all Mordvinic languages speakers live in the Republic of Mordovia. During the Soviet period, school textbooks were published in each language.[15]

According to the 2010 Census,[6] Russians make up 53.4% of the republic's population, while ethnic Erzya and Moksha are only 40%. Other groups include Tatars (5.2%), Ukrainians (0.5%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Mordvins 405,031 34.1% 357,978 35.8% 364,689 35.4% 338,898 34.2% 313,420 32.5% 283,861 31.9% 333,112 40.0%
Russians 719,117 60.5% 590,557 59.0% 606,817 58.9% 591,212 59.7% 586,147 60.8% 540,717 60.8% 443,737 53.4%
Tatars 47,386 4.0% 38,636 3.9% 44,954 4.4% 45,765 4.6% 47,328 4.9% 46,261 5.2% 43,392 5.2%
Ukrainians 7,586 0.6% 6,554 0.7% 6,033 0.6% 5,622 0.6% 6,461 0.7% 4,801 0.5% 4,801 0.5%
Others 8,884 0.7% 6,468 0.6% 7,069 0.7% 8,012 0.8% 10,148 1.1% 13,126 1.5% 11,361 1.4%
1 3,153 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[16]

Religion[edit]


Circle frame.svg

Religion in Mordovia (2012)[17][18]

  Russian Orthodox (68.6%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (5%)
  Muslim (2%)
  Old Believers (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (10%)
  Atheist (7%)
  Other or undeclared (6.4%)

According to a 2012 survey[17] 68.6% of the population of Mordovia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Muslims, 1% adhere to Starovery (Old Believers). In addition, 10% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 7% is atheist, and 6.4% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[17] Some Mordvins adhere to the Mordvin Native Religion.

Culture[edit]

There are many museums in the republic. The largest ones include the Mordovian Republican United Museum of Regional Studies and the Museum of Mordvinian Culture in Saransk.

The National Library of the Republic of Mordovia is the largest library in the republic.

The State Puppet Theater of the Republic of Mordovia, located in Saransk, is well known in Russia. Most of the plays played in this theater are Russian fairy-tales.

Erzya literature experienced a renaissance in the 1920s and 1930s.

House and Museum of F. Sychkov was opened March 11, 1970 at Kochelaevo, Kovylkinsky District after a reconstruction.

Mordovian cuisine is widespread in the country

Education and sport[edit]

The most important facilities of higher education include Mordovian State University and Mordovian State Pedagogical Institute in Saransk. Mordovia, along with neighbour Chuvashia and Penza Oblast, has given some of the best modern racewalking athletes, both women (Olga Kaniskina, Anisya Kirdyapkina, Elena Lashmanova, Olena Shumkina, Irina Stankina) or men (Sergey Bakulin, Valeriy Borchin, Stanislav Emelyanov, Vladimir Kanaykin, Sergey Kirdyapkin, Sergey Morozov, Denis Nizhegorodov, Roman Rasskazov), apart from Alexei Nemov (see more in the article History of Mordovian sport).

Language[edit]

The Mordvinic languages,[19] alternatively Mordvin languages,[20] or Mordvinian languages, (Russian: Mordovskie yazyki, the official Russian term for the language pair)[21] are a subgroup of the Uralic languages, comprising the closely related Erzya language and Moksha language.[22] Previously considered a single "Mordvin language",[23] it is now treated as a small language family. Due to differences in phonology, lexicon, and grammar, Erzya and Moksha are not mutually intelligible, so that the Russian language is often used for intergroup communications.[24]

The two Mordvinic languages also have separate literary forms. The Erzya literary language was created in 1922 and the Mokshan in 1923.[25]

Phonological differences between the two languages include:[23]

  • Moksha retains a distinction between the vowels /ɛ, e/ while in Erzya, both have merged as /e/.
  • In unstressed syllables, Erzya features vowel harmony like many other Uralic languages, using [e] in front-vocalic words and [o] in back-vocalic words. Moksha has a simple schwa [ə] in their place.
  • Word-initially, Erzya has a postalveolar affricate /tʃ/ corresponding to a fricative /ʃ/ in Moksha.
  • Next to voiceless consonants, liquids /r, rʲ, l, lʲ/ and the semivowel /j/ are devoiced in Moksha to [r̥ r̥ʲ l̥ l̥ʲ ȷ̊].

The medieval Muromian language may have been Mordvinic, or close to Mordvinic.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of the Republic of Mordovia. Nikolay Ivanovich Merkushkin (Russian)
  4. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.3
  5. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  6. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Constitution, Article 12
  11. ^ Official website of Mordovia republic government
  12. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  14. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica
  15. ^ Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver, "Equality, Efficiency, and Politics in Soviet Bilingual Education Policy, 1934-1980," American Political Science Review 78 (December 1984): 1019-1039.
  16. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  17. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  18. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  19. ^ Bright, William (1992). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-505196-4. 
  20. ^ Mordvin languages @ google books
  21. ^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages. Columbia University Press. 
  22. ^ Grenoble, Lenore (2003). Language Policy in the Soviet Union. Springer. p. A80. ISBN 978-1-4020-1298-3. 
  23. ^ a b Raun, Alo (1988). Sinor, Denis, ed. The Uralic languages: Description, history and foreign influences. BRILL. p. A96. ISBN 978-90-04-07741-6. 
  24. ^ Minahan, James (2000). "Mordvin+language" One Europe, Many Nations. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. A489. ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7. 
  25. ^ Wixman, Ronald (1984). The Peoples of the USSR. M.E. Sharpe. p. A137. ISBN 978-0-87332-506-6. 

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]