Penza Oblast

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from History of Penza Oblast)
Jump to: navigation, search
Penza Oblast
Пензенская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 53°15′N 44°34′E / 53.250°N 44.567°E / 53.250; 44.567Coordinates: 53°15′N 44°34′E / 53.250°N 44.567°E / 53.250; 44.567
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Volga[2]
Administrative center Penza
Government (as of March 2011)
 - Governor Vasily Bochkaryov[3]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
 - Total 43,200 km2 (16,700 sq mi)
Area rank 59th
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 - Total 1,386,186
 - Rank 32nd
 - Density[6] 32.09 /km2 (83.1 /sq mi)
 - Urban 67.1%
 - Rural 32.9%
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-PNZ
License plates 58
Official languages Russian[8]
Official website

Penza Oblast (Russian: Пе́нзенская о́бласть, Penzenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Penza. Population: 1,386,186 (2010 Census).[5]

History[edit]

The regional center of Penza was built in 1663 as a Russian fortress on the border of the Wild Fields, although evidence of the presence of more ancient settlements has been found in the modern city.

In 1718 the Penza province was founded in the Kazan Oblast, and on 15 September 15 1780 the official Penza province was formed, lasting until 5 March 5 1797, when it was dissolved and became the district center of Penza in the Saratov province.

On 9 September 1801, Penza Province was restored and ran until 1928 - the year of the big administrative and territorial reforms in the Soviet Union - at which point its governorate was liquidated and Penza became the central district of the Middle region, later the Kuibyshev region and, nine years later (c. 1937), the regional center of the Tambov region.

By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 4 February 1939, Tambov Oblast was divided and, from it, the Penza Oblast in its current form was created. In March of 1939, the Penza Oblast Committee of the CPSU was formed, the first secretary of the committee being Alexander Kabanov.

Geography[edit]

Fauna[edit]

There are 316 species of vertebrates within the region, including:

  • about 10 species of amphibians;
  • about 200 species of birds;
  • about 8 species of reptiles;
  • about 68 species of mammals (fox, rabbit, ferret, badger, squirrel).

Seven existing species of mammals were already acclimatized on land: the American mink, muskrat, raccoon dog, wild boar, Siberian roe deer, red deer and Sika deer. In parallel, work has been carried out to reintroduce the Forest-steppe marmot, the Eurasian beaver and the Russian desman (a species of mole that resembles a muskrat).

In the waters of Penza Oblast, there are about 50 species of fish. The largest body of water - the Sursko reservoir - is home to around 30 species. Commercial species include bream, silver bream, pikeperch, ide, and catfish. In the rivers and smalls pond dwell roach, perch, carp, and pike. The most valuable fish to be found in the natural waters is the sterlet.

Main rivers[edit]

Penza Oblast has over 3000 rivers; the overall length is 15,458 km. The biggest rivers are:

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Penza (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
5.0
(41)
17.0
(62.6)
30.0
(86)
35.4
(95.7)
38.0
(100.4)
37.8
(100)
37.2
(99)
32.5
(90.5)
25.0
(77)
13.4
(56.1)
8.0
(46.4)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) −6.9
(19.6)
−5.8
(21.6)
0.3
(32.5)
11.7
(53.1)
21.2
(70.2)
24.4
(75.9)
25.7
(78.3)
23.7
(74.7)
17.6
(63.7)
8.9
(48)
0.4
(32.7)
−4.3
(24.3)
9.7
(49.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.8
(14.4)
−10.0
(14)
−4.2
(24.4)
6.4
(43.5)
13.9
(57)
18.0
(64.4)
19.2
(66.6)
17.1
(62.8)
11.6
(52.9)
4.5
(40.1)
−2.9
(26.8)
−7.7
(18.1)
4.7
(40.5)
Average low °C (°F) −13.9
(7)
−13.5
(7.7)
−7.1
(19.2)
1.7
(35.1)
8.1
(46.6)
12.5
(54.5)
14.2
(57.6)
11.9
(53.4)
7.1
(44.8)
1.3
(34.3)
−4.4
(24.1)
−10.4
(13.3)
0.6
(33.1)
Record low °C (°F) −39.0
(−38.2)
−40.0
(−40)
−31.1
(−24)
−20.0
(−4)
−6.0
(21.2)
−2.2
(28)
2.0
(35.6)
0.6
(33.1)
−6.1
(21)
−17.2
(1)
−31.1
(−24)
−40.0
(−40)
−40.0
(−40)
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
32
(1.26)
36
(1.42)
41
(1.61)
62
(2.44)
67
(2.64)
56
(2.2)
53
(2.09)
49
(1.93)
52
(2.05)
45
(1.77)
563
(22.17)
Source: Гидрометцентр, Погода и Климат

Politics[edit]

Seat of the Oblast government

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared among three persons: The first secretary of the Penza CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Penza Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Penza Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Economy[edit]

Penza Oblast is part of the Volga economic region. The oblast is one of Russia's leading producers of wheat, rye, oats, millet, buckwheat, cereal and forage crops, vegetables, potatoes, mustard, and meat.[9]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 1,386,186 (2010 Census);[5] 1,452,941 (2002 Census);[10] 1,504,309 (1989 Census).[11]

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 14 777 (10.8 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 20 419 (14.9 per 1000) [12]
  • Total fertility rate:[13]

2009 - 1.38 | 2010 - 1.37 | 2011 - 1.36 | 2012 - 1.48 | 2013 - 1.49(e)


Ethnic composition (2010):[5]

  • Russians - 86.8%
  • Tatars - 6.4%
  • Mordvins - 4.1%
  • Ukrainians - 0.7%
  • Chuvash people - 0.4%
  • Armenians - 0.3%
  • others - 1.3%
  • 43,283 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[14]
  • Births: 7,962 (Jan-July 2008)
  • Deaths: 13,608 (Jan-July 2008 [15])

Religion[edit]





Circle frame.svg

Religion in Penza Oblast (2012)[16][17]

  Russian Orthodox (62.9%)
  Muslim (7%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (2%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (15%)
  Atheist (9%)
  Other or undeclared (3.1%)

According to a 2012 official survey,[16] 62.9% of the population of Penza Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 7% are Muslims. In addition, 15% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, and 3.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[16]

Troitse-Scanov Convent
Tourists near Oldman Khopyor at river source

Culture and recreation[edit]

Tourism[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of Penza Oblast. Vasily Kuzmich Bochkaryov, Governor of Penza Oblast (Russian)
  4. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  5. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ Russia Profile org: information from the official Penza Oblast website at www.penza.ru
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  13. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  14. ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. Retrieved 2012-12-25. 
  15. ^ [1][dead link]
  16. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  17. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  18. ^ "Professor Victor A. Skumin, D.M.Sci." (in Russian). 2009. Archived from the original on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 
  19. ^ Bendet, Ia. A.; Morozov, S. M.; Skumin, V. A. (1980). "Психологические аспекты реабилитации больных после хирургического лечения пороков сердца" [Psychological aspects of the rehabilitation of patients after the surgical treatment of heart defects]. Kardiologiia (in Russian) 20 (6): 45–51. PMID 7392405. 
  20. ^ "Skumin syndrome". Genex (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2012-01-06. 

External links[edit]