History of Sabah
Part of a series on the
|History of Malaysia|
The history of Sabah can be traced back to about 23–30,000 years ago when evidence suggests the earliest human settlement in the region existed. The history is interwoven with the history of Brunei and the history of Malaysia, to which Sabah was previously part of and is currently part of respectively. The earliest recorded history of Sabah being part of any organised civilisation began in the early 15th century during the thriving era of the Sultanate of Brunei. Prior to this, early inhabitants of the land lived in predominantly tribal societies, although such tribal societies had continued to exist until the 1900s. The eastern part of Sabah was ceded to the Sultan of Sulu by the Sultan of Brunei in 1658 for the former helping a victory over Brunei enemies, but many sources stated it not been ceded. By the late 19th century, both territories previously owned by Sultan of Brunei and Sultan of Sulu was granted to British syndicate. Sabah became a protectorate of the United Kingdom in 1888 and subsequently became a crown colony until 1963, during which time it was known as North Borneo. On 16 September 1963, Sabah merged with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore (left in 1965) to form the Federation of Malaysia.
During the Last Glacial Maximum about 20,000 years ago, Sabah and the rest of Borneo island was connected to mainland Asia in a landmass known as the Sundaland. Subsequent deglaciation, which caused global sea level to rise, resulted in the Sundaland being submerged, separating Borneo from the rest of Asia.
Earliest human settlement in the region is believed to have dated back about 20,000–30,000 years ago. These early humans are believed to be Australoid or Negrito people. Stone tools and artifacts have been found in Madai and Baturong caves and in the archeological site in Lake Tingkayu near the district of Kunak which were estimated to date back from 28,000–17,000 years ago. The tools found there were considered advanced for its period. There was evidence of human cave-dwellings around 15,000–6,000 years ago.
An ongoing 2012 study by Universiti Sains Malaysia and Sabah Museum revealed the discovery of stone tools in Mansuli Valley near Lahad Datu believed to be 235,000 years old and in another site in Kampung Lipasu, Bingkor believed to be at least 200,000 years old. These recent findings suggests that human settlement in Sabah and Malaysia have existed much earlier than previously thought, which is about 40,000 years ago in Niah Caves, Sarawak.
The earliest ascertained wave of human migration, believed to be Austronesian Mongoloids, occurred around 3000 BC. This wave of migration is believed to represent the time when the indigenous hill people of present day Sabah had first arrived, namely the Murut and the Kadazan-Dusun, while Brunei Malays settlement appeared somewhat later. It is believed that some Australoid or Negrito people have interbred with later Mongoloid migrants and remained in Borneo, while others have migrated to other places such as Melanesia, the Lesser Sunda Islands or Australia.
The theory that Austronesians in Southeast Asia arrived from China through Taiwan has been challenged by Stephen Oppenheimer who suggested that many cultures including the people of China and India might have actually originated from Sundaland. A new finding based on DNA research in 2008 supported Oppenheimer's theory that migration flow might have been radiated out from Sundaland sometime around 15,000 to 7,000 years ago following the submergence of Sundaland due to rise in sea level. The findings of Stephen Oppenheimer was doubted. The poor cultures of sunderland do not support his theory that the people of China and India might have actually originated from Sundaland. It was the Austronesians in Southeast Asia arrived from China through Taiwan. As for the case of Sabah, the Dusun or the Muruts cultures are less than 200 years old.
Prior to the expansion of the Sultanate of Brunei most of the coastal region of Borneo has been either ruled or claimed as part of various Hindu communities or kingdoms from around Southeast Asia. However it is uncertain whether the influence of these kingdoms had ever reached the coasts of present-day Sabah.
During the 7th century CE, a settled community known as Vijayapura, a tributary to the Srivijaya empire, was thought to have been the earliest beneficiary to the Bruneian Empire existing around the northeast coast of Borneo.
Another kingdom which was suspected to have existed according to Chinese records beginning the 9th century was P'o-ni. It was believed that Po-ni existed at the mouth of Brunei River and was the predecessor to the Sultanate of Brunei.
The Brunei Annals in 1410 mentioned about a Chinese settlement or province centering in the Kinabatangan Valley in the east coast surrounding Kinabatangan River founded by a man known as Huang Senping. This is consistent with the recent discovery of timber coffins in the Agop Batu Tulug cave in the Kinabatangan Valley. The coffins, adorned with carvings believed to resemble similar cultural practices in China and Vietnam, are believed to date back from around 700 to 1,000 years ago (11th to 14th century).
From the 14th to the 16th century, the Majapahit empire expanded its influence towards Brunei and most of the coastal region of Borneo. Sometime around the late 15th to 18th century, the seafaring Bajau-Suluk people arrived from the Sulu archipelago and had settled on the coasts of Sabah. It is believed that they were fleeing from the oppression of the Spanish colonist in that region.
Sultanate of Brunei
The Sultanate of Brunei began after the ruler of Brunei embraced Islam. Some sources indicate that this had occurred around 1365 CE after the ruler, Awang Alak Betatar, converted into Islam and became known as Muhammad Shah. Other sources suggests that the conversion occurred much later around 1514 to 1521 CE, albeit, under the same person. During the same period, trade relations flourished, and intermarriages among the natives and Chinese, Japanese, Arab, and Hindu peoples became commonplace. The intermixing of blood resulted in a distinct breed of Palaweños, both in physical stature and features.
During the reign of the fifth sultan known as Bolkiah between 1485–1524, the Sultanate's thalassocracy extended over Sabah, Sulu Archipelago and Manila in the north, and Sarawak until Banjarmasin in the south. This was during the period when the Sultanate was in its 'golden era'.
In 1658, the Sultan of Brunei ceded the northern and eastern portion of Borneo to the Sultan of Sulu in compensation for the latter's help in settling the Brunei Civil War in the Brunei Sultanate. The Sultan of Brunei continued to loosely govern the west coast of Sabah. Many Brunei Malays migrated to this region during this period, although the migration has begun as early as the 15th century after the Brunei conquest of the territory. While the thalassocratic Brunei and Sulu sultanates controlled the western and eastern coasts of Sabah respectively, the interior region remained largely independent from either kingdoms.
In 1761, Alexander Dalrymple, an officer of the British East India Company, concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow him to set up a trading post in the region. This plan, together with other attempts to build a settlement and a military station centering around Pulau Balambangan, proved to be a failure. A map by Dalrymple of North Borneo is exhibited in the National Museum of Scotland. There was minimal foreign interest in this region afterward and control over most parts of north Borneo seems to have remained loosely under the Sultanate of Brunei.
In 1846, the island of Labuan on the west coast of Sabah was ceded to Britain by the Sultan of Brunei and in 1848 it became a British Crown Colony. Labuan became a base for British operations against piracy in the region.
The first recorded ascent of Mount Kinabalu, the highest mountain in Borneo, was made in 1851 by British Malaya colonial administrator and naturalist Hugh Low. The highest peak and the deep gully of the mountain was later named after him.
In 1865 the American Consul General of Brunei, Charles Lee Moses, obtained a 10-year lease over North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei Abdul Momin. Ownership was then passed to an American trading company owned by Joseph William Torrey, Thomas Bradley Harris, and some Chinese merchants. They set up a base and settlement in Kimanis and the Sultan of Brunei appointed Torrey as "The Rajah of Ambong and Marudu". His fortress "Ellena" was located in Kimanis with hundreds of Iban trackers led by Lingkanad. Torrey returned to America in 1877 and died near Boston, Massachusetts, in March 1884. The rights of the trading company were then sold to Gustav Baron Von Overbeck, the Austro-Hungarian Consul in Hong Kong (though he was actually a German national), and he later obtained another 10-year renewal of the lease. The lease was subsequently converted into a cession via a treaty which was signed by the Sultan of Brunei Abdul Momin. In the treaty, the Sultan appointed Overbeck as "Maharajah of Sabah and Rajah of Gaya and Sandakan." The treaty granted Overbeck the right over whole region of Sabah, including parts purporting to be the dominion of the Sulu Sultanate including Sandakan and Tawau. The treaty was signed on 29 December 1877 at the Brunei Palace.
On the east coast of North Borneo near Sandakan, William Cowie, on behalf of Dent's company, negotiated and obtained a lease in perpetuity from the Sultan of Sulu over its holdings in this region in 1878. This lease was signed on 22 January 1878 in the palace of the Sultan of Sulu. The lease would later be the subject of dispute by the modern republic of Philippines regarding the sovereignty of the state of Sabah. The rights were subsequently transferred to Alfred Dent, who in 1881 formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd. In 1881, the British government granted the British North Borneo Company a royal charter. William Hood Treacher was appointed the first British Governor of North Borneo.
In the following year, the British North Borneo Company was formed and Kudat was made its capital. Beginning 1882, the Company brought in Chinese people mainly Hakkas from Guangdong province to work as labourers in plantation farms. Most of the migrants settled in Kudat and Jesselton (now Kota Kinabalu).
In 1883 the capital was moved to Sandakan to capitalise on its potential of vast timber resources. In 1885, United Kingdom, Spain and Germany signed the Madrid Protocol of 1885. The purpose of the protocol was to recognise the sovereignty of Spain in the Sulu Archipelago and also for Spain to relinquish all claims it might have had over North Borneo.
In 1888 North Borneo became a protectorate of the United Kingdom. Administration and control over North Borneo remained in the hands of the Company despite being a protectorate and they effectively ruled until 1942. Their rule had been generally peaceful except for some rebellions, including one led by the Bajau-Suluk leader Mat Salleh from 1894 to 1900, and another led by Antanum of the Muruts known as the Rundum resistance in 1915. Many Suluk people had moved to North Borneo during this period due to the Spanish invasion of the Sulu Sultanate. Beginning 1920, more Chinese migrants arrived from the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian and even Hebei after the British changed its immigration policy to stimulate the stagnant economy during that period. There was also Javanese migration into Sabah beginning 1891 and subsequent recruitment of laborers by the British from 1907 onwards. Other significant migrants from present-day Indonesia into Sabah consists of the Bugis people beginning 1890s and the Florenese people from Flores beginning early 1950s.
The First Natives Paramount Leader was Pehin Orang Kaya-Kaya Koroh bin Santulan of Keningau "The father of former Sabah State Minister Tan Sri Stephen (Suffian) Koroh, and Sabah's fifth State Governor Tun Thomas (Ahmad) Koroh (the elder brother of Suffian)". Santulan which also a Pengeran, the father to Pehin Orang Kaya-Kaya Koroh was a Murut descendant of Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin, the 25th Sultan of Brunei.
World War II
As part of the Second World War Japanese forces landed in Labuan on 1 January 1942, and continued to invade the rest of North Borneo. From 1942 to 1945, Japanese forces occupied North Borneo, along with most of the island. Bombings by the allied forces devastated most towns including Sandakan, which was razed to the ground. Resistance against Japanese occupation was concentrated on the west and north coast of North Borneo. The resistance in Jesselton was led by Albert Kwok and Jules Stephens of the Kinabalu Guerillas. Another resistance was led by Panglima Alli from Sulug Island, off the coast of Jesselton. In Kudat, there was also some resistance led by Tun Datu Mustapha. On 10 October 1943, the Kinabalu Guerrillas together with followers of Panglima Alli staged a surprise attack on the Japanese. The attack however was foiled. The 324 local residents who participated in the attacks, including Albert Kwok and Panglima Alli, were detained in Petagas and later executed on 21 January 1944. The site of the execution is today known as the Petagas War Memorial.
In Keningau during World War II, Korom was a rebel and some said he was a Sergeant with the North Borneo Armed Constabulary. It was claimed that he spied for the Allied Forces by pretending to be working for the Japanese. He provided intelligence on Japanese positions and some credited him with the escape of 500 Allied POWs. Fighting alongside with Korom in his platoon was Garukon, Lumanib, Kingan, Mikat, Pensyl, Gampak, Abdullah Hashim, Ariff Salleh, Langkab, Polos, Nuing, Ambutit, Lakai, Badau and many more including the Chinese.
In Sandakan there was once a brutal POW camp run by the Japanese for British and Australian POWs from North Borneo. The prisoners suffered in agony in their first year of captivity under notoriously inhuman conditions, but much worse was to come through the forced marches of January, March and June 1945 (refer to Sandakan Memorial Park WWII POW Museum Records). Allied bombardments caused the Japanese to relocate the POW camp to inland Ranau, 260 km away. All the prisoners, who by then were reduced to 2,504 in number, were to be moved, but instead of transport, were forced to march the infamous Sandakan Death March. Sickness, disease, exhaustion, thirst, hunger, whipping, and shooting killed most of the prisoners, except for six Australians who successfully escaped, were never caught, and survived to tell the horrific story of the death march. The fallen of this march are commemorated each year on Anzac Day (Memorial Day) in Australia and in Sandakan, at the original POW campsite where a POW hut style museum and a black marble memorial obelisk monument are nestled in a peaceful park setting with a lily pond.
The war ended with the official surrender by Lieutenant-General Baba Masao of the 37th Japanese Army in Labuan on 10 September 1945. After the surrender, North Borneo was administered by the British Military Administration and in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. Jesselton replaced Sandakan as the capital and the Crown continued to rule North Borneo until 1963.
Self-government and the formation of Malaysia
On 31 August 1963, North Borneo attained self-government. The idea for the formation of a union of the former British colonies, namely, Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and North Borneo was mooted as early as in late 19th century, but it was Tunku Abdul Rahman who officially announced the proposal of wider federation in May 1961. It also seemed that this idea was supported by the British. There was a call for complete independence on that date by it was denied by the British Governor who remained in power until Malaysia Day. In 1962, the Cobbold Commission was set up to determine whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak favoured the proposed union. The Commission had found that the union was generally favoured by the people but wanted certain terms and conditions incorporated to safeguard the interest of the people. The Commission had also noted some opposition from the people but decided that such opposition was minor. The Commission published its report on 1 August 1962 and had made several recommendations. Unlike in Singapore, however, no referendum was ever conducted in Sabah.
Most ethnic community leaders of Sabah, namely, Tun Mustapha representing the Muslims, Tun Fuad Stephens representing the non-Muslim natives, and Khoo Siak Chew representing the Chinese, would eventually support the formation. An agreement was signed by Tunku Abdul Rahman, Harold MacMillan, the British Prime Minister, and William Goode, the last Governor of North Borneo, signed on behalf of the territory on 1 August 1962 putting to paper the agreement to form the union.
The intention had been to form Malaysia on 31 August 1963 but due to objections from the Philippines and Indonesia, the formation had to be postponed to 16 September 1963. At that point North Borneo, as Sabah, was united with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore, to form the independent the Federation of Malaysia. To safeguard the interest of North Borneo in the new federation, a 20-point agreement was entered into between the federal and the state government.
Confrontation and the Brunei Revolt
Leading up to the formation of Malaysia until 1966, Indonesia adopted a hostile policy towards Malaya and subsequently Malaysia, which was backed by British forces. This undeclared war stems from what Indonesian President Sukarno perceive as an expansion of British influence in the region and his intention to wrest control over the whole of Borneo under the Indonesian republic.
Around the same time, there were proposals from certain parties, particularly by the Brunei People's Party, for the formation of a North Borneo Federation consisting of Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei. The proposal culminated in rebel attacks in Brunei and some parts of Sabah and Sarawak. The rebellion was foiled by the Bruneian Army with the help of the British colonials in December 1962.
The Philippines maintains a territorial claim over eastern Sabah (formerly known as North Borneo) based on an agreement signed in 1878 between the Sultan of Sulu and the North Borneo Chartered Company. It maintains the position that the sovereignty of the Sultanate over the territory was not abolished and that North Borneo was only leased to the North Borneo Chartered Company.
However, Malaysia considers this dispute as a "non-issue" as it interprets the 1878 agreement as that of cession and that it deems that the residents of Sabah had exercised their right to self-determination when they voted to join the Malaysian federation in 1963.
Tun Fuad Stephens became the first chief minister of Sabah. The first Governor (Yang di-Pertuan Negeri) was Tun Mustapha. Sabah held its first state election in 1967. Until 2008, a total of 11 state elections has been held. Sabah has had 13 different chief ministers and 9 different Yang di-Pertua Negeri as of 2009.
Tun Mustapha became the 3rd chief minister following the first state election. Beginning 1970, a large of Filipino refugees from Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago began arriving in Sabah as a result of the Moro insurgency taking place in that region.
On 6 June 1976, after only 44 days being elected for the second time as chief minister, Tun Fuad Stephens together with other state cabinet ministers died in a fatal plane crash known as the Double Six Tragedy. He was replaced by Harris Salleh. On 14 June 1976, the government of Sabah signed an agreement with Petronas, the federal government-owned oil and gas company, granting it the right to extract and earn revenue from petroleum found in the territorial waters of Sabah in exchange for 5% in annual revenue as royalties.
Under the leadership of Harris Salleh, the state government of Sabah ceded the island of Labuan and its 6 smaller islands to the Malaysian federal government and it was declared a federal territory on 16 April 1984.
In 1985, following the state elections, Pairin Kitingan of Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS) became the seventh chief minister and this marked the second time in Malaysia where a party not affiliated with the nation ruling coalition Barisan Nasional (BN) or its predecessor, the Alliance Party, formed government in any state (preceded by Gerakan in Penang in 1969 and followed by PAS in Kelantan in 1990). In 1986, opponents of the newly elected PBS government started riots around the state, mainly in the cities of Kota Kinabalu, Tawau and Sandakan, resulting in bombings and five fatalities. Peace was gradually restored following a snap election in 1986 which consolidated PBS' position as the ruling state government.
From 1990 to 1991, several PBS politicians were arrested under the Internal Security Act for allegedly being involved in plans to secede Sabah from the Malaysian Federation and detained for two years. Among those arrested were Jeffrey Kitingan and Maximus Ongkili. Other politicians, including Pairin, were hit with corruption charges. The arrests and charges were suspected to be politically motivated.
Following the 1994 state election, Barisan Nasional regained control of the state via the creation of the Sabah chapter of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) party and other parties. The rotation system was introduced by the then prime minister Mahathir Mohamad in which the chief ministerial post would be rotated every two years among the three main communities in Sabah, namely, the Muslim Bumiputeras, non-Muslim Bumiputeras and the Chinese. Sakaran Dandai became the first chief minister under this system in 1994. The rotation system was finally abolished in 2005 with current chief minister Musa Aman at the helm.
On 26 December 1996, Sabah was hit by one of the worst tropical storm known as Tropical Storm Greg. The storm hit the western coast of the state resulting in over 200 deaths and thousands of home destroyed.
In 2000, the state capital Kota Kinabalu was granted city status, making it the 6th city in Malaysia and the first city in the state. Also this year, Kinabalu National Park was officially designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, making it the first site in the country to be given such designation.
On 3 May 2000, the Abu Sayyaf militant group from southern Philippines arrived on the resort island of Sipadan and kidnapped 21 people consisting of tourists and resort workers for ransom. Most hostages were rescued on 16 September 2000 following an offensive by the Philippine army.
In early 2013, an armed group who identified themselves as the "Royal Sulu Army" entered Sabah with the purpose of reclaiming Sabah as part of the Sultanate of Sulu. This resulted in a standoff and later in an armed conflict between the group and Malaysian security forces which ended with the death of 67 armed group followers and 9 Malaysian security forces along with 2 civilians. Soon, the state became the main targets of criminals and terrorists from the southern Philippines such as Abu Sayyaf and the Moro National Liberation Front under Nur Misuari.
- Rozan Yunos (21 September 2008). "How Brunei lost its northern province". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- James W. Gould (1969), The United States and Malaysia. - Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, American Foreign Policy Library, Harvard University Press, p. 71, ISBN 9780674926158, retrieved 28 December 2012
- Rozan Yunos (7 March 2013). "Sabah and the Sulu claims". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- J. M. Gullick (1967), Malaysia and Its Neighbours, The World studies series, Taylor & Francis, pp. 148–149, retrieved 16 June 2013
- MacKinnon K., Hatta G., Halim H., Mangalik A. (1998), The Ecology of Kalimantan, Volume 3, Oxford University Press, p. 57, ISBN 978-0-945971-73-3, retrieved 28 September 2009
- "Archaeologists hit ‘gold’ at Mansuli". The Star (Malaysia). 10 April 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
- Dol, Clarence George (23 May 2012). "200,000-yr-old K'gau civilisation". Daily Express (Malaysia).
- Oxford Business Group, ed. (2011), The Report: Sabah 2011, Oxford Business Group, p. 178, ISBN 9781907065361, retrieved 28 December 2012
- MacKinnon K., Hatta G., Halim H., Mangalik A. (1998), The Ecology of Kalimantan, Volume 3, Oxford University Press, p. 57, ISBN 978-0-945971-73-3, retrieved 28 September 2009
- "New DNA evidence overturns population migration theory in Island Southeast Asia". University of Oxford. 23 May 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Rodgers, Paul (28 May 2008). "Sundaland". Science Decoded. New Statesman. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "East Malaysia and Brunei", Ancient Chinese Trading Links (Periplus Editions), March 2001: 30, ISBN 978-962-593-180-7, retrieved 16 August 2009
- Barbara Watson Andaya and Leonard Y. Andaya (1982), A History of Malaysia, MacMillan Press Ltd., p. 58, ISBN 978-0-312-38121-9, retrieved 9 October 2009
- "Coffins dating back 1,000 years are found in the Kinabatangan Valley". The Star. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
- Riwanto Tirtosudarmo (2007), Mencari Indonesia: Demografi-Politik Pasca-Soeharto (in Indonesian), Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, p. 122, ISBN 978-979-799-083-1, retrieved 24 September 2009
- Sultan-sultan Brunei (in Malay), Brunei History Center, retrieved 6 October 2009
- Saunders, Graham E. (2002), A History of Brunei, RoutlegdeCurzon, p. 44, ISBN 978-0-7007-1698-2, retrieved 6 October 2009
- Saunders, Graham E. (2002), A History of Brunei, RoutlegdeCurzon, p. 45, ISBN 978-0-7007-1698-2, retrieved 5 October 2009
- James Alexander (2006), Cadogan Guide Malaysia Brunei & Singapore (illustrated ed.), New Holland Publishers, p. 395, ISBN 9781860113093, retrieved 28 December 2012
- Rozan Yunos (24 Octoober 2011). "In search of Brunei Malays outside Brunei". The Brunei Times. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Singh, DS Ranjit (2000). The Making of Sabah, 1865-1941: The Dynamics of Indigenous Society. University of Malaya Press. ISBN 9831001648.
- 1877 Treaty (PDF), Sabah State Attorney-General's Chambers, retrieved 7 April 2014
- Charles Alfred Fisher (1966), South-East Asia: A Social, Economic and Political Geography (2 ed.), Taylor & Francis, p. 669
- 1878 Treaty (PDF), Sabah State Attorney General's Chambers, retrieved 7 April 2014
- Graham E. Saunders (2002), History of Brunei (2, reprint, illustrated ed.), Routledge, p. 88, ISBN 9780700716982
- "British North Borneo Treaties (Protocol of 1885)" (PDF). Sabah State Attorney General's Chambers. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- C.Buckley: A School History of Sabah, London, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1968
- Regina Lim; Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (2008), Federal-state relations in Sabah, Malaysia: the Berjaya administration, 1976-85, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, p. 29, ISBN 978-981-230-812-2
- Andson Cowie; William Clark Cowie (1893). English-Sulu-Malay Vocabulary: With Useful Sentences, Tables, and C. editor. pp. 10–. Archived from the original on 2014.
- Wong Tze-Ken, Danny (1999), "Chinese Migration to Sabah before the Second World War", Archipel (Paris: Association Archipel) 58: 131–158, doi:10.3406/arch.1999.3538, retrieved 19 September 2009
- Riwanto Tirtosudarmo (2007), Mencari Indonesia: Demografi-Politik Pasca-Soeharto (in Indonesian), Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, p. 123, ISBN 978-979-799-083-1, retrieved 24 September 2009
- Ken Gotlet, Tawau : The Making of a Tropical Community, Opus Publication, 2010
- Riwanto Tirtosudarmo (2003), Between Larantuka and Tawau: Exploring Florenese Migration Space, The Research Centre for Society and Culture, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia, retrieved 24 September 2009
- "Panglima Alli tak takut dibunuh tentera Jepun" (in Malay). Berita Harian. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
- Takashi Shiraishi (2009). Takashi Shiraishi, ed. Across the Causeway: A Multi-Dimensional Study of Malaysia-Singapore Relations (Illustrated ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 1163. ISBN 9789812307835. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
- Johan M. Padasian: Sabah History in pictures (1881-1981), Sabah State Government, 1981
- Jeffrey Kitingan: There was no Sabah referendum, published by Free Malaysia Today, 8 March 2013.
- "Sabah's Heritage: A Brief Introduction to Sabah's History", Muzium Sabah, Kota Kinabalu. 1992
- Ramlah binti Adam, Abdul Hakim bin Samuri, Muslimin bin Fadzil: "Sejarah Tingkatan 3, Buku teks", published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2005)
- Ruben Sario; Julie S. Alipala; Ed General (17 September 2008). "Sulu sultan’s ‘heirs’ drop Sabah claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
- Aning, Jerome (23 April 2009). "Sabah legislature refuses to tackle RP claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "More revenue from oil". Daily Express. 19 June 2004. Retrieved 19 September 2009.
- "Laws of Malaysia A585 Constitution (Amendment) (No.2) Act 1984". Government of Malaysia. Department of Veterinary Services. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Chronicle of Malaysia, Editions Didier Millet (2007). "1986".
- Crossette, Barbara (1 October 1987). "Kota Kinabalu Journal; With Houses on Stilts and Hopes in Another Land". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
- Abdication of Responsibility: The Commonwealth and Human Rights, Human Rights Watch, October 1991, retrieved 25 September 2009
- "The Court finds that sovereignty over the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan belongs to Malaysia". International Court of Justice. 17 December 2002. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
- "Nur Misuari involved, says Zahid". Bernama. MySinChew English. 16 July 2014. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014.