Tyumen Oblast

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Tyumen Oblast
Тюменская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Coordinates: 57°50′N 69°00′E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000Coordinates: 57°50′N 69°00′E / 57.833°N 69.000°E / 57.833; 69.000
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Urals[1]
Economic region West Siberian[2]
Established August 14, 1944
Administrative center Tyumen
Government (as of March 2011)
 - Governor Vladimir Yakushev[3]
 - Legislature Oblast Duma
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[4]
 - Total 1,435,200 km2 (554,100 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd
Population (2010 Census)[5]
 - Total 3,395,755
 - Rank 36th
 - Density[6] 2.37 /km2 (6.1 /sq mi)
 - Urban 78.1%
 - Rural 21.9%
Time zone(s) YEKT (UTC+06:00)[7]
ISO 3166-2 RU-TYU
License plates 72
Official languages Russian[8]
Official website

Tyumen Oblast (Russian: Тюме́нская о́бласть, Tyumenskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Tyumen. The oblast has administrative jurisdiction over two autonomous okrugsKhanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Tyumen is the largest city, with over half a million inhabitants. As of 2006, it is by far the richest federal subject of Russia, with an average GDP per capita several times the national average.[9] Population: 3,395,755 (2010 Census).[5] It was established from several districts of Omsk and Kurgan Oblasts on August 14, 1944.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

There are a variety of fauna and flora in this region. In the northern part can be found ptarmigan, walrus and Arctic fox.[10] Polar bears also occur in the extreme north; the genetic make-up of this Polar bear sub-population is genetically distinct from other circumpolar regions.[11]

Politics[edit]

Tyumen Oblast Administration building

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tyumen CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

Tyumen Oblast Duma

The politics in the oblast is governed by the Charter of Tyumen Oblast. The laws within the authority of the oblast are passed by the Legislative Assembly of Tymen Oblast which is the legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Tyumen Oblast Administration. It also includes the executive bodies of the subdivisions such as districts, and is responsible for the daily administration. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the head of the oblast and acts as guarantor of the observance of the Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Economy[edit]

The city of Tyumen is an important service center for the gas and oil industries in Russia. Due to its advantageous location at the crossing of the Motor, Rail, Water and Air way and its moderate climate Tyumen was an ideal base town for servicing the oil and gas industry of West Siberia. As a result, many world level oil and gas companies such as Gazprom, LUKoil and Gazpromneft, TNK-BP, Shell (Salym Petroleum Development N.V.) have their representative offices there. Tyumen Oblast has the highest levels of oil and gas production of any region in Russia, which some argue has caused the high levels of economic inequality observed in the region.[12]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 3,395,755 (2010 Census);[5] 3,264,841 (2002 Census);[13] 3,080,621 (1989 Census).[14]

Ethnic groups

There were thirty-six recognized ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each in Tyumen Oblast, making this one of the most multicultural oblasts in Russia. The national composition at the time of the 2010 Census was:[5]

Vital Statistics for 2011:[16]

  • Births: 55,118
  • Deaths: 29,261
  • Birth Rate: 16.25 per 1000
  • Death Rate: 8.62 per 1000
  • NGR: +7.63
Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 59 668 (17.2 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 29 297 (8.4 per 1000) [17]
  • Total fertility rate:[18]

2009 - 1.78 | 2010 - 1.81 | 2011 - 1.83 | 2012 - 1.99(e) | 2013 - 2.00(e)


Religion[edit]



Circle frame.svg

Religion in Tyumen Oblast (2012)[19][20]

  Russian Orthodox (28.9%)
  Other Orthodox (9%)
  Muslim (6%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (4%)
  Rodnover (2%)
  Protestant (1%)
  Hindu (0.4%)
  Spiritual but not religious (34%)
  Atheist (11%)
  Other or undeclared (3.7%)

According to a 2012 official survey[19] 28.9% of the population of Tyumen Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 9% follows other Orthodox Churches, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% adheres to Protestantism. 6% of the population is made up of Muslims, 2% adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism), and 0.4% to forms of Hinduism (Vedism, Krishnaism or Tantrism). In addition, 34% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 11% is atheist, and 3.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[19]

Honors[edit]

A minor planet 2120 Tyumenia discovered in 1967 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Mikhailovna Smirnova is named after Tyumen Oblast.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Official website of Tyumen Oblast. Vladimir Vladimirovich Yakushev, Governor of Tyumen Oblast (Russian)
  4. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  5. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  (The rank is given without the autonomous okrugs' populations; the population and percentages are given for the territory of the oblast with the autonomous okrugs)
  6. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  9. ^ Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения
  10. ^ Bruce Forbes, The End of the Earth: Threats to the Yamal Region's Cultural and Biological Diversity [1]
  11. ^ C. Michael Hogan (2008) Polar Bear: Ursus maritimus, globalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg
  12. ^ Buccellato, T; T. Mickiewicz (2009). "Oil and Gas: A Blessing for the few. Hydrocarbons and inequality in Russia". Europe-Asia Studies 61 (3): 385–407. doi:10.1080/09668130902753275. 
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  14. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  15. ^ Перепись-2010: русских становится больше. Perepis-2010.ru (2011-12-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  16. ^ [2][dead link]
  17. ^ Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации. Gks.ru. Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  18. ^ Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики. Gks.ru (2010-05-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  19. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  20. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  21. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 172. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.