History of Woodside, Queens

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Woodside, Queens, New York, a neighborhood in the borough of Queens, New York City, United States, has been settled since the 1600s.

Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries[edit]

Map No. III. Town of Newtown. Excursion XI. City History Club. Drawn by L.C. Licht.[1] Due to tight a tight binding, this two-page map is missing its middle section. It shows locations in Woodside and surrounding areas of Queens in the mid-17th-mid-19th centuries along with streets, railroads, and trolley lines from the year in which it was made (1908). Modern Woodside is shown as "Woodside" and "North Woodside."
This is a detail from Map of Newtown, Long Island. Designed to exhibit the localities referred to in the "Annals of Newtown." Compiled by J. Riker, Jr. 1852.[2] It shows the area that would become Woodside, bounded in the west by Middletown and Dutch Kills (shown as "Kills" in the detail), in the south by English Kills and Maspeth, and in the east by the Village of Newtown (shown as "Vill" in the detail). Woodside's northern boundary is approximately the top border of the map. The "Great Chestnut Tree" was actually located on the west side of the road where it is shown.
This sheet from a 1909 atlas of Queens was used for fire insurance purposes.[3] It shows streets, lots, and structures within Ward 2, encompassing the village of Woodside. As the key (shown here) indicates, it also gives elevation above high water, location of hydrants, rail and trolley lines, width of streets, and other data.
This photograph from a book published in 1899 is entitled "Pastoral scene at Winfield, on the road from Long Island City to Flushing."[4] Founded in 1854, Winfield is a neighborhood in eastern Woodside. The place known as "suicide's paradise" lay on the west side of the neighborhood. The photo shows that Woodside retained some portion of its rural character even at the end of the 19th century.
This postcard photo of 1905 shows the abrupt turn in the trolley line in Woodside at Woodside and Kelly Avenues. The photographer is standing on Woodside, looking north on Kelly. The house at left is a typical Hitchcock four-room dwelling.
This decayed tintype shows "Hillside Manor" in the 1870s. The house, sited on high point not far from the Great Chestnut Tree in Woodside, lay on nine acres of land with gardens laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted. Owned by Louis Windmuller, German immigrant, New York merchant, financier, and philanthropist, the estate was one of the last in Woodside to be sold for development. In 1936 the City acquired most of the property for a park to be called Windmuller Park and in 1942 the heirs sold the remainder to a developer for construction of garden apartments.[5][6][7]
This image shows part of Woodside Avenue and Doughboy Park. It is one of a series images of the Park uploaded on March 12, 2006, by Scott and Jennifer on the Bridge and Tunnel Club blog. The photographer is standing near the south-east corner of Windmuller Park and the image reveals the Doughboy statue and some of the apartment buildings that surround both parks. From sloping terrain shown in this and the other images in the set you can see why the Windmuller Estate, which antedated the park, was called Hillside Manor.
This photograph of the entrance to Windmuller Park in Woodside was taken by Gina DeLorenzo and appeared on her blog Positively Gina on August 29, 2012.
Taken in July 2012, this photo shows the double-decker LIRR/IRT stations at 61st Street and Roosevelt Avenue in Woodside. Credit: Photo by Ewa Kern-Jedrychowska in an article on DNAinfo.
This photograph shows some of the single- and double-family homes as well as small- and medium-sized apartment buildings that characterize Woodside. It was taken in January 2012 by Deniz Hughes. She was standing on the No. 7 train platform of the Woodside-61st Street station and the photo shows houses of 63rd and 64th Streets and beyond.
This extract from a news article summarizes a sensational murder committed in a rented Woodside cottage on June 23, 1897. The victim, his murderer, and the murderer's accomplice were all German, but none were Woodside residents. The case is considered a landmark not in American jurisprudence but in the history of yellow journalism.[8][9][10]

For two centuries following the arrival of settlers from England and The Netherlands, the area where the village of Woodside would be established was sparsely populated. The land was fertile but also wet. Its Native American inhabitants called it a place of "bad waters" and it was known to early European settlers as a place of "marshes, muddy flats and bogs," where "wooded swamps" and "flaggy pools" were fed by flowing springs."[11][12] Until drained in the nineteenth century, one of these wet woodlands was called Wolf Swamp after the predators that infested it.[13][14][15] This swamp was not the only place where settlers might fear for the safety of their livestock, and even themselves. One of the oldest recorded locations in Woodside was called Rattlesnake Spring on the property of a Captain Bryan Newton.[14] The vicinity came to be called Snake Woods and one source maintains that "during New York’s colonial period, the area was known as 'suicide’s paradise,' as it was largely snake-infested swamps and wolf-ridden woodlands."[16]

Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries[edit]

In time, inhabitants learned how to farm the land profitably. The marsh grasses proved to be good for grazing and grains, fruits, and vegetables could be grown on the surrounding dry land. By the middle of the 18th century the area's farmers had drained some of its marshes and cut back some of its woods to expand its arable land and eliminate natural predators. Agricultural produce found markets in New York City and at the beginning of the 19th century the area came to be "abundantly conspicuous in the wealth of the farmers and in the beauty of the villas."[2] A late 19th-century historian described one of the area's 19th-century farms as a pleasing mix of woodlot, tilled acreage, grazing land, orchard, and pleasure garden. He believed "it would probably have been hard to find anywhere in the vicinity of New York a more picturesque locality."[17] Another observer of this time praised Woodside's "pure atmosphere and delightful scenery."[18]

Some idea of the bucolic nature of the place that would become Woodside can be seen in descriptions of an ancient central landmark, a great chestnut tree. The tree was hundreds of years old when it finally came down in the last decade 19th century. It stood on high ground near a junction of three dirt roads and "was of great diameter, some 8 or 10 feet"—perhaps 30 feet in circumference.[19] Its size and central location made it a natural a meeting place, a surface on which to tack public notices, and strategic point of considerable military significance during the Revolutionary War.[2][13][19] A 19th-century antiquarian wrote of the great tree as it stood during the American Revolution and in doing so named the families of the local landowners:

Around the roots of the old tree were the huts and stables of the cavalry: with a number of settler's huts ranged in woods... Great festivities too were constant in the spacious rooms of the old Moore house, during the winter months when the snow was deeper and the frost more cold than now-a-days. To the streaming lights from the ball room, and the lanterns hung on the trees, were wont to assemble the gay sleighing parties from the Sacket [i.e. Sackett], Morrell, Alsop, Leverich and other houses; for the soldiers were all over and had come to Newtown to recruit [i.e. refresh and restore] themselves after the yearly campaigns... Is there any relic more associated with Newtown [i.e. the town in which the village of Woodside would come to be located] than its old chestnut tree?... [Has it] not been for two centuries the "Legal Notice" centre of Newtown, for all vendues, real estate transfers, town meetings, lost "creeturs" and runaway slaves?[19]

Agriculture[edit]

By the middle of the 19th century, drainage and improved agricultural techniques had increased the proportion of Woodside's arable land to some two-thirds of the total. Flowers and dairy products were added to the fruits and vegetables which farmers took to city markets.[2] These landowners also reaped benefits from improved transportation. Mid-century construction of a plank road from Newtown to Williamsburg and a later one from Newtown to Hunters Point made access to East River ferries quicker and easier.[20] In 1860 a corporation presided over by a local resident, John C. Jackson, built a gravel-topped toll road between Flushing and the ferry at Hunters Point.[21] The Plank Road disappeared during construction projects of the later 19th century but Northern Boulevard tracks closely the route of Jackson Avenue.[22][23][24]

Residential estates[edit]

The improvements in transportation that initially benefited agriculture eventually produced its decline. As it became quicker and more convenient for residents to travel from their homes to other parts of Queens, to Brooklyn, and to Manhattan, the area came to be seen as both desirable and affordable for the construction of housing for city-dwellers and increases in land values enticed farm owners to sell out. John Sackett came of a family of religious dissenters that had settled in Queens late in the 17th century. In 1802 he inherited a farm of 115 acres including much of what is now Woodside and in 1826 his heirs sold much of the property to John A. Kelly, the son of a German immigrant, and his sister-in-law (also of German descent), Catherine B. (Friedle) Buddy.[25] As other well-to-do merchants had done in other areas of Queens, Kelly and Buddy bought farm property for use as a rural estate where they planned to live in the warmer months of the year.[26] Not many years later a friend of Kelly's, William Schroeder, bought another parcel of the Sackett property for the same purpose. Like Kelly, he came of a family that had emigrated from Germany and, like Kelly, he had achieved wealth as a merchant in Charleston, South Carolina. Unlike Kelly, however, he did not move North, but kept the estate for use during summer vacations.[26]

After Kelly and Schroeder had moved in, two other well-to-do men of German extraction made country retreats for themselves in Woodside. They were Gustav Sussdorf and Louis Windmuller. Like Kelly and Schroeder, Sussdorf was a Charleston merchant. In 1859 he sold his fancy goods business and moved to New York.[27][28] Not long after, he bought a farm owned by the family of Thomas Cumberson who had died in 1849. It is quite possible that he learned of the place through acquaintance with Schroeder or, more likely, Kelly.[2][29] Windmuller was of a younger generation than Kelly, Schroeder, and Sussdorf. He emigrated to New York in the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1848. Only 18 years old and penniless, he found success as a commission agent, bringing goods to clients in the U.S. from Germany and other European countries. In 1867 he had accumulated enough savings to buy property adjoining Sussdorf's. The land had formerly belonged to the Morrell family, but had been acquired by a speculator, Antonie J.D. Mecke, and became available to Windmuller on Mecke's going bankrupt.[30]

Residential development[edit]

As farms gave way to country estates, so country estates would, in turn, give way to residential development, as, in the decades after 1850, the land was broken into small lots for construction of single-family houses. As before, this new shift was brought about largely by improvement in transportation resources. In 1854, the first steam-powered passenger rail service came to the area. In that year a passenger depot of the Flushing Rail Road from Long Island City to Flushing opened for operation near the southern boundary of what would become the village of Woodside. The line gave access to New York City via the Hunters Point Ferry and to Brooklyn via horse-drawn omnibus.[31] In 1861 a second line opened running directly through what would shortly become the village of Woodside. This was a segment of the Long Island Rail Road which operated between Hunters Point and Jamaica, replacing an earlier segment which passed through Brooklyn to the ferry dock in Williamsburg.[32][33] In 1869, another line, the Flushing and North Side Railroad, traversed the same path through Woodside.[32][34] And soon after, in 1874, a short spur, the Flushing and Woodside Rail Road opened its station in the village.[32][35]

The construction of this rail service led directly to the division of property near train stations into small lots for construction of houses for working-class families. The area that would become Woodside was not the first community to grow out of Queens farmland. Before the end of the 1850s Woodhaven, Astoria, Maspeth, Corona, Hunters Point, and Winfield all attracted land speculators.[36][37] Woodside's developers were, however, among the first to divide properties into lots for construction of small homes for working-class families. In doing so they were the first to use a set of new sales techniques to lure buyers. And they were the first to apply a name to a locale which emphasized its real or supposed virtues. A late 19th century author said "Woodside" was an appropriate name for the community these land speculators created. He maintained that others, created later, were "without the slightest significance, historic or otherwise, and of the kind apparently chosen by boarding school girls to roll romantically from the tongue.".[17] These included Ozone Park, Corona, Winfield, Glendale, Laurel Hill, Elmhurst, and Linden Hill.

The real estate promoters who created Woodside were mostly of German extraction. Members of the Kelly family were first, followed by Alpheus P. Riker, Henry G. Schmidt, John A. Mecke, and Emil Cuntz. The Kelly family developed the property where they resided while the others bought land specifically to divide it into building lots.[26] Riker came from a German family that had settled in Queens while it was still part of New Netherland.[2][2][38][39][40][41][42]

Benjamin W. Hitchcock[edit]

The Kelly family was linked to A. P. Riker's by marriage. Riker, a customs officer, was John A. Kelly's son-in-law.[43] Members of the Kelly family were publishers and it may not be a coincidence that the agent with whom the Kellys contracted for development of Woodside farmland was a publisher of sheet music, periodicals, and "subscription books" named Benjamin W. Hitchcock. Hitchcock had a flair for publicity and innovative sales techniques. Once the area had been surveyed and 972 plots laid out, he organized excursions from the city, hired brass bands to play, and gave prospects free lunch. The first sales event took place on February 18, 1869. Hitchcock priced empty lots at $300. Employing an innovative sales technique, he sold them on the installment plan. Purchasers made a down payment and owed $10 a month until the note was paid off. He took a 25% commission on each sale. To entice purchasers he sold lottery tickets with first option on choice lots as one set of prizes. Other prizes included option to purchase one of five houses already built on the property. It may have been he or perhaps Kelly who gave the name "Woodside" to the area. A member of the Kelly Family, John A. F. Kelly, had used it in occasional pieces he had written for a local newspaper during the 1850s and 1860s.[24][44][45][46][47][48][49] In 1899 one of the original purchasers told a reporter than he had bought a lot with a tiny house on it, only 20' wide by 16' deep. The price was $480 and he paid $125 down and $10 a month until he'd paid off the note.[50]

Hitchcock had an instinct for spectacle akin to P.T. Barnum's. After his success with Woodside he undertook similar real estate promotions in other parts of Queens including hamlets that he dubbed Corona and Ozone Park. When the economy soured and that business declined, he ran a theater, got involved in machine politics, and sponsored some beauty contests including one, the "Congress of Beauty and Culture," which was censured for its overall sleaze and the swindling of its participants.[46][51][52]

While the other major landowners of Woodside used agents to develop their holdings, A. P. Riker set up a real estate office in the center of the village from which he managed his own property and handled real estate transactions for others. He was also a partner in local businesses: a grocery store in 1876 and, in 1878, a fruit and vegetable canning business which employed 100 workers.[53][54]

The developers who followed Hitchcock's lead in Woodside were less flamboyant though similarly successful. In 1863 John Mecke bought farmland from a family, the Moores, who had lived for more than a century and a half on what would become the northern part of what would become Woodside. He intended to subdivide, but became insolvent and, in 1867, died. His heirs sold the property to two carpenters, Henry G. Schmidt and Emil Cuntz, who, in 1871, deeded their property to an organization known as the Bricklayers' Cooperative Building Association.[55] This organization seems not to have been what its name suggests since it was a New York corporation headed by Charles Merweg who gave his occupation as "speculator in real estate."[56] In any event, the Association erected a housing development in north Woodside which it called Charlotteville. The name was later given the more common spelling of Charlottesville.[41] In 1886 another speculator, Effingham H. Nichols, divided property in the eastern part of the village and called it Woodside Heights.[57] Other 19th-century developers included Charles F. Ehrhardt who sold lots in the northern part of the village and the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company which converted two properties on the west side into salable lots.[57][58][59]

More intensive real estate development[edit]

These and other real estate developers profited from their sale of lots to home buyers, but the growth of Woodside's housing market was hardly a smooth upward trajectory and, some 40 years after Hitchcock's first lottery, the village was far from completely saturated with homes. A minutely detailed property atlas from 1909 shows buildings on considerably less than half of the village's surveyed lots.[3] In fact, although affordable by standards of the time, Woodside's small single family houses on their small lots were too expensive for growing numbers of laborers who crowded the tenement apartments of Manhattan and nearby Brooklyn. In the years before the Panic of 1907 and again after its close, the wage-earners in many of these low-income families, having been able to improve their skills and obtain higher-paying jobs, began pressing for construction of housing that was better than the tenements but still within their means.[60] Although real estate developers had previously thought Woodside to be too remote and rural in character for marketing of low cost rental units, some changed circumstances convinced them to meet this need by putting up higher-density apartment buildings in the village.

Public transportation[edit]

Chief among these circumstances were continued improvements to the public transportation network. This network continued to expand and Woodside evolved as a hub for railroad (electrified in 1908), elevated rapid transit trains (Joint IRT/BRT Corona and Woodside Line, 1917), and electrified street cars (Newtown Railway Company, 1895, and New York and Queens County Line, 1896). With the incorporation of Queens into New York City in 1898 and subsequent passage of legislation mandating a five-cent city-wide transit fare in 1904, Woodside residents had both abundant and inexpensive options for rapid public transportation. In fact the real cost of the five-cent fare declined dramatically during the inflation years of World War I and the 1920s, and it remained in place, despite further inflation, until 1948.[61][62][63][64][65] The construction of bridge (1909) and tunnel (1915) connections to Manhattan, enabled the working members of a tenement-dwelling immigrant family to rent a garden apartment in Woodside yet still hold jobs in the city. The commute was quick (eight minutes to Times Square it was said) as well as cheap.[63] Although other areas of Queens benefited from the expansion of cheap transit, conditions were particularly favorable in Woodside. It was the only village in Queens having railroad and rapid transit stations at the same location. Its two trolley lines increased this advantage and it had, in addition, a central location which helped it to serve as a transportation hub for the whole borough.

Access to jobs[edit]

A second circumstance aiding the influx of upwardly-mobile low-income residents was a dramatic increase in local employment prospects. Although cheap, fast, and convenient transit made it possible for workers to hold down jobs in Manhattan and Brooklyn while living in Woodside (and other villages of Queens), employment opportunities within the borough were increasingly a realistic option. The waterside regions of Queens had long had substantial industries and businesses that benefited from access to water-borne transport. These commercial establishments multiplied as rail transportation became increasingly available and, in a virtuous growth cycle, as more prospective employees moved into the borough.[66] In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Woodside residents could find employment to the east in Brooklyn, to the north in College Point, and, especially, to the west. Hunters Point, Sunnyside, and other west-Queens communities possessed foundries, rail yards, chemical works, and numerous factories, including the famous Steinway Piano factory. When, in 1870, these communities formed themselves into Long Island City opportunities for employment grew rapidly, so much so that by the turn of the 20th century, the city could boast that it had the highest concentration of industry in all the United States.[67][68] There were jobs within Woodside as well. The village had long had the city's largest cemetery, Calvary, as a stimulus to local business. It also possessed a brewery, a major florist, and many local retail establishments. In 1875 the Bulova Watch Company established its headquarters there (where it remains to this day).[69][70][71]

Local amenities[edit]

Along with good transportation and access to jobs, Woodside possessed many local amenities. It was an attractive place with plentiful open spaces, lots of trees and wooded areas, healthful air, and an overall pleasant ambiance -- "sylvan beauty" as an article published in 1926 put it.[58] As it had in the other villages, the creation of the Borough of Queens in 1898 brought to Woodside improvements in local government and increased spending on police, roads, schools, and the public space in general, but Woodside appears to have been somewhat ahead of the others in providing fire protection, sewers, and street lights, and its transit facilities encouraged the establishment of a greater number and greater variety of retail shops than otherwise might have been the case.[72] It is worth noting that an article published in 1926 singled out its school, P.S.11, as "one of the leading public schools in Queens."[73]

Churches[edit]

Similarly, as in nearby communities of the time, religious observance played an important role in the lives of Woodside residents and its churches both reflected this importance and signaled welcome to prospective newcomers. Its first church, St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal, showed the dominant faith of the area's oldest and most prominent residents. It was established in 1874 by the families of landowners who had farmed there from its earliest settlement as well as by the estate-owning Germanic families that had moved in during the middle decades of the 19th century. Among old residents, these families were the Rapelyes, Hicks, and Rikers; among the new, they were the Sussdorfs, Windmullers, and Kellys. Two years later, residents from among the still newer owners of small houses set up a Baptist church.[18] St. Paul's had a small congregation—originally only 50, probably about twice that in 1900 and the Baptist church had about the same. Founded in 1896, St. Sebastian, Woodside's first Roman Catholic church, served a considerably larger population. That year the families of working-class residents, mainly of German descent, convinced the bishop of the Brooklyn Diocese that they should not have to travel to other villages to attend Mass. The number of church members, originally 300, quickly grew and was reported to be 1,000 in 1902.[18][23]

Entertainment[edit]

In addition to its other advantages, prospective home buyers might be impressed with Woodside's places of entertainment. One of its first businesses was a brewery and it had long possessed rooms where men could gather and drink. In the second half of the 19th century it became known (even notorious) for its beer gardens and dance halls.[74] One early resident, Julius Adams, bought a tiny house on one of Hitchcock's small lots. At first he earned his living as a shoemaker, and, succeeding in that business, expanded into others. In 1881 he built Sanger Hall—a German-style beer hall, a dance hall, and performance space for German singing societies and theatrical entertainments—and as the Hall thrived, he added dining rooms and even a bowling alley.[50][75][76] In 1889, another resident built Heimann's Hall, a beer garden, dancing pavilion, and dining hall.[77] Early in the 20th century a movie theater joined the options for local leisure-time activity.[78]

Twentieth century[edit]

High-occupancy housing[edit]

As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, Woodside's plentiful advantages convinced real estate developers to invest substantially in high-occupancy housing and duplex homes to complement the single-family units which had dominated the area.[71] Three representative examples are Woodside Apartments built in 1913, the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company's project of 1922, and the projects of the Woodside Development Corporation in 1923. Located near the rail and rapid transit stations, the Woodside Apartments was a row of four-story, semi-detached buildings. There were four apartments on a floor, most of them having four rooms. Rents initially ranged from $18 to $20 a month.[63] Located just as close to the trains, but on the other side of the village, the Metropolitan Life apartment project was more ambitious. Consisting of ten five-story buildings, the project had space for four hundred families.[79] The Woodside Development Corporation built four-story apartments with stores on the ground floor and both two- and one-family houses on two large plots of land near the center of the village.[80] When a city-wide aerial survey was taken in 1924, Woodside was shown to have quite a few other multifamily apartment buildings and duplexes along with its many small single-family homes.[81]

During the 1930s and into the post-war era, Woodside residential development continued to grow, although more slowly than in the boom years following World War I. Empty lots continued to be filled with one- and two-family houses, compact apartment buildings continued to be constructed, and larger, elevator-style high-rises were put up. In 1936, a last large tract of undeveloped land was made available for construction of garden apartments when a portion of the 10-acre Windmuller Estate was sold to developers.[82][83]

A community profile, published in 1943, characterized Woodside (along with Winfield, its neighbor to the south) as "a district of small homes and middle incomes." The area still had few apartment buildings and very little industry. Although the rapid population growth of the 1920s had fallen off in the 1930s, the authors of the profile expected improved transit (the IND Queens Boulevard Line which opened in 1933) and a new shopping center to draw larger numbers of new residents. The number of single-family houses is given as 2,159, double-family houses as 1,711, and larger residential buildings as 868.[84]

In 1949, construction was completed on the Woodside Houses, a public housing complex built and operated by the New York City Housing Authority. The complex consists of 20 six-story buildings with 1,358 apartments. It is located in western Woodside, bordering Astoria, between 49th and 51st Streets, 31st Avenue and Newton Road.[85]

Twenty-first century[edit]

At the turn of the 21st century, Woodside was finally seen to be built up. The neighborhood nonetheless continued to be seen as an attractive place to live—characterized by "wide avenues, leafy streets and a mix of private homes, small apartment buildings and the occasional towering co-op."[86] The population was about 1,800 in 1880, 3,900 in 1900, 15,000 in 1920, and 41,000 in 1930. By 1963 it had grown to about 55,600 and was 90,000 in 2000.[15][87][88] In 2008 the chairman of the local Community Board said that large apartment buildings were replacing smaller ones and single-family homes were being converted into multifamily rental properties. At the same time, real estate brokers told a news reporter that interest remained strong among families looking for affordable housing near Manhattan.[89] [89]

Remains of old Woodside[edit]

As in other parts of New York City, centuries of tumultuous change have not totally obliterated old landmarks. Within Woodside, the double-decker station of the Long Island Rail Road (built in 1869) and the IRT Flushing Line (built in 1917) both remain, and were renovated in 1999. A trolley barn at Northern Boulevard and 51st Street has been preserved as the Tower Square Shopping Center. The New York and Queens Railroad Company built the barn in 1896. A transportation hub like the LIRR/IRT stations, it was the largest car barn in Queens.[90][90] Woodside also possesses an ancient tree, not the great chestnut (which was gone by the end of the 19th century) but a large copper beech of somewhere between 150 and 300 years' age. Documents in the archive of the Queens Historical Society suggest that it might have been planted during the time of the Revolutionary War.[91][92] Among the oldest of Woodside's historic landmarks are its cemeteries. Calvary Cemetery was founded in 1845 by trustees of Manhattan's St. Patrick's Cathedral for Roman Catholic burials and was later expanded by the addition of three sections comprising New Calvary.[93] Calvary and New Calvary are very large. Their 300 acres contain over three million burials.[94] Located on 54th Street between 31st & 32nd Avenues, the Moore-Jackson Cemetery is much older and smaller than Calvary. Established in 1733, it is one of the oldest cemeteries in New York. Only fifteen graves remain visible, the earliest dated 1769.[40][95][96]

Although few have been documented, some of Woodside's old buildings still remain in place. Of those for which information is available, Woodside's first church, St. Paul’s Protestant Episcopal, holds pride of place. It was damaged by fire in 2007 but still stands in its original location. An article published on the Forgotten New York weblog in 2005 lists this and other interesting structures from 19th century Woodside which have survived.[95] All are located close to the center of town. They include the Hook and Ladder Company (1884), the home of Otto Groeber and his family (1870), the Woodside Pavilion (1877), and Meyer's Hotel (1882). Another article on this blog shows structures from the early 20th century that are still standing.[97]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kelley, Frank Bergen (1908). Excursion planned for the City history club of New York, No. XI - Historic Queens - Compiled from an unpublished manuscript by J.H. Innes. New York City: City History Club of New York. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Riker, James (1852). The annals of Newtown, in Queens County, New York; containing its history from its first settlement, together with many interesting facts concerning the adjacent towns. New York: D. Fanshaw. p. 437. 
  3. ^ a b Bromley, George W.; Walter S. Bromley (1909). Atlas of the City of New York, Borough of Queens, Long Island City, Newtown, Flushing, Jamaica, Far Rockaway, from actual surveys and official plans, by George W. and Walter S. Bromley.. Philadelphia: G.W. Bromley & Co. 
  4. ^ Zeisloft, E. Idell (1899). The new metropolis; 1600-memorable events of three centuries-1900; from the island Mana-hat-tan to Greater New York at the close of the nineteenth century. D. Appleton and Co. 
  5. ^ "Mathews Buys Large Tract in Woodside; Windmuller Property; Last Large Vacant Plot in Section". Brooklyn Daily Star. September 27, 1942. 
  6. ^ "Old Windmuller Tract, Woodside, Urged for Park; Wooded Tract Offers Ideal Site, Resident Points Out". Brooklyn Daily Star. July 22, 1929. 
  7. ^ "Windmuller Park". Historical Signs Project. City of New York Parks & Recreation. Retrieved March 23, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Mrs. Nack Set Free, Met Here by Mob". New York Times. July 20, 1907. 
  9. ^ "Topics in Chronicling America - The Guldensuppe Murder". Library of Congress. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  10. ^ David R. Spencer (January 23, 2007). The Yellow Journalism: The Press and America's Emergence as a World Power. Northwestern University Press. pp. 113–. ISBN 978-0-8101-2331-1. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  11. ^ "History of Maspeth". Maspeth Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  12. ^ William Wallace Tooker (1901). The Algonquian series. F.P. Harper. pp. 40–. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  13. ^ a b J.H. Innes (March 24, 1898). "Ancient Newtown, Formerly Middleburg. Article 10, The Narrow Passage and the Wolf Swamp--The Dutch Kills--Burger'sMill and Sluice" (PDF). Newtown Register. 
  14. ^ a b City History Club of New York (1909). Historical Guide to the City of New York. F. A. Stokes Company. Retrieved January 5, 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Vincent F. Seyfried; William Asadorian (1991). Old Queens, N. Y. in Early Photographs: 261 Prints. Courier Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-26358-8. Retrieved January 3, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Woodside Plaza". City of New York Parks & Recreation Historical Signs Project. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  17. ^ a b J.H. Innes (March 17, 1898). "Ancient Newtown, Formerly Middleburg. Article 9, The Woodward or Meyer Farm--Shaw's Hotel--The William Leverich Homestead--The John Sackett Farm and Woodside" (PDF). Newtown Register. 
  18. ^ a b c O'Gorman, William (1882). Remains of Ancient Newtown in HISTORY OF QUEENS COUNTY with illustrations, Portraits & Sketches of Prominent Families and Individuals. New York: W.W. Munsell & Co. pp. 329–408. 
  19. ^ a b c William O'Gorman, Town Clerk (January 12, 1888). "Old Newtown and Its Confines, Selections from the Town Scrap book, The Old Chestnut Tree of Woodside. -- The Hallett Murder" (PDF). Newtown Register. 
  20. ^ "An Act to provide for laying out, opening and grading a public road or highway in the town of Newtown, Queens county". Laws of the State of New York Passed at the 89th Session of the Legislature, Vol. II (April). 1866. 
  21. ^ "Astoria Zen: Part One of a photowalk, Lords and Ladies of Newtown, from Astoria to Calvary". Newtown Pentacle. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
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  30. ^ For succinct accounts about Sussdorf and Windmuller see Woodside: A Historical Perspective 1652-1994 by Catherine Gregory (Woodside On the Move, 1994). A descendant of Windmuller's has written extensively about him and his life in Woodside. See the Louis Windmuller and Woodside labels on the Secondat weblog.
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  40. ^ a b Bergoffen, Celia J. (1999). Moore-Jackson Cemetery, 31-31 to 31-37 51st Street, Woodside, Borough of Queens, New York. Phase 1A Archeological Assessment Report. Queens Historical Society. 
  41. ^ a b G. Harris; Landmarks Planning Commission. New York City (1997). Landmark Designation Report, quoted in Moore-Jackson Cemetery, Woodside, Queens. 
  42. ^ "United States Census, 1900". Bureau of the Census. Retrieved February 15, 2013. 
  43. ^ Owen Clough. "The Founding Families of Woodside, Queens, New York". Retrieved February 7, 2014. 
  44. ^ "Pioneers of Woodside, Story of the Early Residents of the Lately Famous Long Island Village. MARKS OF GERMAN INFLUENCE; Story of the Freedle Family from the Time of the Napoleonic Wars -- The Rikers, Kellys, and Howells on the Old Farm" (PDF). New York Times. August 1, 1897. 
  45. ^ United States Census, 1900. Election District 35 New York City Ward 19, New York County, New York. Bureau of the Census. 1900. 
  46. ^ a b "Our New York Letter. Miscellaneous Matters in Gotham. The "Congress of Beauty and Culture" at Gilmore's Garden". Hartford Weekly times (February 21). 1878. 
  47. ^ "History Topics: Queens Timeline 1850-1874". greater Astoria Historical Society. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  48. ^ "Obituary: John A. F. Kelly" (PDF). The Sun (Long Island). May 9, 1897. 
  49. ^ Stephens, Ann S. (1867). Pictorial History of the War for the Union. Benjamin W. Hitchcock. 
  50. ^ a b "Woodside News. Weekly Record of Doings in Our Wide-Awake Neighbors". Brooklyn Daily Star. October 27, 1899. 
  51. ^ "A Dream of Fair Women. Congress of Beauty and Culture. The Coming Exhibition of Women and Children in Gilmore's Garden" (PDF). New York Times. February 11, 1878. 
  52. ^ "A Political Labor Meeting" (PDF). New York Times. August 20, 1876. 
  53. ^ "New Grocery Store". Newtown Register. December 28, 1876. 
  54. ^ "Local: J.N. & A.P. Riker are short-erecting a large building" (PDF). Newtown Register. January 24, 1878. 
  55. ^ "Legal Notice. Supreme Court, Queens County. Clara Leggett, Plaintiff" (PDF). Newtown Register. January 21, 1892. 
  56. ^ "The Grom Suicide. Verdict of the Coroner's Jury" (PDF). New York Daily Tribune. March 10, 1873. 
  57. ^ a b "Recent Transfers of Real Estate in Newtown" (PDF). Newtown Register. March 15, 1888. 
  58. ^ a b "Woodside Picture of Sylvan Beauty in Early Days; Large Estates Cut Into Building Lots During the 'Boom'" (PDF). Daily Star, Queens Borough. July 29, 1926. 
  59. ^ Gregory, Catherine (1994). Woodside: A Historical Perspective 1652-1994. Woodside On the Move. 
  60. ^ Edward L. Glaeser (2005). "Urban Colossus: Why is New York America's Largest City?; HIER Discussion Paper Number 2073". Harvard Institute of Economic Research (June). 
  61. ^ "The IRT Flushing Line". nycsubway.org. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 
  62. ^ Stephen L. Meyers (July 12, 2006). Lost Trolleys of Queens and Long Island. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-7385-4526-4. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 
  63. ^ a b c "Work Started On New Union Transfer Station at Woodside, L.I. A Widespread Speculative and Building Movement in All of the Surrounding Territory Predicted as a Result of New Transit Facilities" (PDF). New York Times. September 14, 1913. 
  64. ^ "The Dual System of Rapid Transit (1912)". Public Service Commission, State of New York. September 1912. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 
  65. ^ James Murdock (2004). "Nickel and Dimed. NYC Has Always Struggled to Pay for Subways.". New York Construction (October). 
  66. ^ "Builders Active in Borough of Queens. Opening of Through Electric Train Service Last Week Adds to Realty Values. Municipal Improvements. Many Factories Planned for Long Island City" (PDF). New York Times. October 27, 1912. 
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  68. ^ Sobczak. "Community Archeology: A Look at the Hunters Point Community in Western Queens". Custom Page. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  69. ^ "The history of the Bulova Watch Company". Retrieved February 4, 2013. 
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  71. ^ a b Chamber of Commerce (Queens, New York, N.Y.) (1920). Queens Borough, New York City, 1910-1920: the borough of homes and industry, a descriptive and illustrated book setting forth its wonderful growth and development in commerce, industry and homes during the past ten years ... a prediction of even greater growth during the next ten years ... and a statement of its many advantages, attractions and possibilities as a section wherein to live, to work and to succeed. L. I. Star Pub. Co. pp. 69–. Retrieved January 25, 2013. 
  72. ^ "Plans for Trunk Sewer in Richmond Hill Ready. Work is One of Great Magnitude -- Cost will be $254,600. Three Sections Approved. Louis Windmuller Pleads to Save Woodside Estate From Sewer Mains" (PDF). Brooklyn Daily Eagle. April 1, 1910. 
  73. ^ "P.S.11 and Principal Known Through Boro" (PDF). Long Island Daily Star. July 29, 1926. 
  74. ^ Rev. Charles J. Keevil (July 17, 1901). "Noisy Sundays in Woodside" (PDF). New York Times. 
  75. ^ "Woodside Sanger Hall" (PDF). Long Island Daily Star. November 11, 1881. 
  76. ^ "Julius Adams Killed. Struck by a Train Near His Home in Woodside" (PDF). Newtown Register. June 9, 1903. 
  77. ^ "Heimann's Hall Once Social Headquarters in Woodside Section" (PDF). Long Island Daily Star. July 29, 1926. 
  78. ^ "Movie Theatre for Woodside" (PDF). New York Times. October 22, 1922. 
  79. ^ "Latest Dealings in Realty Field. Latest Dealings in Realty Field. Part of Housing Program. Trading Indicated Strong Demand for Apartment House Properties in Manhattan" (PDF). New York Times. November 4, 1922. 
  80. ^ "A $6,000,000 Development. New Corporation Buys Queens Acreage for Improvement With Homes". New York Times. September 8, 1923. 
  81. ^ Fairchild Aerial Camera Corporation. Sectional aerial maps of the City of New York / [photographed and assembled under the direction of the chief engineer, July 1st, 1924].. Bureau of Engineering, City of New York. 
  82. ^ "Large Site is Bought for Suites in Queens. Garden-Type Apartments to Rise in Woodside Area". New York Times. July 16, 1941. 
  83. ^ "Woodside Housing To Cost $4,000,000. Eight Apartments Planned on the Ten-Acre Windmuller Estate". New York Times. May 30, 1936. 
  84. ^ New York City Market Analysis. Queens. Woodside-Winfield. New York, NY: News Syndicate Co., New York Times, Daily Mirror, Hearst Consolidated Publications. 1943. 
  85. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/nycha/html/developments/queenswoodside.shtml
  86. ^ "Local Stop 7 Sunnyside & Woodside. Trees Aplenty, and Old School Charm". New York Times. October 25, 2009. 
  87. ^ "Queens Population Up 35,400 in Year, Chamber Reports". New York Times. June 17, 1963. 
  88. ^ "1,300% Census Gain in Jackson Heights. Complete Figures Indicate That Queens Community Is City's Fastest Growing Area. Increase in Woodside.". New York Times. June 7, 1930. 
  89. ^ a b Jake Mooney (March 16, 2008). "Living In: Woodside, Queens. Cheap, Convenient and Teeming". New York Times. 
  90. ^ a b Paul S. Luchter (2000). "Long Island Stations & Structures". trainsweb.org. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  91. ^ Meg Cotner (2012). "Woodside locals want to landmark a giant beech tree". NYC Queens in Context. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  92. ^ Ewa Kern-Jedrychowska (2012). "Tree That May Date to Revolution Deserves Landmark Status, Advocates Say". DNAinfo.com. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  93. ^ "Enjoy the Silence; Calvary Cemetery". Forgotten New York, in association with the Greater Astoria Historical Society. 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  94. ^ "History of Calvary Cemetery". Catholic News,on the Brooklyn Genealogy Information Page. October 26, 1973. 
  95. ^ a b Christina Wilkinson (2005). "Woodside, Queens, Part 1". Forgotten New York, in association with the Greater Astoria Historical Society. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  96. ^ Nick Carr (2009). "The Cemetery on the Old Farm...in Queens?". Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  97. ^ "Woodside, Queens, Part 2". Forgotten New York, in association with the Greater Astoria Historical Society. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 

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