History of YouTube
The history of YouTube began on February 14, 2005 when three former PayPal employees activated the Internet domain name "YouTube.com" and started to create a video-sharing website on which users could upload, share, and view videos.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Prior to PayPal, Hurley studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California.
The domain name "YouTube.com" was activated on February 14, 2005, and the website was developed over the subsequent months. The creators offered the public a preview of the site in May 2005, six months before YouTube made its official debut. Like many technology startups, YouTube was started as an angel-funded enterprise from a makeshift office in a garage. In November 2005, venture firm Sequoia Capital invested an initial $3.5 million; additionally, Roelof Botha, partner of the firm and former CEO of PayPal, joined the YouTube board of directors. In April 2006, Sequoia and Artis Capital Management put an additional $8 million into the company, which had experienced hugely popular growth within its first few months.
During the summer of 2006, YouTube was one of the fastest growing sites on the Web, uploading more than 65,000 new videos and delivering 100 million video views per day in July. It was ranked the fifth most popular website on Alexa, far out-pacing even MySpace's rate of growth. According to a July 16, 2006 survey, 100 million video clips were viewed daily on YouTube, with an additional 65,000 new videos uploaded every 24 hours. The website averaged nearly 20 million visitors per month, according to Nielsen/NetRatings, where around 44% were female, 56% male, and the 12- to 17-year-old age group was dominant. YouTube's pre-eminence in the online market was substantial. According to the website Hitwise.com, YouTube commanded up to 64% of the UK online video market.
Purchase by Google (2006)
On October 9, 2006, it was announced that the company would be purchased by Google for US$1.65 billion in stock. The purchase agreement between Google and YouTube came after YouTube presented three agreements with media companies in an attempt to escape the threat of copyright-infringement lawsuits. YouTube planned to continue operating independently, with its co-founders and 67 employees working within Google. The deal to acquire YouTube closed on November 13, and was, at the time, Google's second largest acquisition. Google's February 7, 2007 SEC filing revealed the breakdown of profits for YouTube's investors after the sale to Google. At the time of reporting, Chad Hurley's at more than $395 million, Steve Chen's at more than $326 million,Jawed Karim's at more than $64 million., Sequoia invested around $9 million and received $516 million and Artis Capital Management invested $3 million and received $85 million.
Person of the year (2006)
Time magazine featured a YouTube screen with a large mirror as its annual 'Person of the Year', citing user-created media such as YouTube, and featuring the site's originators along with several content creators. The Wall Street Journal and New York Times have also reviewed posted content on YouTube, and its effects upon corporate communications and recruitment in 2006. PC World Magazine named YouTube the ninth of the Top 10 Best Products of 2006. In 2007, both Sports Illustrated and Dime Magazine featured stellar reviews of a basketball highlight video titled, The Ultimate Pistol Pete Maravich MIX. Because of its acquisition by Google, it is sometimes referred to as "GooTube."
Continued growth (2007–present)
||This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. (April 2014)|
On July 23, 2007 and November 28, 2007, CNN and YouTube produced televised presidential debates in which Democratic and Republican US presidential hopefuls fielded questions submitted through YouTube.
In November 2008, YouTube reached an agreement with MGM, Lions Gate Entertainment, and CBS, allowing the companies to post full-length films and television episodes on the site, accompanied by advertisements in a section for US viewers called "Shows". The move was intended to create competition with websites such as Hulu, which features material from NBC, Fox, and Disney.
In November 2009, YouTube launched a version of "Shows" available to UK viewers, offering around 4,000 full-length shows from more than 60 partners.
In December 2009, Entertainment Weekly placed YouTube on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list, describing it as: "Providing a safe home for piano-playing cats, celeb goof-ups, and overzealous lip-synchers since 2005."
In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, including 60 cricket matches of the Indian Premier League. According to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event.
On March 31, 2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface and increasing the time users spend on the site. Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented: "We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter." In May 2010, it was reported that YouTube was serving more than two billion videos a day, which it described as "nearly double the prime-time audience of all three major US television networks combined". In May 2011, YouTube reported in its company blog that the site was receiving more than three billion views per day. In January 2012, YouTube stated that the figure had increased to four billion videos streamed per day.
According to May 2010 data published by market research company comScore, YouTube was the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of roughly 43 percent and more than 14 billion videos viewed during May.
In April 2011, James Zern, a YouTube software engineer, revealed that 30 percent of videos accounted for 99 percent of views on the site.
In November 2011, the Google+ social networking site was integrated directly with YouTube and the Chrome web browser, allowing YouTube videos to be viewed from within the Google+ interface. In December 2011, YouTube launched a new version of the site interface, with the video channels displayed in a central column on the home page, similar to the news feeds of social networking sites. At the same time, a new version of the YouTube logo was introduced with a darker shade of red, the first change in design since October 2006.
In 2012, YouTube said that roughly 60 hours of new videos are uploaded to the site every minute, and that around three quarters of the material comes from outside the U.S. The site has eight hundred million unique users a month.
In late 2011 and early 2012, YouTube launched over 100 "premium" or "original" channels. It was reported the initiative cost $100 million. Two years later, in November 2013, it was documented that the landing page of the original channels became a 404 error page. Despite this, original channels such as SourceFed and Crash Course were able to be successful.
On December 4, 2012, YouTube relaunched its design and layout which is very similar to the mobile and tablet app version of the site.
On December 21, 2012, Gangnam Style became the first YouTube video to surpass one billion views.
On March 21, 2013, the number of unique users visiting YouTube every month reached 1 billion.
In 2013, YouTube continued to reach out to mainstream media, launching YouTube Comedy Week and the YouTube Music Awards. Both events were met with negative to mixed reception. In November 2013, YouTube's own YouTube channel had surpassed Felix Kjellberg's PewDiePie channel to become the most subscribed channel on the website. This was due to auto-suggesting new users to subscribe to the channel upon registration.
On June 19, 2007, in Paris Eric E. Schmidt launched the new localization system. The entire interface of the website is now available with localized versions in numerous countries:
Google aims to compete with local videosharing websites like Dailymotion in France. It also made an agreement with local television stations like M6 and France Télévisions to legally broadcast video content.
YouTube was blocked from Mainland China from October 18 due to the censorship of the Taiwanese flag. URLs to YouTube were redirected to China's own search engine, Baidu. It was subsequently unblocked on October 31.
Business model, advertising, and profits
Before being purchased by Google, YouTube declared that its business model was advertisement-based, making 15 million dollars per month.
Google does not provide detailed figures for YouTube's running costs, and YouTube's revenues in 2007 were noted as "not material" in a regulatory filing. In June 2008, a Forbes magazine article projected the 2008 revenue at $200 million, noting progress in advertising sales.
Some industry commentators have speculated that YouTube's running costs—specifically the bandwidth required—may be as high as 5 to 6 million dollars per month, thereby fueling criticisms that the company, like many Internet startups, did not have a viably implemented business model. Advertisements were launched on the site beginning in March 2006. In April, YouTube started using Google AdSense. YouTube subsequently stopped using AdSense but has resumed in local regions.
Advertising is YouTube's central mechanism for gaining revenue. This issue has also been taken up in scientific analysis. Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams argue in their book Wikinomics that YouTube is an example for an economy that is based on mass collaboration and makes use of the Internet. "Whether your business is closer to Boeing or P&G, or more like YouTube or flickr, there are vast pools of external talent that you can tap with the right approach. Companies that adopt these models can drive important changes in their industries and rewrite the rules of competition":270 "new business models for open content will not come from traditional media establishments, but from companies such as Google, Yahoo, and YouTube. This new generation of companies is not burned by the legacies that inhibit the publishing incumbents, so they can be much more agile in responding to customer demands. More important, they understand that you don't need to control the quantity and destiny of bits if they can provide compelling venues in which people build communities around sharing and remixing content. Free content is just the lure on which they layer revenue from advertising and premium services".:271sq
Tapscott and Williams argue that it is important for new media companies to find ways to make a profit with the help of peer-produced content. The new Internet economy that they term Wikinomics would be based on the principles of openness, peering, sharing, and acting globally. Companies could make use of these principles in order to gain profit with the help of Web 2.0 applications: “Companies can design and assemble products with their customers, and in some cases customers can do the majority of the value creation”.:289sq Tapscott and Williams argue that the outcome will be an economic democracy.
There are other views in the debate that agree with Tapscott and Williams that it is increasingly based on harnessing open source/content, networking, sharing, and peering, but they argue that the result is not an economic democracy, but a subtle form and deepening of exploitation, in which labour costs are reduced by Internet-based global outsourcing.
The second view is e.g. taken by Christian Fuchs in his book "Internet and Society". He argues that YouTube is an example of a business model that is based on combining the gift with the commodity. The first is free, the second yields profit. The novel aspect of this business strategy is that it combines what seems at first to be different, the gift and the commodity. YouTube would give free access to its users, the more users, the more profit it can potentially make because it can in principle increase advertisement rates and will gain further interest of advertisers. YouTube would sell its audience that it gains by free access to its advertising customers.:181
"Commodified Internet spaces are always profit oriented, but the goods they provide are not necessarily exchange value and market oriented; in some cases (such as Google, Yahoo, MySpace, YouTube, Netscape), free goods or platforms are provided as gifts in order to drive up the number of users so that high advertisement rates can be charged in order to achieve profit.":181
In June 2009, BusinessWeek reported that, according to San Francisco-based IT consulting company RampRate, YouTube was far closer to profitability than previous reports, including the April 2009, projection by investment bank Credit Suisse estimating YouTube would lose as much as $470 million in 2009. RampRate's report pegged that number at no more than $174 million.
In May 2013, YouTube launched a pilot program to begin offering some content providers the ability to charge $0.99 per month or more for certain channels, but the vast majority of its videos would remain free to view.
- YouTube Awards
- YouTube Comedy Week
- YouTube Original Channel Initiative
- List of the most subscribed channels on YouTube
- Hopkins, Jim (October 11, 2006). "Surprise! There's a third YouTube co-founder". USA Today. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Graham, Jefferson (November 21, 2005). "Video websites pop up, invite postings". USA Today. Retrieved July 28, 2006.
- YouTube Founders Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim, Patricia Wooster, LernerClassroom, 2014, 32 pages, ISBN 978-1-4677-2457-9.
- Sara Kehaulani Goo (October 7, 2006). "Ready for Its Close-Up". Washington Post. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Woolley, Scott (March 3, 2006). "Raw and Random". Forbes.com (Forbes). Retrieved July 28, 2006.
- Sequoia invests 11.5 million total in YouTube. Retrieved July 7, 2006.[dead link]
- Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). "YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved January 17, 2009.
- Jawed Karim and Yakov Lapitsky (April 23, 2005). "Me at the zoo" (Video). YouTube. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- "YouTube is the Fastest Growing Website", Gavin O'malley, Advertising Age, July 21, 2006.
- "YouTube serves up 100 million videos a day online". USA Today. Reuters. July 16, 2006. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- "Info for YouTube.com". Alexa.com. Amazon.com. July 26, 2006. Retrieved July 26, 2006.
- "YouTube U.S. Web Traffic Grows 17 Percent Week Over Week, According to Nielsen//Netratings" (Press Release). Netratings, Inc. Nielsen Media Research. July 21, 2006. Retrieved Seotember 12, 2006. Check date values in:
- James Massola (October 17, 2006). "Google pays the price to capture online video zeitgeist". Eureka Street 16 (15) (Jesuit Communications Australia). Retrieved October 18, 2006.
- "Online Video: The Market Is Hot, but Business Models Are Fuzzy". Knowledge@Wharton (Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania). July 12, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- La Monica, Paul R. (October 9, 2006). "Google to buy YouTube for $1.65 billion". CNN. Retrieved October 9, 2006.
- "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal". The Age (Melbourne). Reuters. November 14, 2006. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
- "Google’s SEC filing reveals YouTube investors are big winners after $1.65 billion sale", Logicbank Media, February 9, 2007.
- "Finally, Here’s What YouTube’s Investors Made In Sale To Google", Scot Austin, Wall Street Journal, March 18, 2010.
- "Secrets of Google (Nasdaq:GOOG), YouTube Deal Revealed", Gary B, Financial Advisory, March 20, 2010.
- Stafford, Alan (May 31, 2006). "The 100 Best Products of 2006". PC World. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
- "GooTube: Google buys YouTube". Boing Boing. October 9, 2006. Archived from the original on March 19, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007.
- Carter, Lewis (April 7, 2008). "Web could collapse as video demand soars". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- Coyle, Jake (March 20, 2007). "YouTube announces awards to recognize best user-created videos of the year". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved March 17, 2008.
- Gough, Paul (July 25, 2007). "CNN's YouTube debate draws impressive ratings". Reuters. p. 1. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
- "Part I: CNN/YouTube Republican presidential debate transcript - CNN.com". CNN. November 28, 2007. Retrieved April 30, 2010.
- Brad Stone and Brooks Barnes (November 10, 2008). "MGM to Post Full Films on YouTube". The New York Times. Retrieved November 29, 2008.
- Staci D. Kramer (April 30, 2009). "It's Official: Disney Joins News Corp., NBCU In Hulu; Deal Includes Some Cable Nets". paidContent. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- "Complete List of 2008 Peabody Award Winners". Peabody Awards, University of Georgia. April 1, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
- Ho, Rodney (April 2, 2009). "Peabody honors CNN, TMC". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved April 14, 2009.
- "Is the White House changing its YouTube tune?", Chris Soghoian, CNET, March 2, 2009.
- "YouTube's Guide to Video Embedding for the U.S. Federal Government Overview".[dead link]
- Allen, Katie (November 19, 2009). "YouTube launches UK TV section with more than 60 partners". The Guardian (London). Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- "100 Greatest Movies, TV Shows, and More", Entertainment Weekly (1079/1080:74-84), December 4, 2009.
- Miguel Helft (January 20, 2010). "YouTube takes a small step into the film rental market". The New York Times. Retrieved August 13, 2010.
- Shiels, Maggie (January 21, 2010). "YouTube turns to movie rental business". BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- "YouTube to offer film rentals in the UK". BBC News. October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- Tsotsis, Alexia (May 9, 2011). "Google Partners With Sony Pictures, Universal And Warner Brothers For YouTube Movies". techcrunch.com. Retrieved June 5, 2011.
- Sweney, Mark (January 20, 2010). "Cricket: IPL goes global with live online deal". The Guardian (London). Retrieved February 6, 2010.
- Chapman, Glenn (April 1, 2010). "YouTube redesigns website to keep viewers captivated". Sydney Morning Herald. AFP. Retrieved April 1, 2010.
- Chapman, Glenn (May 18, 2010). "YouTube serving up two billion videos daily". Sydney Morning Herald. AFP. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- Shane Richmond (May 26, 2011). "YouTube users uploading two days of video every minute". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Oreskovic, Alexei (January 23, 2012). "YouTube hits 4 billion daily video views". Reuters. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- "comScore Releases May 2010 U.S. Online Video Rankings". comScore. June 24, 2010. Retrieved June 27, 2010.
- "Hurley stepping down as YouTube chief executive". AFP. October 29, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- Whitelaw, Ben (April 20, 2011). "Almost all YouTube views come from just 30% of films". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 21, 2011.
- Whitney, Lance (November 4, 2011). "Google+ now connects with YouTube, Chrome". CNET. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- "YouTube's website redesign puts the focus on channels". BBC. December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- Cashmore, Pete (October 26, 2006). "YouTube Gets New Logo, Facelift and Trackbacks – Growing Fast!". Retrieved December 2, 2011.
- "Eric Schmidt, Princeton Colloquium on Public & Int'l Affairs" (video). YouTube. April 18, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- Seabrook, John (January 16, 2012). "Streaming Dreams". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "Alexa Traffic Rank for YouTube (three-month average)". Alexa Internet. Retrieved September 23, 2012.
- Nakashima, Ryan (October 29, 2011). "YouTube launching 100 new channels". USA Today. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Gutelle, Sam (November 12, 2013). "YouTube Has Removed All References To Its Original Channels Initiative". Tubefilter. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- "Error 404 (Not Found)!". YouTube. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Cicconet, Marcelo (April 7, 2013). "YouTube not just a site for entertainment, but education". Washington Square News. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Humphrey, Michael (July 27, 2012). "YouTube PrimeTime: Philip DeFranco's 'People First' Plan Has SourceFed Booming". Forbes. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- "YouTube Partners With ABC News To Offer Its First-Ever Live Stream of the U.S. Presidential Debates". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
- "YouTube Reaches 1 Billion Users Milestone". CNBC. March 21, 2013. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Shields, Mike (May 28, 2013). "Arnold Schwarzenegger, Ryan Higa Win YouTube Comedy Week—Maybe". Adweek. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Spangler, Todd (October 21, 2013). "YouTube Music Awards Nominees Announced". Variety. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Jaworski (May 23, 2013). "YouTube has a Hollywood problem". The Daily Dot. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Gutelle, Sam (May 20, 2013). "Six Reasons Why YouTube’s ‘Big Live Comedy Show’ Didn’t Work". Tubefilter. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Gelt, Jessica (November 3, 2013). "YouTube Music Awards: Eminem wins Artist of the Year ... wait, what?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Gutelle, Sam (November 4, 2013). "The YouTube Music Awards Were Weird, And That’s A Problem". Tubefilter. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- Cohen, Joshua (November 4, 2013). "YouTube Is Now The Most Subscribed Channel On YouTube". Tubefilter. Retrieved November 29, 2013.
- "YouTube Launches in Australia & New Zealand", Kristen Nicole, Mashable via The Australian, October 22, 2007.
- Sayer, Peter (June 19, 2007). "Google launches YouTube France". PC Advisor. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- "YouTube Canada Now Live", Kristen Nicole, Mashable via the Financial Post (Toronto), November 6, 2007.
- "YouTube Germany Launches", Adam Ostrow, Mashable via Blognation, November 8, 2007.
- http://chita.us/community/viewtopic.php?f=9&t=1294[dead link]
- "Populair op YouTube - Nederland". YouTube. January 18, 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- 881903.com Commercial Radio[dead link]
- CableTV[dead link]
- Reference[dead link]
- Yen, Yi-Wyn (March 25, 2008). "YouTube Looks For the Money Clip". CNN. Retrieved March 26, 2008.
- Hardy, Quentin; Evan Hessel (May 22, 2008). "GooTube". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved August 3, 2009.
- "Youtube bandwidth usage: 25 Petabytes per month". Willy Dobbe. July 20, 2006.
- Tapscott, Don and Williams, Anthony D. (2006). Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. New York: Penguin. ISBN 978-1-59184-138-8.
- Fuchs, Christian (2008), Internet and Society: Social Theory in the Information Age. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415961327. 408 Pages.
- "Analyst: YouTube Could Lose $470M This Year", Chris Albrecht, Gigaom, April 3, 2009.
- "Maybe Google Isn't Losing Big Bucks on YouTube After All", Rob Hof, Bloomberg Businessweek, June 17, 2009.
- "YouTube launches pay-to-watch subscription channels". BBC News. May 9, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Nakaso, Dan (May 7, 2013). "YouTube providers could begin charging fees this week". Mercury News. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
|Wikinews has related news: Google purchases YouTube for $1.65 billion|
- Official website
- YouTube mobile website
- The History of YouTube on YouTube
- YouTube is Worlds Second Largest Search Engine on YouTube