History of glass
The history of glassmaking can be traced back to 3500 BCE in Mesopotamia. Archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt. The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third millennium BCE, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working (slags) or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing.Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze Age civilizations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt.
Indigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in 1730 BCE. In ancient China, though, glassmaking seems to have a late start, compared to ceramics and metal work. In the Roman Empire, glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts. Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites. Glass in the Anglo-Saxon period was used in the manufacture of a range of objects including vessels, beads, windows and was even used in jewelry.
Naturally occurring glass, especially the volcanic glass obsidian, has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its limited source areas, was extensively traded. But in general, archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt. Because of Egypt's favorable environment for preservation, the majority of well-studied early glass is found there, although some of this is likely to have been imported. The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third millennium BCE, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of metal-working (slags) or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing.
During the Late Bronze Age in Egypt (e.g., the Ahhotep "Treasure") and Western Asia (e.g. Megiddo) there was a rapid growth in glass-making technology. Archaeological finds from this period include colored glass ingots, vessels (often colored and shaped in imitation of highly prized hardstone carvings in semi-precious stones) and the ubiquitous beads. The alkali of Syrian and Egyptian glass was soda ash, sodium carbonate, which can be extracted from the ashes of many plants, notably halophile seashore plants: (see saltwort). The earliest vessels were 'core-formed', produced by winding a ductile rope of glass round a shaped core of sand and clay over a metal rod, then fusing it with repeated reheatings.
Threads of thin glass of different colors made with admixtures of oxides were subsequently wound around these to create patterns, which could be drawn into festoons by using metal raking tools. The vessel would then be rolled smooth ('marvered') on a slab in order to press the decorative threads into its body. Handles and feet were applied separately. The rod was subsequently allowed to cool as the glass slowly annealed and was eventually removed from the center of the vessel, after which the core material was scraped out. Glass shapes for inlays were also often created in moulds. Much early glass production, however, relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working. This meant that the glass was ground and carved in a cold state.
By the 15th century BCE extensive glass production was occurring in Western Asia, Crete and Egypt and the Mycenaean Greek term ku-wa-no-wo-ko meaning "worker of lapis lazuli and glass" (written in Linear b syllabic script) is attested. It is thought the techniques and recipes required for the initial fusing of glass from raw materials was a closely guarded technological secret reserved for the large palace industries of powerful states. Glass workers in other areas therefore relied on imports of pre-formed glass, often in the form of cast ingots such as those found on the Ulu Burun shipwreck off the coast of modern Turkey.
Glass remained a luxury material, and the disasters that overtook Late Bronze Age civilizations seem to have brought glass-making to a halt. It picked up again in its former sites, in Syria and Cyprus, in the 9th century BCE, when the techniques for making colorless glass were discovered. The first glassmaking "manual" dates back to ca. 650 BCE. Instructions on how to make glass are contained in cuneiform tablets discovered in the library of the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal. In Egypt glass-making did not revive until it was reintroduced in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Core-formed vessels and beads were still widely produced, but other techniques came to the fore with experimentation and technological advancements. During the Hellenistic period many new techniques of glass production were introduced and glass began to be used to make larger pieces, notably table wares. Techniques developed during this period include 'slumping' viscous (but not fully molten) glass over a mould in order to form a dish and 'millefiori' (meaning 'thousand flowers') technique, where canes of multi-colored glass were sliced and the slices arranged together and fused in a mould to create a mosaic-like effect. It was also during this period that colorless or decolored glass began to be prized and methods for achieving this effect were investigated more fully.
According to Pliny the Elder, Phoenician traders were the first to stumble upon glass manufacturing techniques at the site of the Belus River. Georgius Agricola, in De re metallica, reported a traditional serendipitous "discovery" tale of familiar type:
"The tradition is that a merchant ship laden with nitrum being moored at this place, the merchants were preparing their meal on the beach, and not having stones to prop up their pots, they used lumps of nitrum from the ship, which fused and mixed with the sands of the shore, and there flowed streams of a new translucent liquid, and thus was the origin of glass."
This account is more a reflection of Roman experience of glass production, however, as white silica sand from this area was used in the production of glass within the Roman Empire due to its high purity levels. During the 1st century BCE glass blowing was discovered on the Syro-Judean coast, revolutionizing the industry. Glass vessels were now inexpensive compared to pottery vessels. A growth of the use of glass products occurred throughout the Roman world. Glass became the Roman plastic, and glass containers produced in Alexandria spread throughout the Roman Empire. With the discovery of clear glass (through the introduction of manganese dioxide), by glass blowers in Alexandria circa 100 CE, the Romans began to use glass for architectural purposes. Cast glass windows, albeit with poor optical qualities, began to appear in the most important buildings in Rome and the most luxurious villas of Herculaneum and Pompeii. Over the next 1,000 years glass making and working continued and spread through southern Europe and beyond.
History by culture
India (Hindu Kingdoms)
Indigenous development of glass technology in South Asia may have begun in 1730 BCE. Evidence of this culture includes a red-brown glass bead along with a hoard of beads dating to that period, making it the earliest attested glass from the Indus Valley locations. Glass discovered from later sites dating from 600–300 BCE displays common color.
Chalcolithic evidence of glass has been found in Hastinapur, India. Some of the texts which mention glass in India are the Shatapatha Brahmana and Vinaya Pitaka. However, the first unmistakable evidence in large quantities, dating from the 3rd century BCE, has been uncovered from the archaeological site in Takshashila, ancient India.
By the 1st century CE, glass was being used for ornaments and casing in South Asia. Contact with the Greco-Roman world added newer techniques, and Indians artisans mastered several techniques of glass molding, decorating and coloring by the succeeding centuries. The Satavahana period of India also produced short cylinders of composite glass, including those displaying a lemon yellow matrix covered with green glass.
In Chinese history, glass played a peripheral role in the arts and crafts, when compared to ceramics and metal work. The limited archaeological distribution and use of glass objects are evidence of the rarity of the material. Literary sources date the first manufacture of glass to the 5th century AD. However, the earliest archaeological evidence for glass manufacture in China comes from the late Zhou Dynasty (1046 BC to 221 BC).
Chinese learned to manufacture glass comparably later than the Mesopotamians and Egyptians. Imported glass objects first reached China during the late Spring and Autumn period – early Warring States period (early 5th century BC), in the form of polychrome ‘eye beads’. These imports created the impetus for the production of indigenous glass beads.
During the Han period (206 BC to 220 AD) the use of glass diversified. The introduction of glass casting in this period encouraged the production of moulded objects, such as bi disks and other ritual objects. The Chinese glass objects from the Warring States period and Han Dynasty vary greatly in chemical composition from the imported glass objects. The glasses from this period contain high levels of barium oxide (BaO) and lead, distinguishing them from the soda-lime-silica glasses of Western Asia and Mesopotamia. At the end of the Han Dynasty (AD 220), the lead-barium glass tradition declined, with glass production only resuming during the 4th and 5th centuries AD.
Glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts. Glass was used primarily for the production of vessels, although mosaic tiles and window glass were also produced. Roman glass production developed from Hellenistic technical traditions, initially concentrating on the production of intensely colored cast glass vessels. However, during the 1st century CE the industry underwent rapid technical growth that saw the introduction of glass blowing and the dominance of colorless or ‘aqua’ glasses. Production of raw glass was undertaken in geographically separate locations to the working of glass into finished vessels, and by the end of the 1st century CE large scale manufacturing, primarily in Alexandria, resulted in the establishment of glass as a commonly available material in the Roman world.
Anglo-Saxon glass has been found across England during archaeological excavations of both settlement and cemetery sites. Glass in the Anglo-Saxon period was used in the manufacture of a range of objects including vessels, beads, windows and was even used in jewelry. In the 5th century CE with the Roman departure from Britain, there were also considerable changes in the usage of glass. Excavation of Romano-British sites have revealed plentiful amounts of glass but, in contrast, the amount recovered from 5th century and later Anglo-Saxon sites is minuscule. The majority of complete vessels and assemblages of beads come from the excavations of early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries, but a change in burial rites in the late 7th century affected the recovery of glass, as Christian Anglo-Saxons were buried with fewer grave goods, and glass is rarely found. From the late 7th century onwards, window glass is found more frequently. This is directly related to the introduction of Christianity and the construction of churches and monasteries. There are a few Anglo-Saxon ecclesiastical literary sources that mention the production and use of glass, although these relate to window glass used in ecclesiastical buildings. Glass was also used by the Anglo-Saxons in their jewelry, both as enamel or as cut glass insets.
The Arab poet al-Buhturi (820–897) described the clarity of such glass, "Its color hides the glass as if it is standing in it without a container." In the 8th century, the Persian chemist Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber) described 46 recipes for producing colored glass in Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl), in addition to 12 recipes inserted by al-Marrakishi in a later edition of the book. By the 11th century, clear glass mirrors were being produced in Arab Islamic Spain.
Glass objects from the 7th and 8th centuries have been found on the island of Torcello near Venice. These form an important link between Roman times and the later importance of that city in the production of the material. Around 1000 CE, an important technical breakthrough was made in Northern Europe when soda glass, produced from white pebbles and burnt vegetation was replaced by glass made from a much more readily available material: potash obtained from wood ashes. From this point on, northern glass differed significantly from that made in the Mediterranean area, where soda remained in common use.
Until the 12th century, stained glass – glass to which metallic or other impurities had been added for coloring – was not widely used, but it rapidly became an important medium for Romanesque art and especially Gothic art. Almost all survivals are in church buildings, but it was also used in grand secular buildings. The 11th century saw the emergence in Germany of new ways of making sheet glass by blowing spheres. The spheres were swung out to form cylinders and then cut while still hot, after which the sheets were flattened. This technique was perfected in 13th century Venice. The Crown glass process was used up to the mid-19th century. In this process, the glassblower would spin approximately 9 pounds (4 kg) of molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk approximately 5 feet (1.5 m) in diameter. The disk would then be cut into panes. Domestic glass vessels in late medieval Northern Europe are known as Forest glass.
The center for luxury Italian glassmaking from the 14th century was the island of Murano, which developed many new techniques and became the center of a lucrative export trade in dinnerware, mirrors, and other items. What made Venetian Murano glass significantly different was that the local quartz pebbles were almost pure silica, and were ground into a fine clear sand that was combined with soda ash obtained from the Levant, for which the Venetians held the sole monopoly. The clearest and finest glass is tinted in two ways: firstly, a natural coloring agent is ground and melted with the glass. Many of these coloring agents still exist today; for a list of coloring agents, see below. Black glass was called obsidianus after obsidian stone. A second method is apparently to produce a black glass which, when held to the light, will show the true color that this glass will give to another glass when used as a dye.
The Venetian ability to produce this superior form of glass resulted in a trade advantage over other glass producing lands. Murano’s reputation as a center for glassmaking was born when the Venetian Republic, fearing fire might burn down the city’s mostly wood buildings, ordered glassmakers to move their foundries to Murano in 1291. Murano's glassmakers were soon the island’s most prominent citizens. Glassmakers were not allowed to leave the Republic. Many took a risk and set up glass furnaces in surrounding cities and as far afield as England and the Netherlands.
Bohemian glass, or Bohemia crystal, is a decorative glass produced in regions of Bohemia and Silesia, now in the current state of the Czech Republic, since the 13th century. Oldest archaeology excavations of glass-making sites date to around 1250 and are located in the Lusatian Mountains of Northern Bohemia. Most notable sites of glass-making throughout the ages are Skalice (German: Langenau), Kamenický Šenov (German: Steinschönau) and Nový Bor (German: Haida). Both Nový Bor and Kamenický Šenov have their own Glass Museums with many items dating since around 1600. It was especially outstanding in its manufacture of glass in high Baroque style from 1685 to 1750. In the 17th century, Caspar Lehmann, gem cutter to Emperor Rudolf II in Prague, adapted to glass the technique of gem engraving with copper and bronze wheels.
Early glassmaking in the United States
|Wikisource has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana article Glass Manufacturing in America.|
Glass making began in North America in the English settlement on Jamestown Island, Virginia, shortly after 1608. Eight German and Polish immigrants from the ship Mary and Margaret set up the first glassmaking business, using the local oyster shell as a source of lime. They manufactured window glass, bottles, vials and plain drinking glasses, and sent the first shipment of manufactured goods from the New World to England. The enterprise ultimately failed, and glass continued to be a rare commodity, owned only by the very rich. 
In the 18th-century, factories were founded in New York in 1732 and then in South Jersey by Caspar Wistar in 1739. Boston merchants advertised wine glasses, jelly glasses, syllabubs, decanters, sugar pots, barrel cans, punch bowls, bird fountains, and candlesticks. The style of glassmaking changed by 1746 when the government passed The Glass Excise Bill, which taxed glass by weight; beginning in 1751 advertisements in Boston newspaper made a reference to “new fashion” glass.
During the Federal Period, after the revolution Americans adopted new European styles. During the Revolutionary period, decoration was minimal. Cut glass was advertised in Baltimore as early as 1786, gaining popularity toward the end of the period. The war of 1812 stopped the importation of fine cut glass from abroad, the American factories progressed in the making of flint glass. Flint glass manufacture was common in South Boston. In South Boston, there was the South Boston Crown Glass Company, Boston, Massachusetts. The New England Glass Company was created in ca.1817.
The glassmaking business was risky as it often failed within a few years of establishment. The Bay State Glass Company started in East Cambridge Massachusetts in 1857, producing cut flint glass ware in all its varieties along with other glass wares. The firm dissolved in 1863.
Many of the glassmakers who worked in American factories were from England. European cut glass influenced the patterns of American cut glass until 1880. Phillip McDonald designed the “Russian” pattern for T.G. Hawkes & Company of Corning. New York and from this point on American cut glass wares became richer in design, and quality of both glass and workmanship. John S. O’ Connor’s “Parisian” pattern were the first cut glass designs to utilize a curved line in cutting, and it greatly influenced the American designs thereafter, because most of the cutting had been straight lines.
- 1226 – "Broad Sheet" first produced in Sussex
- 1330 – "Crown Glass" first produced in Rouen, France. "Broad Sheet" also produced. Both were also supplied for export
- 1620 – "Blown Plate" first produced in London. Used for mirrors and coach plates.
- 1678 – "Crown Glass" first produced in London. This process dominated until the 19th century
- 1688 – "Polished Plate" first produced in France (cast then hand polished)
- 1773 – "Polished Plate" adopted by English at Ravenshead. By 1800 a steam engine was used to carry out the grinding and polishing process
- 1834 – "Improved Cylinder Sheet" introduced by Robert Lucas Chance, based on a German process of partial remelting of cut glass cylinders. This type of glass was used to glaze the The Crystal Palace of the Great Exhibition. The process was common until WW1.
- 1843 – An early form of "Float Glass" invented by Henry Bessemer, pouring glass onto liquid tin. Expensive and not a commercial success.
- 1847 – "Rolled Plate" introduced by James Hartley. This allowed a ribbed finish. This type of glass was often used for extensive glass roofs such as within railway stations
- 1888 – "Machine Rolled" glass introduced allowing patterns to be introduced
- 1898 – "Wired Cast" glass invented by Pilkington for use where safety or security was an issue. This is commonly given the misnomer "Georgian Wired Glass" but greatly post-dates the Georgian era.
- 1903 – "Machine Drawn Cylinder" technique invented in USA. Manufactured under licence in UK by Pilkington from 1910 until 1933.
- 1913 – "Flat Drawn Sheet" technique developed in Belgium. First produced under licence in UK in 1919 in Kent
- 1923 – "Polished Plate" first appeared in UK. Commonly used for large panes such as on shopfronts.
- 1938 – "Polished Plate" process improved by Pilkington, incorporating a double grinding process to give an improved quality of finish
- 1959 – "Float Glass" launched in UK. Invented by Sir Alistair Pilkington.
- "Glass Online: The History of Glass". Retrieved 2007-10-29.
- True glazing over a ceramic body was not used until many centuries after the production of the first glass.
- Gowlett, J.A.J. (1997). High Definition Archaeology: Threads Through the Past. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-18429-0.
- "Glass Online: The History of Glass". Retrieved 2007-10-29.
- True glazing over a ceramic body was not used until many centuries after the production of the first glass.
- These early examples are drawn from Christine Lilyquist (1993). "Granulation and Glass: Chronological and Stylistic Investigations at Selected Sites, ca. 2500-1400 B.C.E.". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 290/291 (290): 29–94. JSTOR 1357319.
- H. Wilde, Technologische Innovationen im 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Zur Verwendung und Verbreitung neuer Werkstoffe im ostmediterranen Raum. GOF IV, Bd 44, Wiesbaden 2003, 25-26.
- Palaeolexicon, Word study tool of ancient languages
- H. Wilde, Technologische Innovationen im 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Zur Verwendung und Verbreitung neuer Werkstoffe im ostmediterranen Raum. GOF IV, Bd 44, Wiesbaden 2003, 25-26 ISBN 3-447-04781-X; W. Patrick McCray, Prehistory and history of glassmaking technology, American Ceramic Society, 2007 ISBN 1-57498-041-6
- Douglas, R. W. (1972). A history of glassmaking. Henley-on-Thames: G T Foulis & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-85429-117-2.
- Agricola, Georgius, De re metallica, translated by Herbert Clark Hoover and Lou Henry Hoover, Dover Publishing. De Re Metallica Trans. by Hoover Online Version Page 586 Retrieved September 12, 2007
- Ghosh, Amalananda (1990). An Encyclopaedia of Indian Archaeology. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-09262-5.
- "Ornaments, Gems etc." (Ch. 10) in Ghosh 1990
- Braghin 2002a
- Jenyns 1981
- Pinder-Wilson 1991, p140
- Braghin 2002b, p 6
- Pinder-Wilson 1991 p140
- Kerr and Wood 2004, pp 474-477
- An Jiayao 2002, pp 45-46
- Fleming, S. J., 1999. Roman Glass; reflections on cultural change. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
- Stern, E. M. (1999). "Roman Glassblowing in a Cultural Context". American Journal of Archaeology 103 (3): 441–484. doi:10.2307/506970. JSTOR 506970.
- J. P. Toner, "Popular culture in ancient Rome" p.19, 2009, ISBN 0-7456-4310-8
- Bayley. Glass-working in Early Medieval England. In Price, J. (2000) Glass in Britain and Ireland AD 350–1100. London: British Museum Occasional paper 127. pp 137–142
- Evison. Glass vessels in England, 400–1100 CE. In Price, J. (2000) Glass in Britain and Ireland AD 350–1100. London: British Museum Occasional paper 127 pp47–104.
- Heyworth, M. (1992) Evidence for early medieval glass-working in north-western Europe. In S. Jennings and A. Vince (eds) Medieval Europe 1992: Volume 3 Technology and Innovation. pp. 169–174. York: Medieval Europe 1992
- Ecclesiastical: Of or relating to a church or to an established religion.
- Harden, D. B. (1978). "Anglo-Saxon and later Medieval glass in Britain: Some recent developments". Medieval Archaeology 22: 1–24.
- Bimson and Freestone. Analysis of some glass from Anglo-Saxon Jewellery. In Price, J. (2000) Glass in Britain and Ireland AD 350–1100. London: British Museum Occasional paper 127 pp 137–142.
- Bimson, M. (1978) Coloured glass and millefiori in the Sutton Hoo Ship Burial. In Annales du 7e congrès international d'etude historique du verre: Berlin, Leipzig, 15–21 aout 1977: Liège: Editions du Secretariat Général.
- Ahmad Y Hassan, Assessment of Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
- Ahmad Y Hassan, The Manufacture of Coloured Glass, History of Science and Technology in Islam.
- Donny L. Hamilton. "Glass Conservation". Conservation Research Laboratory, Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- Georg Agricola De Natura Fossilium, Textbook of Mineralogy, M.C. Bandy, J. Bandy, Mineralogical Society of America, 1955, p. 111 Section on Murano Glass, De Natura Fossilium. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
- Grizzard, Smith. Jamestown Colony: A Political, Social, And Cultural History. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2007.
- Edgar. A Documentary History of American Interiors from the Colonial Era. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980.
- C., Revi Albert. American Cut and Engraved Glass. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1965
- History of Glass Manufacture: London Crown Glass co.