History of the socialist movement in the United Kingdom
|Part of a series on|
Socialism in the United Kingdom is generally thought to stretch back to the 19th century. Starting to arise in the aftermath of the English Civil War notions of socialism in Great Britain have taken many different forms from the utopian philanthropism of Robert Owen through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Labour Party.
The Reformation occurred later in Britain than in most of mainland Europe. As in the rest of Europe, various liberal thinkers such as Thomas More became prominent, but another important current was the emergence of the radical Puritans who wanted to reform both religion and the nation. The Puritans were oppressed by both the monarchy and by the established church. Eventually these pressures exploded in the violent social revolution known as the English Civil War, which many Marxists see as the world's first successful bourgeois revolution.
After the war several proto-socialist groups emerged. The most important of these groups were the Levellers, who advocated electoral reform, universal trial by jury, progressive taxation and the abolition of the monarchy and aristocracy and of censorship. This was strongly opposed by Oliver Cromwell's government, who also persecuted the moderate reformist group the Fifth Monarchy Men and the radical utopian group the Diggers.
The 19th century
The Industrial Revolution and Robert Owen
The Industrial Revolution, the transition from a farming economy to an industrial one, began in the UK over 30 years before the rest of the world. Textile mills and coal mines sprang up across the whole country and peasants were taken from the fields to work down the mines, or into the "Dark, Satanic Mills", the chimneys of which blacked the sky over Lancashire and West Yorkshire. Appalling conditions for workers, combined with support for the French Revolution turned some intellectuals to socialism.
The pioneering work of Robert Owen, a Welsh radical, at New Lanark in Scotland, is sometimes credited as being the birth of British Socialism. He stopped employing Children under the age of 10, and instead arranged for their education, and improved the working and living conditions of all his workers. He also lobbied Parliament over child labour, and helped to create the co-operative movement, before attempting to create a utopian community at New Harmony.
The trade union movement in Britain gradually developed from the Medieval guild system. Unions were subject to often severe repression until 1824, but were already widespread in cities such as London. Workplace militancy had also manifested itself as Luddism and had been prominent in struggles such as the 1820 Rising in Scotland where 60,000 workers went on a general strike, which was soon crushed.
From 1830 on, attempts were made to set up national general unions, most notably Robert Owen's Grand National Consolidated Trades Union in 1834, which attracted a range of socialists from Owenites to revolutionaries. It played a part in the protests after the Tolpuddle Martyrs' case, but soon collapsed.
Militants turned to Chartism, the aims of which were supported by most socialists, although none appear to have played leading roles.
More permanent trade unions were established from the 1850s, better resourced but often less radical. The London Trades Council was founded in 1860, and the Sheffield Outrages spurred the establishment of the Trades Union Congress in 1868. Union membership grew as unskilled and women workers were unionised, and socialists such as Tom Mann played an increasingly prominent role.
The rise of Non-Conformist religions, in particular Methodism, played a large role in the development of trade unions and of British socialism. The influence of the radical chapels was strongly felt among some industrial workers, especially miners and those in the north of England and Wales.
The first group calling itself Christian Socialists formed in 1848 under the leadership of Frederick Denison Maurice. Its membership mainly consisted of Chartists (see below). The group became dormant after only six years, but there was a considerable revival of Christian socialism in the 1880s, and a number of groups sprang up. Ultimately, Christian socialists dominated the leadership of the Independent Labour Party, including James Keir Hardie.
The Chartist movement
The Chartist movement of 1830s and 1840s was the first mass revolutionary movement of the British working class. Mass meetings and demonstrations involving millions of proletariat and petty-bourgeois were held throughout the country for years.
The Chartists published several petitions to the British Parliament (ranging from 1,280,000 to 3,000,000 signatures), the most famous of which was called the People's Charter (hence their name) in 1842, which demanded:
- Universal suffrage for men.
- The secret ballot.
- Removal of property qualifications for Members of Parliament.
- Salaries for Members of Parliament.
- Electoral districts representing equal numbers of people.
- Annually elected parliaments.
The government subsequently subjected the Chartists to brutal reprisals and arrested their leaders. The remaining party then split as a result of a divide in tactics: the Moral Force Party believed in bureaucratic reformism, while the Physical Force Party believed in workers' reformism (through strikes, etc.).
The Chartist movement's reformist goals, although not immediately and directly attained, were gradually achieved. In the same year as the People's Charter was created, the British Parliament instead responded by passing the 1842 Mining Act. Carefully valving the steam of the working class movement, British Parliament reduced the working day to ten hours in 1847.
Marx and early Marxism
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels worked in England, and they influenced small émigré groups including the Communist League. Engel's Condition of the Working Class in England became a popular expose of conditions for workers, but initially Marxism had little impact among Britain's working class.
The party soon split, with the Socialist League of William Morris becoming divided between anarchists and Marxists such as Morris and Eleanor Marx. A much later split produced the Socialist Party of Great Britain, Britain's oldest existing socialist party, and the Socialist Labour Party.
Although Marxism had some impact in Britain, it was far less than in many other European countries, with philosophers such as John Ruskin and John Stuart Mill having much greater influence. Some non-Marxists theorise that this was because Britain was amongst the most democratic countries of Europe of the period, the ballot box provided an instrument for change, so a parliamentary, reformist socialism seemed a more promising route than elsewhere.
Lib-Labs and the ILP
The 1867 Reform Act finally enfranchised the majority of the male working class, who made up a majority of the electorate. The Liberal Party was worried about the possibility of a socialist party taking the bulk of the working class vote, while their great rivals the Conservatives initiated occasional intrigues to encourage socialist candidates to stand against the Liberals.
In 1874, the Liberals agreed not to put candidates against Thomas Burt and Alexander Macdonald, two miners' leaders who were standing for Parliament. Both were elected and became known as Liberal-Labour or Lib-Labs for short. Other miner’s leaders entered Parliament via the same route.
In 1888 Robert Cunninghame-Graham the MP for Lanarkshire North-West since the 1886 general election left the Liberals and formed his own, independent, Scottish Labour Party, becoming the first socialist MP in the United Kingdom Parliament.
In the 1892 general election Keir Hardie, another Liberal politician who had joined Cunninghame-Graham in the Scottish Labour Party, was elected as an Independent Labour MP, and this gave him the spur to found a UK-wide Independent Labour Party in 1893.
The 20th century
The early twentieth century saw a number of socialist groups and movements in Britain. As well as the Independent Labour Party and the Social Democratic Federation, there was a mass movement around Robert Blatchford's newspaper The Clarion from the 1890s to the 1930s; the more intellectual gradualist Fabian Society; and more radical groups such as the Socialist Labour Party. However, the movement was increasingly dominated by the formation of the British Labour Party.
The birth of the Labour Party
In 1900, representatives of various trade unions and of the Independent Labour Party, Fabian Society and Social Democratic Federation agreed to form a Labour Party backed by the unions and with its own whips. The Labour Representation Committee was founded with Keir Hardie as its leader. At the 1900 election the LRC won only two seats, and the SDF disaffiliated, but more unions signed up.
The LRC affiliated to the Socialist International and in 1906 changed its name to Labour Party. It formed an electoral pact with the Liberals, intending to cause maximum damage to the Unionist Government in the forthcoming election. This was successful, and in the process, 29 Labour MPs were elected.
The campaign for women's suffrage in Britain began in the mid-nineteenth century, with many early campaigners including Eleanor Marx being socialists, but many established socialists, including Robert Blatchford and Ernest Bax opposed or ignored the movement. By the early twentieth century, the campaign had become more militant, but some of its leaders were reluctant to involve working class women in it. Sylvia Pankhurst campaigned for enfranchisement among women in the East End of London and eventually built up the Workers Socialist Federation.
Syndicalism and World War I
Supporters of Daniel De Leon in the Social Democratic Federation chiefly in Scotland split to form the Socialist Labour Party. Their fellow impossibilists in London split from the SDF the following year to form the Socialist Party of Great Britain (SPGB, still in existence). The remainder of the SDF attempted to form a broader Marxist party, the British Socialist Party. The SLP and BSP parties came to influence the shop steward movement, which became particularly prominent in what became known as Red Clydeside. Socialists such as John Maclean led strikes and demonstrations for better working conditions and a forty-hour working week.
This activity took place against the background of the First World War. The Labour Party, like almost all the Socialist International, enthusiastically supported their country's leadership in the war, as did the leadership of the British Socialist Party. This split the BSP, and a new anti-war leadership emerging.
Bolshevism and the CPGB
The shop steward movement worried many right-wingers, who believed that socialists were fomenting a Bolshevik revolution in Britain. A Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) was founded, but it attracted only existing left-wing militants, with the British Socialist Party and Workers Socialist Federation joining many Socialist Labour Party activists in it.
The CPGB soon became known for its loyalty to the line of the Comintern, and proposed the motion to expel Leon Trotsky from the international. Under the leadership of Harry Pollitt, it finally gained its first MP, and began to expel Trotskyists.
Labour and the General Strike
The Labour Party continued to grow as more unions affiliated and more Labour MPs were elected. In 1918, a new constitution was agreed, which laid out several aims of the party. These included Clause IV, calling for "common ownership" of key industry. With their success in the 1924 general election, Labour were able to form their first minority government, led by Ramsay MacDonald. This government was undermined by the infamous Zinoviev Letter, which was used as evidence of Labour's links with the Soviet Union. It was later shown to be a hoax.
In 1926, Welsh miners went on strike over their appalling working conditions. The situation soon escalated into the General Strike, but the Trade Union Congress, ostensibly worried about reports of starvation in the pit villages, called the strike off. The miners tried to continue alone, but without TUC support had eventually to give in.
Labour won a minority government in 1929 again under MacDonald, but following the Stock Market Crash of 1929, the Great Depression engulfed the country. The government split over its response to the crisis. MacDonald and a few supporters agreed to form a National Government with the Liberals and the Conservatives. The majority of the Labour Party regarded this as a betrayal and expelled them, whereupon they founded National Labour.
The Great Depression devastated the industrial areas of Northern England, Wales and Central Scotland, and the Jarrow March of unemployed workers from the North East to London to demand jobs defined the period.
Ethical socialism is a variant of liberal socialism developed by British socialists. It became an important ideology within the Labour Party of the United Kingdom. Ethical socialism was founded in the 1920s by R. H. Tawney, a British Christian socialist, and its ideals were connected to Christian socialist, Fabian, and guild socialist ideals. Ethical socialism has been publicly supported by British Prime Ministers Ramsay MacDonald, Clement Attlee, and Tony Blair.
Sir Oswald Mosley had been a rising star in the Conservative Party but left over the government's policy of repression in Ireland and eventually joined Labour. Mosley rose just as quickly on the Labour benches and was a government minister charged with dealing with unemployment during the Great Depression. Mosley proposed the "Mosley Memorandum" which suggested the formation of Cabinet committees to deal with specific policy issues, rationalisation and mechanisation in industry to make it more competitive, and a programme of public works. Although the memorandum prefigured Keynsian policies that would be accepted by later governments, it was too radical a set of propsals for 1930 and both the Labour government and the party rejected it. In response, Mosley left Labour in 1931 to found the New Party, taking four other Labour MPs with him. The New Party failed to win any seats in 1932 and Mosley subsequently came to support fascism, merging his party with several far-right groups to form the British Union of Fascists.
The Spanish Civil War and World War II
The Independent Labour Party disaffiliated from the Labour Party in 1932, in protest at an erosion of their MPs' independence. For a time, they became a significant left-of-Labour force.
In 1936, the Spanish Civil War was viewed by many socialists as a contest against the rise of fascism which it was vital to win. Many CPGB and Independent Labour Party members went to fight for the Republic and with the Stalinist led International Brigades and the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) anti-fascist forces, including George Orwell who wrote about his experiences in Homage to Catalonia.
The Labour Party leadership always supported World War II, and they joined a national government with the Conservative Party and the Liberals, and agreed a non-contest pact in elections. The CPGB at first supported the war, but after Joseph Stalin signed a treaty with Adolf Hitler, opposed it. After the fascist invasion of the Soviet Union, they again supported the war, joined the non-contest pact, and did all in their power to prevent strikes. But strikes did occur, and they were supported by the anti-war Independent Labour Party and the newly-formed Trotskyist Revolutionary Communist Party.
The 1945 landslide Labour victory
To widespread surprise, the Labour Party under Clement Attlee won a landslide victory over popular war leader Winston Churchill in the 1945 general election, and implemented their social democratic programme. They established the National Health Service, nationalised some industries (for instance, coal mining), and created a welfare state.
The CPGB also grew on the back of Stalinist successes in Eastern Europe and China, and recorded their best-ever result, with two MPs elected (one in London and one in Fife). The Trotskyite Revolutionary Communist Party collapsed.
Labour lost office in 1951 (despite polling 200,000 more votes than the Conservatives), and after Clement Attlee retired as leader in 1955, he was succeeded by the figurehead of the "right-establishment" Hugh Gaitskell, against Aneurin Bevan.
Although there were some disputes between the Bevanites and the Gaitskellites, these disputes were more about personality than ideology, and the rift was healed when Harold Wilson, a Bevanite, was elected leader after Gaitskell's death.
The 1960s and 1970s
The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament briefly gained leverage over Labour Party policy at the beginning of the decade, but soon went into a long eclipse. The Vietnam War, given lukewarm support by Harold Wilson, radicalised a new generation. Significant anti-war protests were organised. Trotskyist groups like the International Marxist Group and the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign came to prominence, particularly due to high-profile members like the IMG's Tariq Ali.
After the Soviet Union's invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, the CPGB became to divide between Stalinists and Eurocommunists. The party suffered a series of splits. Various Maoist inclined elements left, the most significant forming the Communist Party of Britain (Marxist-Leninist). Later in 1977 other traditionalist pro-Russian elements left to form the New Communist Party.
In 1969, Wilson's Labour Government introduced In Place of Strife, a white paper designed to circumvent strikes by imposing compulsory arbitration. Opposed by many trade unionists, including James Callaghan, it was soon withdrawn. Later Conservative legislation by Edward Heath's government was successfully resisted as union militants, many close to the CPGB, led the successful 1974 UK miners' strike. More ominously for the left, the unsuccessful Grunwick dispute, and the 1978-79 Winter of Discontent were also blamed on them. The Labour leadership's failure to work with trade unions, or for their opponents an inability to keep therm under control, resulted in the election in 1979 of an economically liberal Conservative government, led by Margaret Thatcher, which finally ended the post-war political consensus.
After the 1979 Labour defeat, Jim Callaghan tried in vain to keep the left of the party (in which Tony Benn was prominent) and the right (in which Roy Jenkins was prominent) together. In 1980, the party conference was dominated by factional disputes and what Callaghan regarded as Bennite motions. Callaghan resigned as party leader late that year, and was replaced by Michael Foot, a left-winger who by then had distanced himself from Benn but failed to transmit this to the media or the voters. Denis Healey only narrowly won the deputy leadership in a contest with Benn.
In 1981 thirty MPs on the right of the Labour Party founded the Social Democratic Party, which formed an alliance with the Liberal Party and opinion polls briefly saw the new alliance appear capable of winning a general election.
In the 1983 general election, Thatcher benefited from increased popularity, an after effect of the successful Falklands War, and a manifesto which Labour MP Gerald Kaufman described as "the longest suicide note in history". Labour suffered their worst election defeat since 1918 with eight and a half million votes, over three million votes down on the previous general election. Many former Labour voters had voted for the SDP-Liberal Alliance instead. The Alliance came close to Labour in terms of votes, but had only a fraction of its seats.
After the 1983 election, Neil Kinnock, long associated with the Labour left, became the party's new leader. By now the Labour Party was factionalised between the right, including Healey and deputy leader Roy Hattersley, a "soft left" associated with the Tribune group, and a "hard left" associated with Benn and the new Campaign Group.
The Trotskyist Militant tendency, using entryist tactics in the Labour Party, had gradually increased their profile. By 1982, they controlled Liverpool City Council, and had a presence in many Constituency Labour Parties. The Labour NEC began to expel Militant members, beginning with their newspaper's 'editorial board', in effect their Central Committee. A revival in municipal socialism seemed, for a time, a solution to Conservative hegemony for many on the left. The Greater London Council, led by Ken Livingstone, gained the most attention, seeming genuinely innovative to its support base, but the GLC was abolished by the Conservatives in 1986.
The defining event of the 1980s for British socialists was the 1984-5 miners' strike. Miners in the National Union of Mineworkers, led by Arthur Scargill, struck against the closure of collieries. Despite support in the coalfields, including many miners' wives in Women Against Pit Closures, the strike was eventually lost owing to a union split, among other reasons. The Conservatives had already begun to privatise other state industries. Labour lost the 1987 general election by a wide margin, although it did manage to cut the Conservative majority significantly.
Socialism and nationalism
Scottish and Welsh nationalism have been the concern of many socialists. Having been raised in the nineteenth century by Liberals also calling for Irish Home Rule, Scottish Home Rule became the official policy of the ILP, and of the Labour Party until 1958. John Maclean campaigned for a separate Communist Party in Scotland in the 1920s, and when the CPGB refused to support Scottish independence, he formed the Scottish Workers Republican Party. The poet Hugh MacDiarmid, a Communist, was also an early member of the National Party of Scotland. The CPGB eventually changed their position in the 1940s.
The early nationalist parties had little connection with socialism, but by the 1980s they had become increasingly identified with the left, and in the 1990s Plaid Cymru declared itself to be a socialist party.
Following the establishment of the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly, both the Scottish National Party and Plaid have been challenged by socialists in recent years. The Scottish Socialist Party, who include an independent Scotland in their programme, has had successes including the election of six MSPs. Forward Wales, with a less militant programme, are aiming to replicate this success.
In 1989 and 1990, the Conservatives introduced the deeply unpopular poll tax. For the first time in the decade, socialists were able to organise effective opposition, culminating in the "Poll tax riot" on 31 March 1990. Margaret Thatcher's own party compelled her to step down on 22 November that year, and she was replaced by John Major, who abolished the charge during 1991.
The CPGB finally disintegrated in 1991, although their former newspaper, The Morning Star, continues to be published by the Communist Party of Britain. The Eurocommunists, who had controlled the party's magazine Marxism Today formed the Democratic Left
In the run-up to the 1992 general election, polling showed that there might be a hung parliament, but possibly a small Labour majority - the party's lead on the opinion polls had shrunk and some polls had even seen the Tories creep ahead in spite of the deepening recession. In the event, Major got in again with a majority of 21. This has been attributed to both triumphalism of the Labour Party (in particular the infamous Sheffield Rally) and the Tories' "Tax Bombshell" advertising campaign, which highlighted the increased taxes that a Labour government would impose. This general election defeat was shortly followed by Kinnock's resignation after nearly a decade as leader. And, as had happened in the aftermath of the 1959 general election defeat, there was widespread public and media doubt as to whether a Labour government could be elected again - without an overhaul of the party's policies, it seemed to difficult to imagine the party being able to win a general election in any situation if it had been unable to do so in the event of a recession and rising unemployment.
After the brief stewardship of John Smith, Tony Blair was elected leader following Smith's sudden death in May 1994. He immediately decided to re-write Clause IV, dropping Labour's commitment to public ownership of key industries and utilities, along with other socialist policies.
Many members of the party were unhappy with the proposed changes and several unions considered using their block vote to kill the motion, but in the end their leaderships backed down and settled for a new clause declaring the Labour Party a "Democratic Socialist Party". However, Labour had been ascendant in the opinion polls since the Black Wednesday economic debacle a few months after the 1992 general election, and the increased lead of the polls under Blair's leadership remained strong in spite of the revolt, and the fact that the economy was growing again and unemployment was falling under Major's Conservative government. Labour's popularity was also helped by the fact that the Conservative government was now divided over Europe.
Several party members, such as Arthur Scargill regarded this as a betrayal of Labour's ideology and left Labour in disgust. Scargill formed the Socialist Labour Party (SLP) which initially attracted some support, much of which transferred to the Socialist Alliance on its formation, but the SA has since been wound up and the SLP has become marginalised.
The Scottish Socialist Party have proven much more successful, while Ken Livingstone became the Mayor of London, standing against an official Labour Party candidate. Livingtone was re-admitted into the Labour party in time for his re-election in 2004.
Under Blair, Labour launched a PR campaign to rebrand as New Labour, introduced women-only shortlists in certain seats and central vetting of Parliamentary candidates, to ensure that its candidates were seen as on-message. Labour won the 1997 general election by a parliamentary landslide and won a further two general elections.
The 21st century
The international anti-globalisation movement, while difficult to define, has become a focus for other socialists in the 21st century, and many see a reflection of it in the opposition of large sections of the population to the 2003 Iraq War.
Several minor socialist parties merged in 2003 to form the Alliance for Green Socialism which is a socialist party that campaigns on a wide variety of policies including, economic, environmental and social
George Galloway after his expulsion from the Labour Party in October 2003 (following controversial statements about the war in Iraq) joined with some far-left groups, mainly the Socialist Workers Party, and leading figures from the Muslim Association of Britain, to form RESPECT The Unity Coalition. Galloway succeeded in being elected as a Respect MP for Bethnal Green and Bow in the 2005 general election. Respect though has suffered from splits and resignations. Although Galloway lost the seat at the 2010 election, he had a by-election win at Bradford, West Yorkshire in March 2012.
Labour was defeated in the 2010 general election. During its 13 years in government, the Labour Party made few changes to the union reforms passed by the previous Conservative governments and the only nationalisations which took place during that time were of several leading banks facing collapse in the recession of 2008 and 2009. The Conservatives returned in power with the Liberal Democrats as a coalition government following a hung parliament.
Other socialists place their hopes in a trade union revival, perhaps around the "Awkward Squad" of the more leftist trade union leaders, many of whom have joined the Labour Representation Committee. Others have turned to more community-based politics. Yet others believe they can reclaim the Labour Party.
The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition (TUSC) was formed in January 2010 to fight the 2010 general election. Founding supporters include Bob Crow, general secretary of the Rail, Maritime and Transport workers union (RMT), Brian Caton, general secretary of the POA and Chris Baugh, assistant general secretary of the PCS. RMT and Socialist Party executive members, including Bob Crow, form the core of the steering committee. The coalition includes the Socialist Workers Party, which will also stand candidates under its banner, RESPECT and other trade unionists and socialist groups. This followed the No2EU coalition which fought the European elections in 2009 gaining the official backing of the RMT. The RMT declined to officially back the new TUSC coalition, but granted its branches the right to stand and fund local candidates as part of the coalition.
Ed Miliband's election as leader of the Labour Party, on the back of Trade Union member votes, has been seen by some as a return to the left following New Labour and Miliband has been nicknamed 'Red Ed' by right-wing media. Since assuming office as Leader of the Opposition, Miliband has softened some of the more left-wing ideas he had adopted during the leadership election but remains committed to causes such as a Living Wage and the 50% tax rate. Many socialists have abandoned the Labour Party, with few exceptions such as the Socialist Appeal group.
- John Dearlove, Peter Saunders. Introduction to British politics. Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. Pp. 427.
- Noel W. Thompson. Political economy and the Labour Party: the economics of democratic socialism, 1884-2005. 2nd edition. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2006. Pp. 52.
- Stephen D. Tansey, Nigel A. Jackson. Politics: the basics. Fourth Edition. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2008. Pp. 97.
- Noel W. Thompson. Political economy and the Labour Party: the economics of democratic socialism, 1884-2005. 2nd edition. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2006. Pp. 52, 58, 60.
- Kevin Morgan. Ramsay MacDonald. London, England, UK: Haus Publishing Ltd, 2006. 29.
- David Howell. Attlee. London, England, UK: Haus Publishing Ltd, 2006. 130-132.
- Party Notes, January 25th 2010, http://www.swp.org.uk/party-notes
- The birth of a new Socialist Coalition! http://respectuk.blogspot.com/2010/01/trade-unionist-and-socialist-coalition.html
- Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition gets started, http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/8710. (Portsmouth RMT stands in election with Bob Crow's support)
- "Alternative Pleasures", Mark Bevir, Berfrois, 25 October 2011
- "History of British Socialism", Max Beer, 1920