History of the Department of Antioquia
The History of the Department of Antioquia began with the arrival of the first human settlers into what is now the Antioquia Department in Colombia. These first settlers are presumed to have arrived from mesoamerica in Central America, some 10,500 years BC, but this can also be traced back to years before since there are proves that in what is now Peru there are human vestiges that date to 22,000 years BC.
Upon the arrival of the Spanish during the 15th Century the land of what is now Antioquia Department was populated by numerous indigenous tribes, specially those pertaining to the Caribs, which according to archaeological findings began to extend through the Caribbean region of the Antioquia Department and then moved south through the Cauca and Magdalena valleys. There isn't much clarity about the Caibe's culture since the Spanish considered Carib any indigenous group that presented armed resistance using bow and poisoned arrows, and that practiced cannibalism and sodomy.
Two groups pertaining to the Carib family were the most predominant in Antioquia Department, the Catíos and the Nutabes that inhabited the region between the Cauca River and Porce River, as well as in the Valley of Aburrá, the other group was the Tahamíes that inhabited the region between the Porce River and the Magdalena River.
The region of the Gulf of Urabá was inhabited by Urabáes and Cunas, which pertained to the group of Chibchan speaking nations. Years before the Quimbayas a different group, not pertaining to the Caribs or Chibchas, inhabited certain areas of southern Antioquia Department, in what is now the municipalities of Abejorral and Sonsón, but it is presumed to have disappeared in the 10th century AD.
The first group of Spanish to discover what is now Antioquia Department was headed by Spanish conqueror Rodrigo de Bastidas who entered through the Darién region in 1500. Ten years later the Spanish conqueror Alonso de Ojeda entered with another group of Spanish conquerors and founded the village of San Sebastián de Urabá which function as a "business center" for the Spanish, this village was substituted later in duties with the village of Panama because of the constant attacks that received from the indigenous tribes. San Sebastian de Uraba ruins are now located within the municipality of Necoclí, Antioquia Department.
The first incursions inland by the Spanish in what is now Antioquia did not start until 1536, when Jorge Robledo, Captain and Marshal of the Spanish monarchy organized an expedition by orders of the monarchy in 1541 and went to discover the Valley of Aburrá and founded the village of Antioquia, but after a few changes was finally settled in 1546 on what is now the village of Santa Fe de Antioquia. The Spanish ignored the terrain and vegetation while the indigenous tribes became their enemies, clashing in numerous battles, after the Spanish attacked them.
In 1675 the settlement of Medellín was proclaimed a village by the then governor of the province of Antioquia, captain general and governor Don Miguel de Aguinaga. The last governor before the Independence from Spain was Don Francisco de Ayala.
Mon y Velarde: Reformer of Antioquia
In 1785 the governor of Antioquia, Francisco Silvestre, demanded the presence of the auditor Juan Antonio Mon y Velarde, due to the crisis the province of Antioquia was going through. While visiting as judge, Mon y Velarde introduced several reforms that were criticized by the general population. Among his reforms were the reorganization of rental income from alcohol and tobacco, a new mining code that substituted the one governor Gaspar de Rodas had expedited in the 16th Century, authorized the use of silver instead of gold for transactions and changed the agrarian structure of Antioquia which allowed the foundation of new villages, he also opposed that large amounts of land were maintained in possession by few individuals that didn't dully exploited them.
Colonization by people of Antioquia
Since its beginnings, Antioquia was a region almost isolated from the rest of the world, this relative isolation continued through the colonial period and the subsequent. The isolation caused its social and economic development maintained a lower level that that of the rest of Colombia, situation that prevailed until the republicanism and the industrial revolution era with the introduction of the train.