History of the Gan language
Old Gan (上古贛語, Song-gu Gon-ngi) or Proto-Gan (原始贛語, Ngien-si Gon-ngi) corresponds to the Gan language from the beginning of Qin Dynasty to the latter part of the Han Dynasty. It is a typically creole language which was influenced by Chinese language (華夏語), Baiyue, Chu, and Wu languages.
Late Old Gan
Late Old Gan (中古贛語, Zung-gu Gon-ngi) corresponds to Gan spoken from 3rd to 6th century. It was largely sinicized by new settlers.
Middle Gan (中世贛語, Zung-si Gon-ngi) corresponds to Gan spoken from 6th to 13th century. It finally became stabilized after the last time of large-scale settlement in Jiangxi by people from Zhongyuan.
Late Middle Gan
Late Middle Gan (近世贛語, Qin-si Gon-ngi) corresponds to Gan spoken from 13th to 17th century. Modern scholars try to reconstruct the language mainly from this historical layer.
Early Modern Gan
Early Modern Gan (近代贛語, Qin-tai Gon-ngi) corresponds to Gan spoken from 17th to 20th century. Westerners began to study Gan language since this period and Bibles in some Gan dialects were published at this time.
- Shao Baiming (邵百鳴) and Ge Lili (葛力力), The formation of Gan's dialects (略論贛方言的形成)
- Chen Changyi (陳昌儀), Summanry of Gan's dialects (贛方言概要)
- Liu Lunxin (劉綸鑫), On the history of Gan-Hakka (客贛方言史簡論)