History of the Jews in Czechoslovakia

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Historical demographics[edit]

Historical Czechoslovakian Jewish population (using post-WWII borders)
Year Pop.   ±%  
1921 261,001 —    
1930 254,288 −2.6%
1945 42,000 −83.5%
1951 17,000 −59.5%
1960 16,000 −5.9%
1970 14,000 −12.5%
1980 9,000 −35.7%
1990 8,000 −11.1%
2000 6,700 −16.2%
2010 6,500 −3.0%
Source:

table 1. Jewish population by religion in Czechoslovakia[4][5]

1921, # 1921,% 1930, # 1930,%
Bohemia 79,777 1.19 76,301 1.07
Moravia 37,989 1.09 41,250 1.16
Silesia 7,317 1.09 (with Moravia) (with Moravia)
Slovakia 135,918 4.53 136,737 4.11
Carpatho Russia 93,341 15.39 102,542 14.14
Total 354,342 2.6 356,830 2.42

Table 2. Declared Nationality of Jews in Czechoslovakia[4]

Ethnonationality 1921,% 1930,%
Jewish 53.62 57.20
Czechoslovak 21.84 24.52
German 14.26 12.28
Hungarian 8.45 4.71
Others 1.83 1.29

Holocaust[edit]

For the Czechs of the Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia, German occupation was a period of brutal oppression. The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia (117,551 according to the 1930 census) was virtually annihilated. Many Jews emigrated after 1939; approximately 78,000 were killed. By 1945, some 14,000 Jews remained alive in the Czech lands.[6]

Approximately 144,000 Jews were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp. Most inmates were Czech Jews. About a quarter of the inmates (33,000) died in Theresienstadt, mostly because of the deadly conditions (hunger, stress, and disease, especially the typhus epidemic at the very end of war). About 88,000 were deported to Auschwitz and other extermination camps. When the war finished, there were a mere 17,247 survivors. There were 15,000 children living in the children's home inside the camp; only 93 of those children survived.

Czech National Archives[edit]

The Czech National Archives have digitized (in 2011) all volumes of the Registers of Births, Marriages (1784-1949), and deaths of Jewish communities (except of those who need substantial preservation and restoration).

In accordance with the Register of Births, Marriages, and Deaths Act (N.301/2000 Coll.) only entries older than 100 years from the last entry in the Births Registers and 75 years from the last entry in the Marriages and Deaths Registers will be made accessible. The restriction does not apply to the Jewish control registers owing to the time range of entries.[7]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

See also[edit]