Monaco had a very small Jewish presence prior to World War II, numbering approximately 300 people. During the war, the principality's government issued false identity papers to its Jewish residents to protect them from Nazi deportation.Prince Louis II refused to dismiss Jewish civil servants and protected Edouard de Rothschild from deportation. However, Monaco’s police arrested and turned over 42 Central European Jewish refugees to the Nazis.
While Monaco has almost no Jewish citizens, approximately 1,000 Jewish expatriates of other countries comprise about 2.86% of Monaco's total residents (citizen and non-citizen combined).  This means Monaco has the highest per capita total of Jewish residents of any country in the world outside of Israel (though not the highest per capita amount of Jewish citizens).
Monaco has full diplomatic relations with Israel.