History of the Jews in Scotland
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Ivor Cutler • Muriel Spark
|5,887 (according to 2011 census)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee|
|English, Hebrew, Scots|
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|Jews and Judaism|
The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. Although the possibility that Jews visited Scotland at the time of the Roman Empire's conquest of southern Britain cannot be ruled out, there is no historical record of their presence. Despite a short-lived military occupation, southern Scotland was never integrated into the Empire. The earliest concrete historical references to Jews in Scotland are from the 17th century. The vast majority of Scottish Jews today are Ashkenazi who settled in Edinburgh, then predominantly in Glasgow in the late 19th century. Most histories of Jews in Scotland deal with the subject matter from a British perspective, thus tending to marginalise the Scottish aspect.
Middle Ages to union with England
Evidence of Jews in medieval Scotland is scanty, but in 1190, the Bishop of Glasgow forbade churchmen to "pledge their benefices for money borrowed from Jews". This was around the time of the Anti-Jewish riots in England so it is possible that Jews may have arrived in Scotland as refugees, or it may refer to English Jews from whom Scots were borrowing money. While England during the Middle Ages had state persecution of the Jews, culminating in the Edict of Expulsion of 1290 (Jews may have fled to Scotland at this time) there was never a corresponding expulsion from Scotland, suggesting either greater tolerance or the simple fact that Jews may not have been resident. The eminent Scottish-Jewish scholar David Daiches wrote in his autobiographical Two Worlds: An Edinburgh Jewish Childhood that there are grounds for stating that Scotland is the only European country that has no history of state persecution of Jews.
In the Middle Ages, much of Scotland's trade was with Continental Europe, the wool of the Border abbeys being the country's main export to Flanders and the Low Countries. Aberdeen and Dundee had close links to Baltic ports in Poland and Lithuania where Scottish merchants traded. It is possible therefore that Jews may have come to Scotland to do business with their Scottish counterparts, although no direct evidence of this exists.
Like many Christian nations, medieval Scots claimed a Biblical connection. The Declaration of Arbroath (6 April 1320) appealed to Pope John XXII for recognition of Scotland's status as an independent, sovereign state and asserted its right to use military action when considered unjustly attacked. It was sealed by fifty-one magnates and nobles. It is still periodically referenced by British Israelitists, because the text asserts that in the eyes of God:
- cum non sit Pondus nec distinccio Judei et Greci, Scoti aut Anglici
- (there is neither bias nor difference between Jew or Greek, Scot or English)
Reverence for the tenets of Judaism was a hallmark of 17th century fundamentalist Protestant thinking when the National Covenant of 1638 seemed to set the seal on the belief that by returning to the "true religion" at the Reformation the Scots had become a chosen people.
Scotland, whom our Lord took off the dunghill and out of hell and made a fair bride to Himself... He will embrace both [of] us, the little young sister, and the elder sister, the Church of the Jews. (Rev. Samuel Rutherford)
The late-18th century author Henry Mackenzie speculated that the high incidence of biblical place names around the village of Morningside near Edinburgh might have originated from Jews settling in the area during the Middle Ages. This belief has, however, been shown to be false, the names originating instead from the presence of a local farm named "Egypt" mentioned in historical documents from the 16th century and believed to indicate a Gypsy presence.
Most Jewish immigration appears to have occurred post-industrialisation, and post-1707, meaning that Jews in Scotland were subject to various anti-Jewish laws applied to Britain as a whole. Oliver Cromwell readmitted Jews to the Commonwealth of England during The Protectorate in 1656, and would have had influence over whether they could reside north of the border. Scotland was under the jurisdiction of the Jew Bill, enacted in 1753, but repealed the next year.
The first graduate from the University of Glasgow who was openly known to be Jewish was Levi Myers, in 1787. Unlike their English contemporaries, Scottish students were not required to take a religious oath.
In 1795, Herman Lyon, originally of German nationality, and a dentist and chiropodist, bought a burial plot in Edinburgh. He had moved to Scotland in 1788. The presence of the plot on Calton Hill is no longer obvious today, but it is marked on the Ordnance Survey map of 1852 as "Jew's Burial vault".
The first Jewish congregation in Edinburgh was founded in 1816, and in Glasgow in 1823. That of Aberdeen was founded in 1893. The Jewish cemetery in Dundee indicates that there has been a Jewish congregation in that city since the 19th century.
Isaac Cohen, a hatter resident in Glasgow, was admitted a burgess of the city on 22 September 1812. The first interment on the Glasgow Necropolis was that of Joseph Levi, a quill merchant and cholera victim who was buried there on 12 September 1832. This occurred in the year before the formal opening of the burial ground, a part of it having been sold to the Jewish community beforehand for one hundred guineas. Glasgow-born Asher Asher (1837–1889) was the first Scottish Jew to enter the medical profession. He was the author of The Jewish Rite of Circumcision (1873).
By 1878, Jews became attached to the Scottish aristocracy when Hannah de Rothschild, born in England, married Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery. She died at Dalmeny. Her son, Harry, would become Secretary of State for Scotland in 1945 for a year.
In order to avoid persecution in the Russian Empire, Jews settled in the larger cities of the UK, including Scotland, most notably in Glasgow (especially the poorer part of the city, the Gorbals, alongside Irish and Italian immigrants). A smaller community existed in Edinburgh and even smaller groups in Dundee, Aberdeen, Greenock and Ayr. Russian Jews tended to come from the west of the empire, especially the Baltic countries, in particular Lithuania, hoping to use Scotland as a staging post en route to North America. This explains why Glasgow was their favoured location, although those who could not earn well enough to afford the transatlantic voyage ended up settling in the city.
20th and 21st centuries
Immigration continued into the 20th century, with over 8,000 Jews in 1905. Refugees from Nazism and the Second World War further augmented the Scottish Jewish community, which has been estimated to have reached 80,000 in the mid-20th century. It is important to remember that the Jewish population in the United Kingdom peaked at 500,000 but has declined to almost half that number today.
Some elements of the British Union of Fascists were anti-Jewish and Alexander Raven Thomson, one of its main ideologues, was a Scot. Blackshirt meetings were physically attacked in Edinburgh by communists and "Protestant Action", which believed the group to be an Italian (i.e. Roman Catholic) intrusion. In fact, William Kenefick of Dundee University has claimed that bigotry was diverted away from Jews by anti-Catholicism, particularly in Glasgow where the main ethnic chauvinist agitation was against Irish Catholics. Archibald Maule Ramsay, a Scottish Unionist MP claimed that World War II was a "Jewish war" and was the only MP in the UK interned under Defence Regulation 18B. In the Gorbals at least, both Louise Sless and Woolf Silver, recall no anti-Semitic sentiment.
According to the 2001 census, 6,448 Jews live in Scotland, most of whom are in Edinburgh (about 934), Glasgow (4,249) and to a lesser extent Dundee. Scotland's Jewish population continues to be predominantly urban. The SSPCA came into conflict with the Aberdeen congregation over slaughtering methods at the turn of the 20th century. As with Christianity, the practising Jewish population continues to fall, as many younger Jews either become secular, or intermarry with other faiths. Scottish Jews have also emigrated in large numbers to the USA, England and the Commonwealth for economic reasons, as other Scots have done.
In March 2008 the Jewish tartan was designed by Brian Wilton for Chabad rabbi Mendel Jacobs of Glasgow and certified by the Scottish Tartans Authority. The tartan's colors are blue, white, silver, red and gold. According to Jacobs: "The blue and white represent the colours of the Scottish and Israeli flags, with the central gold line representing the gold from the Biblical Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant and the many ceremonial vessels ... the silver is from the decorations that adorn the Scroll of Law and the red represents the traditional red Kiddush wine."
Scots Yiddish is the name given to a Jewish hybrid vernacular between Lowland Scots and Yiddish which had a brief currency in the Lowlands in the first half of the 20th century. The Scottish literary historian David Daiches describes it in his autobiographical account of his Edinburgh Jewish childhood, Two Worlds.
Daiches explores the social stratification of Edinburgh Jewish society in the interwar period, noting what is effectively a class divide between two parts of the community, on the one hand a highly educated and well-integrated group who sought a synthesis of Orthodox Rabbinical and Modern Secular thinking, on the other a Yiddish-speaking group most comfortable maintaining the lifestyle of the Eastern European ghetto. The Yiddish population grew up in Scotland in the 19th century, but by the late 20th century had mostly switched to using English. The creolisation of Yiddish with Scots was therefore a phenomenon of the middle part of this period.
The Glaswegian Jewish poet A. C. Jacobs also refers to his language as Scots-Yiddish. There was even a case of a Jewish immigrant who settled in the Highlands who spoke no English and was only able to speak Gaelic and Yiddish.
In popular culture
- The Credit Draper – A novel by J.David Simons. A fictional account of a young Russian-Jewish refugee named Avram Escovitz growing up in the Gorbals in Glasgow before going to work as a credit draper in the Highlands. Also by the same author, The Liberation of Celia Kahn, a novel about a young Jewish woman from the Gorbals caught up in socialism and feminism in the early 20th century.
- The Fabulous Bagel Boys – A one off BBC television drama set in Glasgow's Jewish community, originally intended to be a series but after a lukewarm reception was not picked up.
- Rooms – A Rock Musical telling the story of a Glaswegian music act and its two members, a Glaswegian Jewish girl and her Catholic lover.
Jewish Community today
Today, all known Jewish communities in Scotland are represented by the Scottish Council of Jewish Communities (SCoJeC)
List of Scottish Jews
Scottish people of some Jewish background, or Jewish people with a Scottish background:
- Ronni Ancona (Sephardi), comedienne
- Hazel Cosgrove, Lady Cosgrove first female Court of Session judge
- Ivor Cutler, musician, teacher and comedian
- Sir Monty Finniston, industrialist
- Hannah Frank, artist and sculptor
- Myer Galpern MP, Lord Provost of Glasgow
- Ralph Glasser, psychologist and economist (born in Leeds but grew up in Glasgow)
- Muriel Gray, author and presenter of The Tube
- Jeremy Isaacs, broadcaster
- Mark Knopfler, Dire Straits (band) co-founder and lead guitarist, lead vocalist
- Kevin MacDonald (director), Touching the Void
- Isi Metzstein, architect
- Saul Metzstein, filmmaker
- Malcolm Rifkind, politician
- Jerry Sadowitz, controversial comedian and conjurer
- Benno Schotz, sculptor
- Manny Shinwell, politician
- J. David Simons, novelist
- Muriel Spark, novelist
- Harry Woolf, Baron Woolf, judge, brought up and educated in Scotland
People of Scottish-Jewish extraction
- Phil Ochs
- Alicia Silverstone, American actress, Scottish born Jewish parents (mother a convert).
- Isla Fisher, of Scottish extraction, but converted to Judaism as an adult.
- History of the Jews in Ireland
- History of the Jews in Wales
- History of the Jews in England
- List of British Jews
Notes and references
- Jewish Year Book (JYB)
- Daiches, David (1956), Two Worlds, Cannnongate edition 1987, p. 119f, ISBN 0-86241-148-3
- "Scotland". jewishvirtuallibrary.
- Caldwell Hirschman, Elizabeth; Yates, Donald N., When Scotland Was Jewish, ISBN 978-0-7864-2800-7
- "History". electricscotland.com.
- Donaldson, Gordon (1987), Scotland, James V-James VII (Edinburgh History of Scotland), Edinburgh: Mercat Press, ISBN 0 901824 85 2
- C J Smith, Historic South Edinburgh, Edinburgh & London 1978, p.205 "At the distance of less than a mile from Edinburgh there are places with Jewish names—Canaan, the river or brook called Jordan, Egypt—a place called Transylvania, a little to the east of Egypt. There are two traditions of the way in which they got their names: one, that there was a considerable eruption of gypsies into the county of Edinburgh who got a grant of these lands, then chiefly a moor; the other, which I have heard from rather better authority, that some rich Jews happened to migrate into Scotland and got from one of the Kings (James I, I think it was said) a grant of these lands in consideration of a sum of money which they advanced him."
- "Edinburgh Jewish History". Edinburgh Hebrew Congregation.
- "Jewish history". ehcong.com.
- "Glascow". sefarad.org.
- D Daiches, Glasgow, Andre Deutsch, 1977, p.139-40
- R Glasser, Growing Up in the Gorbals, Chatto & Windus, 1986
- "Scotland". jewishencyclopedia.
- Macleod, Murdo (20 August 2006). "Rockets can't keep Scots from their Israeli roots". The Scotsman.
- Pigott, Robert (21 May 2008). "Jewish population on the increase". BBC News.
- Cullen, Stephen (26 December 2008), Nationalism and sectarianism 'stopped rise of Scots fascists', Herald
- Boztas, Senay (17 October 2004), Why Scotland has never hated Jews ... it was too busy hating Catholics, Sunday Herald, archived from the original on 31 January 2006, retrieved 1 May 2010
- Fleischmann, Kurt. "The Gorbals and the Jews of Glasgow". European Sephardic Institute.
- The Scottish Government - ANALYSIS OF RELIGION IN THE 2001 CENSUS: Summary Report
- Scottish Council of Jewish Communities - How many Jews in Scotland? – well, it all depends!
- "Jewish Tartan". Scottish Tartans Authority. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- Schwartzapfel, Beth (17 July 2008). "Sound the Bagpipes: Scots Design Jewish Tartan". Forward. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- Hamilton, Tom (16 May 2008). "Rabbi creates first official Jewish tartan". Daily Record. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- "Scotland's Census 2011 – Table KS209SCb". scotlandscensus.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- David Daiches, Two Worlds, 1956, Cannnongate edition 1987, ISBN 0-86241-148-3, p. 119f.
- Relich, Mario. "The Strange Case of A. C. Jacobs".
- "Scotland’s Century" (RealPlayer). BBC Radio Scotland. 1999.
- The Fabulous Bagel Boys at the Internet Movie Database
- Backalenick, Irene. "From Glasgow Bat-Mitzvohs to the New York Rock Scene".
- Jewish Chronicle, 28/09/2005, Diary p. 66, "Could there a hint of racial stereotyping in the Almeida's decision to cast two Jewish actors – Ronni Ancona and Henry Goodman – in its upcoming production of The Hypochondriac?"
- "Feature article". culham.ac.uk.
- Jewish father; mother Anglican but Muriel Spark's son says that she had Jewish parents; converted to Catholicism later in life
- Collins Dr. KE, Borowski E, and Granat L – Scotland's Jews – A Guide to the History and Community of the Jews in Scotland (2008)
- Levy, A – The Origins of Scottish Jewry
- Phillips, Abel – A History of the Origins of the First Jewish Community in Scotland: Edinburgh, 1816 (1979)
- Glasser, R – Growing Up in the Gorbals, Chatto & Windus (1986)
- Shinwell, Manny – Conflict Without Malice (1955) – autobiography
- Conn, A (editor) – Serving Their Country- Wartime Memories of Scottish Jews (2002)
- Kaplan, H L – Jewish Cemeteries in Scotland in Avotaynu, Vol.VII No 4, Winter 1991
- Scottish Council of Jewish Communities
- The Jewish History Resource Center Project of the Dinur Center for Research in Jewish History, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
- Jewish Encyclopedia on Scotland
- Scottish Jewish Archives Centre
- The Virtual Jewish History Tour – Scotland
- Jewish burial ground in the Glasgow Necropolis
- Edinburgh Hebrew Congregation
- Aberdeen Hebrew Congregation
- Sukkat Shalom Edinburgh - the Edinburgh Liberal Jewish Community