Komi Republic

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Komi Republic
Республика Коми (Russian)
Коми Республика (Komi)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Komi Republic[1]
Coordinates: 64°17′N 54°28′E / 64.283°N 54.467°E / 64.283; 54.467Coordinates: 64°17′N 54°28′E / 64.283°N 54.467°E / 64.283; 54.467
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Northwestern[2]
Economic region Northern[3]
Established December 5, 1936[4]
Capital Syktyvkar[5]
Government (as of January 2014)
 - Head[7] Vyacheslav Gayzer[6]
 - Legislature State Council[7]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[8]
 - Total 415,900 km2 (160,600 sq mi)
Area rank 13th
Population (2010 Census)[9]
 - Total 901,189
 - Rank 58th
 - Density[10] 2.17 /km2 (5.6 /sq mi)
 - Urban 76.9%
 - Rural 23.1%
Population (January 2013 est.)
 - Total 880,639[11]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[12]
ISO 3166-2 RU-KO
License plates 11
Official languages Russian;[13] Komi[14]
Official website

The Komi Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Ко́ми, Respublika Komi; Komi: Коми Республика, Komi Respublika) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Syktyvkar. Population: 901,189 (2010 Census).[9]

Geography[edit]

The republic is situated to the west of the Ural mountains, in the north-east of the East European Plain. Forests cover over 70% of the territory and swamps cover approximately 15%.

Rivers[edit]

Major rivers include:

Lakes[edit]

There are many lakes in the republic. Major lakes include:

Natural resources[edit]

The Vym River, Komi Republic, Russia

The republic's natural resources include coal, oil, natural gas, gold, diamonds and timber. Native reindeer are in abundance, and have been intentionally bred for human usage by the indigenous population.[citation needed]

Around 32,800 km² of mostly boreal forest (as well as some alpine tundra and meadows) in the Republic's Northern Ural Mountains have been recognized in 1995 as a UNESCO World Heritage site, Virgin Komi Forests. It is the first natural UNESCO World Heritage site in Russia and the largest expanse of virgin forests in Europe. The site includes two pre-existing protected areas: Pechora-Ilych Nature Reserve (created in 1930) and Yugyd Va National Park (created in 1994).

Climate[edit]

Winters in the republic are long and cold, and the summers, while short, are quite warm.

  • Average January temperature: −17 °C (1 °F) (southern parts) to −20 °C (−4 °F) (northern parts)
  • Average July temperature: 11 °C (52 °F) (northern parts) to 15 °C (59 °F) (southern parts)
  • Lowest recorded temperature: −58.1 °C (−72.6 °F) (village of Ust-Shchuger)
  • Average annual precipitation: 625 mm (24.6 in)

Manpupuner and the 7 Strong Men Rock Formations[edit]

Deemed one of the Seven Wonders of Russia, Komi Republic is home to Manpupuner (Man-Pupu-Nyer), a mysterious site in the northern Ural mountains, in the Troitsko-Pechorsky District, made out of seven rock towers bursting out of the flat plateau known as the “7 strong men“. Manpupuner is a very popular attraction in Russia, but not on an international level and information regarding its origin is scarce. We know however that their height and abnormal shapes make the top of these rock giants inaccessible even to experienced rock-climbers.

Administrative divisions[edit]

History[edit]

Map of the Komi Republic

The Komi first appear in the records of the Novgorod Republic in the 12th century, when Novgorodian (East Slavic) traders travelled to the Perm region in search of furs and animal hides. The Komi territories came under the influence of Muscovy in the late Middle Ages (late 15th to early 16th centuries). The site of Syktyvkar has been settled since the 16th century. It was known as Sysolskoye (Сысольскoe). In 1780, under Catherine the Great, it was renamed to Ust-Sysolsk (Усть-Сысольск) and used as a penal colony.

Starting from the expedition led by Alexander von Keyserling in 1843, the Komi territory was most extensively explored in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries by the Russians, who found ample reservoirs of various minerals, as well as timber, to exploit. After the founding of the Soviet Union, the Komi-Zyryan Autonomous Oblast was established on August 22, 1921,[15] and on December 5, 1936, it was reorganized into the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with its administrative center located at the town of Syktyvkar.

Many of the "settlers" who came in the early 20th century were prisoners of the Gulag who were sent by the hundreds of thousands to perform forced labor in the Arctic regions of the USSR. Towns sprang up around labor-camp sites, which were initially carved out of the untouched tundra and taiga by gangs of prisoners. The first mine, "Rudnik No. 1," became the city of Vorkuta, and the other towns of the region have similar origins: "Prisoners planned and built all of the republic's major cities, not just Ukhta but also Syktyvkar, Pechora, Vorkuta, and Inta. Prisoners built Komi's railways and roads, as well as its original industrial infrastructure."[16]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

Population: 901,189 (2010 Census);[9] 1,018,674 (2002 Census);[17] 1,261,024 (1989 Census).[18]

17-12-1926 17-01-1939 17-01-1959 15-01-1970 17-01-1979 17-01-1989 09-10-2002 14-10-2010
Total population 207,314 318,996 806,199 964,802 1,110,361 1,250,847 1,018,674 901,189
Average annual population growth +1.7% +1.6% +1.3% -1.6% -1.5%
Males 46% 49% 52% 50% 51% 50% 48%
Females 54% 51% 48% 50% 49% 50% 52%
Females per 1000 males
Proportion urban 4.4% 9.1% 59.4% 61.9% 70.8% 75.5% 75.3%
Territory (km2) 434,150 415,900 415,900 415,900 415,900 415,900 415,900 415,900
Population density/km2 0.5 0.8 1.9 2.3 2.7 3.0 2.4 2.2

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertlity rate
1920 4 760 4 353 407
1930 10 256 6 574 3 682
1940 14 976 12 134 2 842
1945 6 432 6 185 247
1950 534 20 087 6 002 14 085 37.6 11.2 26.4
1960 836 25 578 5 010 20 568 30.6 6.0 24.6
1965 938 18 956 5 241 13 715 20.2 5.6 14.6
1970 970 16 462 6 276 10 186 17.0 6.5 10.5
1975 1 044 18 899 7 284 11 615 18.1 7.0 11.1
1980 1 137 20 685 9 169 11 516 18.2 8.1 10.1
1981 1 153 21 244 9 103 12 141 18.4 7.9 10.5
1982 1 169 23 420 8 758 14 662 20.0 7.5 12.5
1983 1 185 23 806 9 250 14 556 20.1 7.8 12.3
1984 1 199 24 217 9 486 14 731 20.2 7.9 12.3
1985 1 213 23 303 9 334 13 969 19.2 7.7 11.5
1986 1 228 24 176 8 112 16 064 19.7 6.6 13.1
1987 1 242 23 616 8 544 15 072 19.0 6.9 12.1
1988 1 256 20 916 8 930 11 986 16.7 7.1 9.5
1989 1 256 18 481 8 857 9 624 14.7 7.1 7.7
1990 1 244 16 930 9 321 7 609 13.6 7.5 6.1 1.873
1991 1 231 15 589 9 665 5 924 12.7 7.9 4.8
1992 1 214 13 880 11 426 2 454 11.4 9.4 2.0
1993 1 199 12 158 14 642 - 2 484 10.1 12.2 - 2.1
1994 1 174 11 835 16 074 - 4 239 10.1 13.7 - 3.6
1995 1 145 11 105 15 057 - 3 952 9.7 13.2 - 3.5 1.317
1996 1 124 10 900 13 674 - 2 774 9.7 12.2 - 2.5
1997 1 106 10 388 12 244 - 1 856 9.4 11.1 - 1.7
1998 1 087 10 793 11 545 - 752 9.9 10.6 - 0.7
1999 1 068 9 680 12 253 - 2 573 9.1 11.5 - 2.4
2000 1 050 9 906 13 594 - 3 688 9.4 12.9 - 3.5 1.219
2001 1 036 10 325 13 968 - 3 643 10.0 13.5 - 3.5 1.272
2002 1 021 11 177 15 265 - 4 088 10.9 15.0 - 4.0 1.374
2003 1 004 11 462 15 810 - 4 348 11.4 15.8 - 4.3 1.401
2004 987 11 489 15 210 - 3 721 11.6 15.4 - 3.8 1.397
2005 971 10 975 15 074 - 4 099 11.3 15.5 - 4.2 1.332
2006 955 10 872 13 519 - 2 647 11.4 14.1 - 2.8 1.318
2007 941 11 523 12 304 - 781 12.2 13.1 - 0.8 1.406
2008 928 11 719 12 270 - 551 12.6 13.2 - 0.6 1.452
2009 916 11 868 12 182 - 314 13.0 13.3 - 0.3 1.62
2010 903 11 648 11 819 - 171 12.9 13.1 - 0.2 1.63
2011 11 715 11 097 + 443 13.0 12.4 + 0.6 1.71
2012 890 12 370 10 789 + 1 581 13.9 12.1 + 1.8 1.88
2013 876 12 493 10 508 + 1 985 14.2 11.9 + 2.3 1.95(e)


Regional vital statistics for 2011[edit]

Source:[19]

District Birth Rate Death Rate Natural Growth Rate Whites as % of Pop Native Komi and Nenets as % of Pop
Komi Republic 13.0 12.4 Increase0.06% 96.05% 3.95%
Syktyvkar 12.5 10.2 Increase0.23% 97.61% 2.39%
Vorkuta 11.8 9.7 Increase0.21% 92.33% 7.67%
Vuktyl 11.2 12.6 Decrease-0.14% 95.27% 4.73%
Inta 11.1 12.6 Decrease-0.15% 95.40% 4.60%
Pechora 13.0 13.6 Decrease-0.06% 96.89% 3.11%
Sosnogorsk 12.6 14.4 Decrease-0.18% 97.02% 2.98%
Usinsk 14.7 9.0 Increase0.57% 86.04% 13.96%
Ukhta 11.0 10.7 Increase0.03% 96.20% 3.80%
Izhemsky 19.1 18.8 Increase0.03% 99.62% 0.38%
Knyazhpogostsky 11.6 15.9 Decrease-0.43% 95.50% 4.50%
Koygorodsky 16.2 18.3 Decrease-0.21% 97.89% 2.11%
Kortkerossky 16.9 18.6 Decrease-0.17% 98.86% 1.14%
Priluzsky 15.6 18.4 Decrease-0.28% 98.98% 1.02%
Syktyvdinsky 17.3 13.3 Increase0.40% 98.11% 1.89%
Sysolsky 16.4 17.6 Decrease-0.12% 98.37% 1.63%
Troitsko-Pechorsky 14.0 17.9 Decrease-0.39% 97.80% 2.20%
Udorsky 15.6 13.1 Increase0.25% 95.33% 4.67%
Ust-Vymsky 12.0 15.8 Decrease-0.38% 96.48% 3.52%
Ust-Kulomsky 19.2 18.9 Increase0.03% 98.96% 1.04%
Ust-Tsilemsky 16.1 15.4 Increase0.07% 99.62% 0.38%

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2010 Census,[9] ethnic Russians make up 65.1% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Komi are only 23.7%. Other groups include Ukrainians (4.2%), Tatars (1.3%), Belarusians (1%), Ethnic Germans (0.6%), Chuvash (0.6%), Azeris (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 census
(1926 territory)1
1926 census
(present territory)
1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census 2010 census2
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Komi 191,245 92.2% 195,400 86.9% 231,301 72.5% 245,074 30.4% 276,178 28.6% 280,798 25.3% 291,542 23.3% 256,464 25.2% 202,348 23.7%
Russians 13,731 6.6% 28,300 12.6% 70,226 22.0% 389,995 48.4% 512,203 53.1% 629,523 56.7% 721,780 57.7% 607,021 59.6% 555,963 65.1%
Ukrainians 34 0.0% 200 0.1% 6,010 1.9% 80,132 9.9% 82,955 8.6% 94,154 8.5% 104,170 8.3% 62,115 6.1% 36,082 4.2%
Nenets 2,080 1.0% 1,000 0.4% 508 0.2% 374 0.0% 369 0.0% 366 0.0% 376 0.0% 708 0.1%
Tatars 33 0.0% 709 0.2% 8,459 1.0% 11,906 1.2% 17,836 1.6% 25,980 2.1% 15,680 1.5% 10,779 1.3%
Belarusians 11 0.0% 3,323 1.0% 22,339 2.8% 24,706 2.6% 24,763 2.2% 26,730 2.1% 15,212 1.5% 8,859 1.0%
Others 180 0.1% 6,919 2.2% 59,826 7.4% 56,485 5.9% 62,921 5.7% 80,269 6.4% 61,474 6.0% 40,272 4.7%
1 The territory of the Komi AO was different from the Komi Republic.

2 Excluding 46,886 people who were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[20]

Religion[edit]



Circle frame.svg

Religion in Komi (2012)[21][22]

  Russian Orthodox (30.2%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (4%)
  Muslim (1%)
  Rodnover and Komi Pagan (1%)
  Other Orthodox (1%)
  Starover (1%)
  Roman Catholic (0.4%)
  Atheist (14%)
  Other or undeclared (6.4%)

According to a 2012 official survey[21] 30.2% of the population of Komi adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Rodnovers or Komi Pagans, 1% are Muslims, 1% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 1% are Starovers, and 0.4% follows the Catholic Church. In addition, 41% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 14% is atheist, and 6.4% follows other religions or failed to answer the question.[21]

Politics[edit]

The head of government in the Komi Republic is the Head of the Republic. As of 2010, the head of the republic is Vyacheslav Gayzer.

The State Council is the legislature.

Economy[edit]

The Komi Republic's major industries include oil processing, timber, woodworking, natural gas and electric power industries. Major industrial centers are Syktyvkar, Inta, Pechora, Sosnogorsk, Ukhta, and Vorkuta.

Natural gas transportation and distribution is conducted by Komigaz.

Transportation[edit]

Railroad transportation is very well developed. The most important railroad line is KotlasVorkutaSalekhard, which is used to ship most goods in and out of the republic. The rivers Vychegda and Pechora are navigable. There are airports in Syktyvkar, Ukhta, and Vorkuta.

In 1997, total railroad trackage was 1,708 km, automobile roads 4,677 km.

Education[edit]

There are over 450 secondary schools in the republic (with ~180,000 students). The most important higher education facilities include Syktyvkar State University and Ukhta State Technical University.

Sports[edit]

Stroitel have played in the highest division of Russian Bandy League for a long time.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Law #XII-20/5
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ Komi ASSR. Administrative-Territorial Structure, p. 5
  5. ^ Constitution of the Komi Republic, Article 69
  6. ^ Official website of the Komi Republic. Vyacheslav Gayzer (Russian)
  7. ^ a b Constitution, Article 8
  8. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  9. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  11. ^ Komi Republic Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности населения по городам, районам, городским населённым пунктам Республики Коми на 1 января 2012 г., 2013 г. и в среднем за 2012 год (Russian)
  12. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  13. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  14. ^ Constitution of the Komi Republic, Article 67
  15. ^ Коми Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. 
  16. ^ Anne Applebaum, Gulag: A History (Random House, Inc., 2004: ISBN 1-4000-3409-4), pp. 78, 82.
  17. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  18. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  19. ^ http://www.gks.ru/dbscripts/munst/munst87/DBInet.cgi
  20. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  21. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  22. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.

Sources[edit]

  • 17 февраля 1994 г. «Конституция Республики Коми», в ред. Закона №21-РЗ от 24 апреля 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 84 Конституции Республики Коми». Вступил в силу 10 марта 1994 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Красное знамя", №45, 10 марта 1994 г. (February 17, 1994 Constitution of the Komi Republic, as amended by the Law #21-RZ of April 24, 2013 On Amending Article 84 of the Constitution of the Komi Republic. Effective as of March 10, 1994 (with the exception of several clauses).).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Коми. Закон №XII-20/5 от 6 июня 1994 г. «О государственном гимне Республики Коми», в ред. Закона №44-РЗ от 4 июля 2006 г «О внесении изменений и дополнения в Закон Республики Коми "О Государственном гимне Республики Коми"». Вступил в силу 11 июня 1994 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Красное Знамя", №109, 11 июня 1994 г. (State Council of the Komi Republic. Law #XII-20/5 of June 6, 1994 On the State Anthem of the Komi Republic, as amended by the Law #44-RZ of July 4, 2006 On Amending and Supplementing the Law of the Komi Republic "On the State Anthem of the Komi Republic". Effective as of June 11, 1994 (with the exception of certain clauses).).
  • "Коми АССР. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 июля 1968 г." Коми книжное издательство. Сыктывкар, 1968. (Komi ASSR. Administrative-Territorial Structure as of July 1, 1968)

Further reading[edit]

  • Pearson, M., Ojanen, P., Havimo, M., Kuuluvainen, T. & Vasander, H. (eds.) 2007. On the European Edge — Journey through Komi Nature and Culture. University of Helsinki Department of Forest Ecology Publications 36. 216 p. ISBN 978-952-10-3898-3.
  • Strogoff, M., Brochet, P. & Auzias, D. 2005. Guidebook Komi Republic. Avant-Garde Publishers, Moscow. 176. p. ISBN 5-86394-255-X.

External links[edit]