History of the Middle Eastern people in Metro Detroit

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Arab-owned businesses in Dearborn, Michigan

In 2004 Metro Detroit had one of the largest settlements of Middle Eastern people, including Arabs and Chaldeans, in the United States.[1] As of 2007 about 300,000 people in Southeastern Michigan trace their descent from the Middle East.[2] Dearborn has a sizeable Arab community especially Lebanese, with many Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac, who immigrated for jobs in the auto industry in the 1920s along with more recent Yemenis and Iraqis.[3] In 2010 four Metro Detroit counties had at least 200,000 people of Middle Eastern origin. Bobby Ghosh of TIME. said that some estimates give much larger numbers.[4] From 1990 to 2000 the percentage of people speaking Arabic in the home increased by 90% in the Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb counties region, with a 106% increase in Wayne County, a 99.5% increase in Macomb County, and a 41% increase in Oakland County.[5]

From 1990 to 2000 Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb counties had an increase of 16,632 people who were born in Iraq. The publication "Arab, Chaldean, and Middle Eastern Children and Families in the Tri-County Area" of the From a Child's Perspective: Detroit Metropolitan Census 2000 Fact Sheets Series states that "Arab and Chaldean representation cannot be determined" in that figure.[5] During the same period there was an increase of 7,229 people born in Lebanon.[5] The Iraqi community in Metro Detroit supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[6]

Arab Americans and Arabs[edit]

By 2007 Metro Detroit, if defined as Wayne, Oakland, Macomb, and Washtenaw counties had the United States's largest Arab American population, larger than that of Greater Los Angeles if that region was defined as Los Angeles, Orange, and Ventura counties. As of that year Arab Americans are one of the largest immigrant groups into Southeastern Michigan.[7] As of 2000 the majority of Metro Detroit's Arabs are Lebanese, Palestinian, Yemeni, and Iraqi.[8]

According to Jen’nan Ghazal Read of the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2000, in the Wayne-Oakland-Macomb-Washtenaw region there were 96,363 persons of Arab ancestry.[9] As of 2000 there were 92,122 people of Arab ancestry in Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb counties, making up 79.2% of Michigan's people of Arab ancestry.[5] According to Read, within the Wayne-Oakland-Macomb-Washtenaw region there were 131,650 persons of Arab ancestry in 2004.[9] The largest number of Arab Americans in the Metro Detroit area live in Wayne County. As of 2004 religions among Arab Americans in Detroit include Christian and Muslim faiths, with Christian varieties including Maronite, Melkite, Greek Orthodox, and Syrian Orthodox beliefs. The Sunni and Shia beliefs are present in Metro Detroit. Jordanians and Palestinians in Metro Detroit include believers of Sunni, Catholic, Protestant, and Greek Orthodox beliefs. Yemeni people include believers of the Shafi'i Sunni Muslim school of thought and the Zaidiyyah Shia Muslim school of thought. As of 2004 most recent Arab immigrants to Metro Detroit are Muslim.[5] A 2007 Wayne University study said that the Metro Detroit Arab American community produced $7.7 billion annually in earnings and salaries.[4] Annually these businesses produced $500 million in taxes to the state.[10]

As of 2006 Hamtramck has a large concentration of Yemeni people.[11]

As of 2004 Arabs stated that they wish to come to Detroit to unify their families, escape from conflicts in the Middle East, and improve their economic standing.[5] As of 2000, victims of population displacement, economic hardship, and political oppression included Palestinians, Yemenis, and Iraqi Catholics, and refugees from war included Shia from Iraq and Lebanon.[12] Andrew Shryock and Nabeel Abraham, authors of "On Margins and Mainstreams", wrote that "When asked to explain why so many Arabs have migrated to Detroit, most people in the community will mention the automobile industry. As a kind of historical shorthand, this answer is certainly the best."[8]

A Walgreens in Dearborn with Arabic signage

History of the Arabs and Arab Americans[edit]

Arriving in the early 1870s, the first Middle Eastern settlers in the Detroit area were Lebanese people. Most of them were Christians, including Maronites, Melkites, and Eastern Orthodox. Some immigrants were Sunni Muslims and Shia Muslims. Some Druze also immigrated.[1] A February 6, 1900 article in the Detroit Free Press stated that "Detroit's Colony of Syrians" included 75-100 people, mostly Lebanese Maronites.[13] The Lebanese worked as peddlers and shopkeepers. Henry Ford's factories had 555 Syrian employees, including many recently-arrived Muslims, by 1916. 9,000 Arabic-speakers were among the residents of Detroit in 1930. Of them, 6,000 were Syrians. The remainder included Iraqi Chaldeans, Yemenis, and Palestinians.[12] Immigrants from the Levant were originally labeled as being from the Ottoman Province of Syria. After 1920 the Ottoman Empire collapsed and European colonial administrators divided the areas in the Levant into Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria. Therefore immigrants into the Detroit began to be classified as Lebanese, Palestinians, and Syrians.[5]

Immigration from Iraq started in the beginning of the 20th Century and immigration from Yemen and the Arabian peninsula began in the early 20th Century. A peak immigration of Iraqis occurred from 1927 to 1950 and a peak immigration of Yemenis and those form the Peninsula occurred from 1912 to 1925. Of those three groups, in 1951 most of them lived together in a section of Dearborn.[14] Around 1951 there were about 50,000 people in Detroit who had descent from Lebanon and Syria.[15] Around the same year there were about 4,000 to 5,000 persons in Detroit and Dearborn who had origins from the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq, Yemen, and other Middle Eastern countries.[16] Sally Howell, author of "Competing for Muslims: New Strategies for Urban Renewal in Detroit", wrote that Yemeni people had a presence in the area since the late 1960s.[17] Arab immigrants continued traveling to Detroit even after the automobile industry decline of the 1970s.[12]

The 1975-1990 Lebanese Civil War resulted in a wave of immigration to Detroit.[18]

Many Iraqis immigrated to Metro Detroit after the Gulf War of 1991 and the Iraq War of 2003.[18]

From 2001 to 2011 the number of members of the American Arab Chamber of Commerce increased from 300 to 1500.[10]

Demographics of Arabs and Arab-Americans[edit]

As of 2014, of the State of Michigan's Arab immigrant population, 31% originated from Lebanon, and 10% originated from Iraq.[18]

Economy of Arabs and Arab-Americans[edit]

Many Lebanese operate grocery stores, restaurants, and shops, and they were historically known for doing so.[18]

Chaldean Americans and Chaldeans[edit]

By 2004 the Chaldean community in Metro Detroit was the largest Chaldean diaspora community in the world.[5] Most Chaldeans originate from northern Iraq. Some Chaldean immigrants originated from Iran, Syria, and Turkey.[18] Many Chaldeans work as businesspersons, grocers, owners of liquor stores, and professionals.[5]

As of 2007 there were 32,322 Chaldean persons in the Wayne, Macomb, Oakland, and Washtenaw four-county region of Michigan. According to the definition of "Arab American" used by the researcher John Zogby, the Chaldeans make up 25% of the Arab Americans in the four county region.[19] The publication "Arab, Chaldean, and Middle Eastern Children and Families in the Tri-County Area" of the From a Child's Perspective: Detroit Metropolitan Census 2000 Fact Sheets Series states that "Many Chaldeans believe they have a unique ethnic identity other than Arab and wish not to be considered part of the Arab population."[5] Because the U.S. Census as of 2000 does not distinguish Arab from Chaldean, Chaldean leaders use church memberships to determine the numbers of Chaldeans.[20] As of 2004 the Chaldeans in Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb counties make up 94% of the Chaldeans in the State of Michigan.[5]

History of the Chaldean Americans and Chaldeans[edit]

Many of the Chaldeans in Metro Detroit trace their origins to Tel Keppe (Tel Kaif), Iraq.[5] The first Chaldeans arrived in the early 1900s, taking jobs in the automobile industry.[5] In 1953 Faisal II of Iraq visited Detroit. At that time there were 300 Chaldean families in Detroit.[21]

The majority of the Chaldean population as it was in 2011 settled in Metro Detroit in the late 1960s. The Chaldeans settled the area because of job availability in the automobile industry, the presence of a Lebanese Maronite community that the Chaldeans worshiped with and could relate to, and a pre-existing Chaldean community in nearby Windsor, Ontario.[22] By and large Chaldeans initially worked in small family-owned stores.[23] The groups first arrived in Detroit decades before 1990 and started grocery stores and small shops.[24] As time passed, more and more Chaldeans moved to Detroit and found jobs at the existing Chaldean stores operated by their relatives. The stores became larger, becoming large convenience stores.[23] Once the socioeconomic standing of Chaldean groups improved, the group members moved to the suburbs. During the first wave they settled Oak Park and Southfield. During the second wave they moved to Birmingham, Bloomfield Hills, Farmington Hills, and West Bloomfield Township.[24]

Chaldean Center of America in Chaldean Town

Around 1979, after Jacob Yasso, the reverend of the Sacred Heart Chaldean Church (Aramaic: ܥܕܬܐ ܕܠܒܗ ܕܡܪܢ ܕܟܠܕܝ̈ܐʿēttāʾ d-lebbēh d-māran d-ḵaldāyēʾ), congratulated Saddam Hussein on becoming the President of Iraq, Saddam gave $250,000 to the Sacred Heart Chaldean Church.[25] In 1980 Saddam gave Yasso $200,000 after Yasso told Saddam his church had $170,000 in debts. WDIV-TV (Channel 4) wrote that the funds "reportedly helped build" the Chaldean Center of America, a building on Seven Mile Road adjacent to the church. The building houses offices of the church, an English-language school, and a Chaldean cultural museum.[26] In honor of Saddam's efforts, Yasso presented Saddam with the "Key to the city" procured by Mayor of Detroit Coleman Young.[25] Officials from the U.S. State Department stated that, at the time Saddam was giving funds to Chaldean and Assyrian churches and organizations in the United States, with $1.7 million given to Chaldean churches and organizations in Detroit. Yasmeen S. Hanoosh, the author of The Politics of Minority Chaldeans Between Iraq and America, wrote that the giveways were called donations but were interpreted as bribes.[27] State Department officials also stated that the Iraqi government was establishing spy networks in Chaldean communities at that time.[27] Reports from U.S., Assyrian, and Chaldean media stated that in the period around 1979-1980 the Iraqi government attempted to Arabize Chaldeans in the United States through liaisons in churches by either bribing or threatening and attempting to improve its image.[28]

As of 1990, there were about 50,000 to 60,000 Chaldeans in the metropolitan area.[24] Chaldeans moved to Southfield and West Bloomfield in the 1990s.[20] From 1990 to 2000 the population of Chaldeans increased in Oakland County by 10,903, in Macomb County by 7,579, and in Wayne County by 219. Macomb County had the largest percentage increase, at 426.5%.[5] By the 2000s Chaldeans began moving to Macomb County including Shelby Township, Sterling Heights, and Warren. In 2002 officials from Chaldean churches estimated that 4,200 Chaldeans live in those cities.[20]

By 2004 the Chaldean Cultural Center (Aramaic: ܩܢܛܪܘܢ ܝܪܬܘܬܢܝܐ ܟܠܕܝܐ[29] qenṭrōn yārtūṯānāyāʾ kaldāyāʾ), the United States's largest Chaldean cultural center, was located in West Bloomfield Township. That year, a new Chaldean church was being built in Shelby Township.[5] As of 2011 many Chaldeans are involved in the merchant trade.[22] St. George Chaldean Church, the first Chaldean church in Macomb County, was scheduled for a possible completion in 2004 and had a cost of $5 million. It is on a 9-acre (3.6 ha) site along Dequindre north of Hall Road.[20]

Geography of the Chaldean Americans and Chaldeans[edit]

As of 2004, of the Chaldeans in the tri-county area, 58% resided in Oakland County. As of 2000 2,629 Chaldeans resided in Wayne County.[5]

Areas with Chaldean residents as of 2001 include Chaldean Town in Detroit, Southfield, Oak Park, Troy, and West Bloomfield Township.[30] As of 2007 Chaldean residents of Chaldean Town, Detroit tend to be low income elderly people and recent immigrants.[31] By 2014, in addition to West Bloomfield, Farmington Hills and Sterling Heights had also received Chaldeans.[32] Chaldean immigrants, once they gain financial well-being, move to suburbs in Metro Detroit, such as Oak Park, Southfield, Troy, and West Bloomfield.[33] The Chaldean Federation of America, an umbrella organization for most area Chaldean groups, had its offices in Southfield. As of that year, the largest Chaldean church in terms of the number of congregants resided in Southfield. The city also had the area's sole Chaldean retirement home, the Chaldean social club Southfield Manor, and a popular Chaldean restaurant named La Fendi.[34]

As of circa the 1950s Highland Park and the Woodward Avenue/7 Mile area had concentrations of Chaldeans. The community's focal point later shifted to Southfield.[32]

Economy of the Chaldean Americans and Chaldeans[edit]

The Chaldeans own almost all of Detroit's grocery stores, and the Chaldeans traditionally worked in groceries.[35] Most of the customers of these stores are African-Americans. There has been resentment against Chaldean businesses because, as family-owned operations many do not hire black people, and black people perceive that overcharging occurs at the stores.[36] According to the Associated Food Dealers of Michigan (AFD),[37] larger Chaldean stores have black employees as well as Chaldean employees.[36] Natalie Jill Smith, author of "Ethnicity, Reciprocity, Reputation and Punishment: An Ethnoexperimental Study of Cooperation among the Chaldeans and Hmong of Detroit (Michigan)", stated that she "met few grocers who employed Blacks" and that employees unrelated to the owning family are more likely to be Chaldean or non-Chaldean Whites.[37] Violence has occurred at the stores, and business owners have installed bulletproof glass and obtained firearms to protect themselves. As of 2001, several Chaldean business employees and owners die in violent incidents.[36]

In 1962, 120 grocery stores were operated by Chaldeans, and over half of Chaldean households were supported by proceeds from the grocery business.[35] Many White business owners left Detroit after the 1967 Detroit riot, so Chaldeans took over their businesses.[38] In 1972, there were 278 grocery stores in Detroit owned by Chaldeans. In the mid-1990s, Chaldeans owned 1,500 grocery stores in Detroit.[35] As of circa 2014, of the 84 supermarkets in Detroit, 75 are owned by Chaldeans.[39]

Natalie Jill Smith stated that by 2001 younger Chaldeans are starting professional careers and attending universities, and therefore are not necessarily entering the family businesses.[40]

Culture of the Chaldean Americans and Chaldeans[edit]

Natalie Jill Smith wrote that family ties are important even to younger Chaldeans who are more Americanized.[35]

Institutions of the Chaldean Americans and Chaldeans[edit]

In Metro Detroit as of 2007 there are five Chaldean churches, with one in Chaldean Town and one each in Oak Park, Southfield, Troy, and West Bloomfield Township.[33]

The Chaldean Federation of America (CFA) oversees several Detroit-area Chaldean clubs while the Chaldean-Iraqi Association of Michigan (CIAM) oversees the Shenandoah Country Club and Southfield Manor, two Chaldean social clubs. The Chaldeans have a group participation rate above the American average.[41]

The Community Education Center, a government-funded center owned by Chaldeans,[42] is located on Woodward Avenue in Chaldean Town, near Seven Mile. Asaad Yousif Kalasho founded the center.[43] The teachers and most of the students are Chaldean. It provides free education.[42]

One group, Chaldean Americans Reaching and Encouraging (CARE), takes efforts to improve the Chaldean community such as doing food drives. As of 2001 most of the members are in their early 20s.[42]

The Chaldean Community Foundation is headquartered in Sterling Heights.[18]

Geography[edit]

As of 2014 Dearborn is majority Arab, with many Arab businesses and residents. As of the same year about 25% of the population of Hamtramck is Arab. Yemenis are the majority of that city's Arabs.[44]

By 2014 Arab Americans had been moving into Dearborn Heights, with the north end having more Arabs compared to the south end. Many Arab businesses in Dearborn established branch operations in Dearborn Heights. In 2014 the Dearborn Heights director of community and economic development, Ron Amen, stated that Arabs are about 25% of the city's population.[32] As of 2014 many Arabs have been moving to Macomb County, Oakland County, and Canton in Wayne County.[44]

Lebanese American Christians had settled in several areas of Metro Detroit, including the Grosse Pointes. Many of them do not consider themselves as Arab. By 2014 many Lebanese American Christians had assimilated into American culture.[44]

Politics[edit]

As of 2014 Susan Dabaja, the city council president of Dearborn, is a Muslim Arab-American and the majority of the members of the council are Arab.[44]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2014% 17% of the immigrants in the Global Detroit studies that are under the Arab category are Chaldean.[18]

Global Detroit stated that there are 36,000 immigrants from Iraq in Macomb, Oakland, Wayne, and Washtenaw counties. This makes the Iraqis the second-largest immigrant group in Metro Detroit. There are over 16,000 persons of Iraqi origins in Oakland County, 14,198 persons of Iraqi origins in Macomb County, and 5,400 persons of Iraqi origins in Wayne County. The Chaldeans are most of the Iraqis in both Oakland and Macomb counties. The Iraqis are the second largest immigrant group in Oakland County. Most Iraqis in Wayne County live in Dearborn and other Arab communities.[18]

As of 2014, Global Detroit stated that 17,800 persons with Lebanese ancestry live in Metro Detroit, with 14,625 of them in Wayne County. Of the immigrant groups, the Lebanese are the sixth-largest.[18]

Economy[edit]

Al-Houda Supermarket (أسواق و ملحمة الهدى) in Dearborn

As of 2000 most Arab immigrants enter the service economy or work in small, family-operated stores. In Metro Detroit, in 1994 there were over 5,000 Arab-owned businesses.[12]

The "Arab American Economic Contribution Study: Gauging the economic contributions that persons of Arab ancestry have on Southeast Michigan’s Economy" of 2007 wrote that Arab Americans are over-represented in food services industry, accommodations, and other services such as repair services and personal services. These industries pay less than other industries.[45] The report stated that Arab Americans held about 47,924 to 58,515 jobs in Wayne, Macomb, Oakland, and Washtenaw counties. It also concluded that between 99,494 and 141,541 jobs in the four county region are a part of employment associated with Arab American economic activity, making up 4.0 to 5.7% of the jobs in that region.[46]

The Chaldean American Chamber of Commerce stated in 2012 that over 200 Chaldean business owners in Metro Detroit were murdered from the 1970s to 2012. The president of the chamber of commerce and the Chaldean Community Foundation, Martin Manna, stated that year, "We've seen acceleration, unfortunately, (with) four incidents in just a year."[47] The executive director of the American Arab Chamber of Commerce, Fay Beydoun, stated that year that "We don’t have an exact number" of the Arab businesspeople who were murdered "but we are aware of many from our community who have been killed."[39]

Media[edit]

The Arab American News is published in Dearborn.

The Chaldean News is published in Southfield.[48]

Diplomatic missions[edit]

The Consulate of Iraq in Detroit is in Southfield.[49] The Consulate-General of Lebanon in Detroit is located in Suite 560 in the New Center One Building in New Center, Detroit.[50][51]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Hanoosh, Yasmeen H. The Politics of Minority Chaldeans Between Iraq and America. ProQuest, 2008. ISBN 0549984755, 9780549984757.
  • Henrich, Natalie and Joseph Henrich. Why Humans Cooperate : A Cultural and Evolutionary Explanation: A Cultural and Evolutionary Explanation. Oxford University Press, May 30, 2007. ISBN 0198041179, 9780198041177.
  • Howell, Sally. "Competing for Muslims: New Strategies for Urban Renewal in Detroit". Located in: Shryock, Andrew (editor). Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend. Indiana University Press, June 30, 2010. ISBN 0253004543, 9780253004543.
  • Mayer, Albert. Ethnic groups in Detroit, 1951. Wayne University Department of Sociology and Anthropology, 1951.
  • Smith, Natalie Jill. "Ethnicity, Reciprocity, Reputation and Punishment: An Ethnoexperimental Study of Cooperation among the Chaldeans and Hmong of Detroit (Michigan)" (PhD dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles, 2001. UMI Number: 3024065.
  • Shryock, Andrew and Nabeel Abraham. "On Margins and Mainstreams." in: Abraham, Nabeel and Andrew Shryock (editors). Arab Detroit: From Margin to Mainstream. Wayne State University Press, 2000. ISBN 0814328121, 9780814328125.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Arab, Chaldean, and Middle Eastern Children and Families in the Tri-County Area." (Archive) From a Child's Perspective: Detroit Metropolitan Census 2000 Fact Sheets Series. Wayne State University. Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2004. p. 1/32. Retrieved on November 8, 2013.
  2. ^ Karoub, Jeff. "Detroit Expects Half of Iraqi Refugees". Philadelphia: WPVI-TV. Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 5, 2013. Retrieved May 5, 2013. Southeastern Michigan has about 300,000 people who trace their roots to the Middle East. 
  3. ^ Miyares, Ines M. & Airriess, Christopher A. (2007). Contemporary Ethnic Geographies in America. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 320. ISBN 0-7425-3772-2. 
  4. ^ a b Ghosh, Bobby. "Arab-Americans: Detroit's Unlikely Saviors." TIME. Saturday November 13, 2010. Retrieved on November 8, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Arab, Chaldean, and Middle Eastern Children and Families in the Tri-County Area." (Archive) From a Child's Perspective: Detroit Metropolitan Census 2000 Fact Sheets Series. Wayne State University. Volume 4, Issue 2, February 2004. p. 2/32. Retrieved on November 8, 2013.
  6. ^ "Metro Iraqis hail 'dream come true'." The Detroit News. December 15, 2003. Retrieved on November 9, 2013. ID: det17886465. "Metro Detroit's Iraqi community has strongly supported the war,[...]"
  7. ^ "Arab American Economic Contribution Study: Gauging the economic contributions that persons of Arab ancestry have on Southeast Michigan’s Economy." (Archive) Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. Submitted to the League for Economic Empowerment on March 1, 2007. p. 4. Retrieved on November 11, 2013.
  8. ^ a b Shryock and Abraham, p. 18.
  9. ^ a b "Arab American Economic Contribution Study: Gauging the economic contributions that persons of Arab ancestry have on Southeast Michigan’s Economy." (Archive) Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. Submitted to the League for Economic Empowerment on March 1, 2007. p. 7. Retrieved on November 11, 2013.
  10. ^ a b "Metro Muslims, Arabs overcome 9/11 tensions by forging ties." (Archive) Wayne State University. September 8, 2011. Retrieved on November 11, 2013.
  11. ^ Almasmari, Hakim. "Hamtramck, Michigan: A Yemeni oasis." (Archive) Yemen Observer. November 21, 2006. Retrieved on September 9, 2013.
  12. ^ a b c d Shryock and Abraham, p. 19.
  13. ^ Shryock and Abraham, p. 18-19.
  14. ^ Mayer, p. 27. "Data on the arrival of the first people from Iraq[...]"
  15. ^ Mayer, p. 73. "There are about 50,000 people of Syrian and Lebanese descent in Detroit,[...]"
  16. ^ Mayer, p. 27. "There are approximately 4,000 to 5,000 persons from Iraq, Yemen, Arabia and other Middle Eastern countries living in Detroit and Dear-[...]"
  17. ^ Howell, p. 210.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i "India leads all nations in sending people to Detroit" (Archive). Crain's Detroit Business. June 1, 2014. Updated June 6, 2014. Retrieved on September 29, 2014.
  19. ^ "Arab American Economic Contribution Study: Gauging the economic contributions that persons of Arab ancestry have on Southeast Michigan’s Economy." (Archive) Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. Submitted to the League for Economic Empowerment on March 1, 2007. p. 9. Retrieved on November 11, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d Owen, Mary. "CHALDEAN CHURCH IS STANDING ROOM ONLY." (Archive) Detroit Free Press at Zinda Magazine. December 19, 2002. Retrieved on November 17, 2013.
  21. ^ Hanoosh, p. 195.
  22. ^ a b "Chaldeans In Metro Detroit." (Archive) Detroit 20-20. WXYZ-TV (ABC 7), Scripps TV Station Group, The E.W. Scripps Co. August 11, 2011. Retrieved on September 19, 2013.
  23. ^ a b Henrich and Henrich, p. 81.
  24. ^ a b c Levin, Doron P. "WEST BLOOMFIELD JOURNAL; Jews and Ethnic Iraqis: A Neighborhood's Story." The New York Times. December 17, 1990. Retrieved on September 11, 2013.
  25. ^ a b "Saddam Hussein Helped Detroit Church, Got Key to City." (Archive) Associated Press at Fox News. March 27, 2003. Retrieved on November 17, 2013.
  26. ^ "Saddam Reportedly Given Key To Detroit Iraq President Funded Local Chaldean Church In 1980." (Archive) WDIV-TV (Channel 4, Click on Detroit). March 26, 2003. Retrieved on November 16, 2013.
  27. ^ a b Hanoosh, p. 196.
  28. ^ Hanoosh, p. 195-196.
  29. ^ "top2.jpg." (Archive) Chaldean Cultural Center. Retrieved on November 11, 2013.
  30. ^ Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 65.
  31. ^ Henrich and Henrich, p. 81-82.
  32. ^ a b c Hijazi, Samer. "Dearborn Heights’ Arabs strengthen businesses, increase property values." Arab American News. Friday May 30, 2014. Retrieved on December 7, 2014.
  33. ^ a b Henrich and Henrich, p. 82.
  34. ^ Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 41.
  35. ^ a b c d Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 69.
  36. ^ a b c Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 70.
  37. ^ a b Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 77.
  38. ^ Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 69-70.
  39. ^ a b Dado, Natasha. "Remembering Arabs and Chaldeans who were killed working to support their families" (Archive). The Arab American News. Friday March 14, 2014. Retrieved on June 30, 2014.
  40. ^ Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 70-71.
  41. ^ Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 74.
  42. ^ a b c Smith, Natalie Jill, p. 44.
  43. ^ "Iraqi expatriate sees war's toll." The Detroit News. September 1, 2000. ID: det8665408. Retrieved on November 16, 2013. "Asaad Yousif Kalasho is founder and president of the Community Educational Center on Woodward near Seven Mile in Chaldean Town."
  44. ^ a b c d Warikoo, Niraj. "A quarter million Michiganders have roots in Middle East." Detroit Free Press. October 24, 2014. Retrieved on December 7, 2014.
  45. ^ "Arab American Economic Contribution Study: Gauging the economic contributions that persons of Arab ancestry have on Southeast Michigan’s Economy." (Archive) Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. Submitted to the League for Economic Empowerment on March 1, 2007. p. 14. Retrieved on November 11, 2013.
  46. ^ "Arab American Economic Contribution Study: Gauging the economic contributions that persons of Arab ancestry have on Southeast Michigan’s Economy." (Archive) Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies. Submitted to the League for Economic Empowerment on March 1, 2007. p. 18. Retrieved on November 11, 2013.
  47. ^ Welch, Sherri. "Recent slaying highlights store owners' battle against crime." Crain's Detroit Business. May 6, 2012. Retrieved on July 1, 2014.
  48. ^ "Contact." Chaldean News. Retrieved on April 14, 2014. "29850 Northwestern Hwy. Southfield, MI 48034"
  49. ^ "CONSULAR SERVICES." Embassy of Iraq in Washington, DC. Retrieved on November 22, 2010.
  50. ^ Home page. Consulate-General of Lebanon in Detroit. Retrieved on February 1, 2009.
  51. ^ "Contact Us." Consulate-General of Lebanon in Detroit. January 10, 2006. Retrieved on November 7, 2009.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]