History of video game consoles (fifth generation)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Video game history icon.svg
Part of a series on:
History of video games

The fifth-generation era (also known as the 32-bit era, the 64-bit era and the 3D era) refers to computer and video games, video game consoles and video game handhelds from approximately 1993 to 2001.[1] For home consoles, the best-selling console was the PlayStation by a wide margin, followed by the Nintendo 64 and then the Sega Saturn. For handhelds, this era was characterized by significant fragmentation, because the first handheld of the generation, the Sega Nomad, had a lifespan of just two years, and the Virtual Boy had a lifespan of less than one. Both were discontinued before the other handhelds made their debut. Nintendo's Game Boy Color was the winner in handhelds by a large margin. There were also two updated versions of the original Game Boy: Game Boy Light (Japan only) and Game Boy Pocket.

The era is known for its pivotal role in the video game industry's leap from 2D computer graphics to 3D computer graphics, as well as the shift from home consoles using ROM cartridges to optical discs. The development of the Internet also made it possible to store and download tape and ROM images of older games, eventually leading 7th generation consoles (such as the Xbox 360, Wii, PlayStation 3, PlayStation Portable, and Nintendo DSi) to make many older games available for purchase or download.

Some features that distinguished fifth generation consoles from fourth generation consoles include:


Transition to 3D[edit]

The 32-bit/64-bit era is most noted for the rise of fully 3D polygon games. While there were games prior that had used three-dimensional polygon environments, such as Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter in the arcades and Star Fox on the SNES, it was in this era that many game designers began to move traditionally 2D and pseudo-3D genres into 3D on video game consoles. Early efforts from then-industry leaders Sega and Nintendo saw the introduction of the Sega 32X and Super FX which provided rudimentary 3D capabilities to the 16-bit Mega Drive/Genesis and SNES. Prime examples of this trend include Virtua Fighter and Tomb Raider (later ported to the PlayStation) on the Saturn, Tekken and Crash Bandicoot on the PlayStation, and Super Mario 64 on the N64. Their 3D environments were widely marketed and they steered the industry's focus away from side-scrolling and rail-style titles, as well as opening doors to more complex games and genres. 3D became the main focus in this era as well as a slow decline of cartridges in favor of CDs, due to the ability to produce games less expensively and the media's high storage capabilities.

CD vs cartridge[edit]

See also: ROM cartridge

After allowing Sony to develop a CD-based prototype console for them and a similar failed partnership with Philips,[2] Nintendo decided to make the Nintendo 64 a cartridge-based system like its predecessors. Publicly, Nintendo defended this decision on the grounds that it would give games shorter load times than a compact disc (and would decrease piracy).[citation needed] However, it also had the dubious benefit of allowing Nintendo to charge higher licensing fees, as cartridge production was considerably more expensive than CD production. Many third-party developers like EA Sports viewed this as an underhanded attempt to raise more money for Nintendo and many of them became more reluctant to release games on the N64.[citation needed]

Nintendo's decision to use a cartridge based system sparked a small scale war amongst gamers as to which was better. The chief advantages of the CD-ROM format were (1)larger storage capacity, allowing for a much greater amount of game content, and (2)considerably lower manufacturing costs, making them considerably more profitable for game publishers. Its disadvantages compared to cartridge were (1)considerable load times, (2)their inability to load data "on the fly", making them reliant on the console RAM, and (3)the greater manufacturing costs of CD-ROM drives compared to cartridge slots, resulting in generally higher retail prices for CD-based consoles.[3] A Nintendo magazine ad placed a Space Shuttle (cartridge) next to a snail (a CD) and dared consumers to decide "which one was better".[citation needed]

Almost every other contemporary system used the new CD-ROM technology (the Nintendo 64 was the last major home video game console to use cartridges). Consequent to the storage and cost advantages of the CD-ROM format, many game developers shifted their support away from the Nintendo 64 to the PlayStation. One of the most influential game franchises to change consoles during this era was the Final Fantasy series, beginning with Final Fantasy VII, which was originally being developed for the N64 but due to storage capacity issues was shifted to and released on the PlayStation;[citation needed] prior Final Fantasy games had all been published on Nintendo consoles – either the Nintendo Entertainment System or Super Nintendo, with the only other entries being on computers like the MSX.

Overview of the fifth generation consoles[edit]

There was much confusion over which console was superior to the others.[citation needed] Adding to the uncertainty was the fact that there were more competing consoles in this era than at any other time since the North American video game crash of 1983, with video game magazines frequently predicting a second crash due to the similar deluge of new consoles.[4] Also, console makers routinely boasted theoretical maximum limits of each system's 3D polygon rendering without accounting for real world in-game performance.[citation needed]

The FM Towns Marty is considered the world's first 32-bit console (predating the Amiga CD32 and 3DO), being released in 1991 by Japanese electronic company Fujitsu. Never released outside of Japan, it was largely marketed as a console version of the FM Towns home computer, being compatible with games developed for the FM Towns. It failed to make an impact in the marketplace due to its expense relative to other consoles and inability to compete with home computers.[5] While using a 32-bit word length, however, the Intel 80386SX CPU only supports 16-bit bus addressing (similar to the Motorola 68000 in 1985's Amiga 1000) and a maximum of 24-bit RAM addressing.

Despite massive third party support and an unprecedented amount of hype for a first-time entrant into the industry, the 3DO Interactive Multiplayer's $700 price tag hindered its success,[6] selling 2 million units world wide.

The Amiga CD32 was sold in Europe, Australia and Canada, but never in the United States due to Commodore's bankruptcy.[7]

The Sega 32X, an add-on console for the Mega Drive/Genesis and Sega CD, was launched a short time apart from the Sega Saturn. The Sega Neptune was also announced as a standalone version of the 32X/CD, but ultimately canceled. Sega failed to deliver a steady flow of games for the 32X platform. More importantly, with the Saturn and PlayStation already on the horizon, most gamers preferred to save up their money rather than spend it on a console that was doomed to become obsolete in just a few months.[8]

The Sega Saturn was released as Sega's entry into the 32-bit console market.[2] It sold 9.5[6] million units worldwide. It became Sega's most successful console in Japan, but it was not the overseas commercial success that the Master System and Mega Drive had been and lagged in third place overall.

The Atari Jaguar was released in 1993 as the world's first 64-bit system. However, sales at launch were well below the incumbent fourth generation consoles, and a small games library rooted in a shortage of third party support made it impossible for the Jaguar to catch up, selling below 300,000 units. The system's 64-bit nature was also questioned by many. The 32-bit Atari Panther, set to be released in 1991, was canceled due to unexpectedly rapid progress in developing the Jaguar.[9]

The Atari Jaguar CD, an add-on console for the Jaguar, was released in 1995. It was produced in limited quantities due to the low install base of the system.[citation needed]

The PlayStation was the most successful console of this generation, with attention given by 3rd party developers enabling it to achieve market dominance, becoming the first home console to ship 100 million units worldwide.

Because of many delays in the release of the Nintendo 64, in 1995 Nintendo released the Virtual Boy, a supposedly portable system capable of displaying true 3D graphics, albeit in monochromatic red and black. However, in practice it is not functionally portable, though it was at first marketed as such, and because of the nature of its graphical capabilities, the system can cause headaches and eye strain. It was discontinued within a year, with less than 25 games ever released for it.

The Nintendo 64, originally announced as the "Ultra 64", was released in 1996. The system's delays and use of the cartridge format while all of its competitors used CDs made it an unpopular platform among third party developers. However, a number of wildly popular 1st party titles allowed the Nintendo 64 to maintain strong sales in the United States, though it still remained a distant second to the PlayStation.

NEC, creator of the TurboGrafx-16, TurboDuo, Coregrafx, and SuperGrafx, also entered the market with the PC-FX in 1994. The system had a 32-bit processor, 16-bit stereo sound, a 16,777,000 color palette and featured the highest quality full motion video of any console on the market at the time.[citation needed] The PC-FX broke away from traditional console design by being a tower system that allowed for numerous expansion points including a connection for NEC's PC-9800 series of computers. Despite its impressive specs, it was marketed as the ultimate side-scrolling console and could not match the sales of the 3D systems currently on the market. They had also lost developer support by their past partners, including Hudson Soft, who contributed only one game.

Results of the fifth generation[edit]

After the dust settled in the fifth generation console wars, several companies saw their outlooks change drastically. Atari, which was not able to recover its losses, ended up being purchased by JT Storage and stopped making game hardware until the brand was revived for the Atari Flashback in 2004. Sega's loss of consumer confidence (coupled with its previous console failures) along with their financial difficulties, set the company up for a similar fate in the next round of console wars.

The Sega Saturn, although the most technically advanced console of the generation,[citation needed] ironically suffered from poor marketing and comparatively limited third-party support outside of Japan.[2] Sega's decision to use dual processors was roundly criticized, as this made difficult to efficiently develop for the console.[citation needed] Regardless of their reasons for including it, only Sega's first-party developers were ever able to use the second CPU effectively.[verification needed] The Saturn was far more difficult than the PlayStation to program for.[citation needed]

Sega was also hurt by a surprise four-month-early U.S. launch of their console. Third party developers, who had been planning for the originally scheduled launch, could not provide launch titles and were angered by the move. Retailers were caught unprepared, resulting in distribution problems. Some retailers, such as the now defunct KB Toys, were so furious that they refused to stock the Saturn thereafter.[10]

Due to numerous delays, the Nintendo 64 was released one year later than its competitors. By the time it was finally launched in 1996, Sony had already established its dominance, the Sega Saturn was starting to struggle, and the Atari Jaguar and Panasonic 3DO were about to be discontinued and out of the competition due to financial losses.[citation needed] Its use of cartridge media rather than compact discs alienated some developers and publishers due to the space limits, the relatively high cost involved, and a considerably longer production time.[citation needed] In addition, the initially high suggested retail price of the console may have driven potential customers away, and some early adopters of the system who had paid the initial cost may have been angered by Nintendo's decision to reduce the cost of the system US$50 six months after its release.[citation needed] However, the Nintendo 64 was popular in North America, mostly the U.S, selling 20.63 million units in the region (more than half of its worldwide sales of 32.93 million units), and is home to highly successful games such as The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time, Super Mario 64, GoldenEye 007, Banjo-Kazooie, and Super Smash Bros.. Still, while the Nintendo 64 sold far more units than the Sega Saturn, Atari Jaguar, and Panasonic/Goldstar/Sanyo 3DO, it failed to surpass the PlayStation, which dominated the market. Later on, Nintendo released an add-on for their console. The add-on, titled Nintendo 64 Disk Drive, or simply 64DD, was announced in 1995, 4 years before the release. Nintendo was nearing the end of its lifespan at the release, so a limited number of games were released, about 9, and it was a failure, mainly for rarely appearing on store shelves. It was never released in America due to the failure, and has since become more of a collector's piece. Prices go extremely high on eBay, and other auction sites, so they are somewhat difficult to obtain.

By 1997, 40% to 60% of American homes played on video game consoles. 30% to 40% of these homes owned a console, while an additional 10% to 20% rented or shared a console.[11]

Home systems[edit]

Technical Comparison[12]

Name 3DO Interactive Multiplayer Atari Jaguar Sega Saturn PlayStation Nintendo 64
Manufacturer 3DO Company, Panasonic, Sanyo, GoldStar Atari Sega Sony Computer Entertainment Nintendo





Launch price (USD) US$699.99 (equivalent to $1143 in 2015)[6] US$249.99 (equivalent to $408.00 in 2015) US$399.99 (equivalent to $619.00 in 2015)[6] US$299.99 (equivalent to $464.00 in 2015) US$199.99 (equivalent to $301.00 in 2015)
Release date NA 19931004October 4, 1993
JP 19940207February 7, 1994
EU 19940328March 28, 1994
NA 19931115November 15, 1993
EU 19940627June 27, 1994
JP 19941121November 21, 1994
  • JP November 22, 1994
  • NA May 11, 1995
  • EU July 8, 1995
  • JP December 3, 1994
  • NA September 9, 1995
  • EU September 29, 1995
  • AUS November 15, 1995
  • JP June 23, 1996
  • NA September 29, 1996
  • EU March 1, 1997
  • AUS March 1, 1997
Media CD-ROM Cartridge, CD-ROM (via add-on)
  • CD-ROM
  • Cartridge (limited, Japan only)
Best-selling game N/A Alien vs Predator 250,000 copies sold Virtua Fighter 2, 1.7 million in Japan[13] Gran Turismo, 10.85 million shipped (as of April 30, 2008)[14][15] Super Mario 64, 11.62 million (as of May 21, 2003)[16][17]
CPU ARM60 (32‑bit RISC) @ 12.5 MHz (10 MIPS)
  • "Tom" (32‑bit RISC) @ 26.6 MHz
  • "Jerry" (32‑bit RISC) @ 26.6 MHz
  • Motorola 68000 (16/32‑bit CISC) @ 13.3 MHz (2.3275 MIPS[18])
LSI LR333x0 (R3000A compatible 32‑bit RISC) @ 33.8688 MHz (30 MIPS) NEC VR4300 (64‑bit RISC) @ 93.75 MHz (125 MIPS)[22]
GPU 2× accelerated video co-processors
  • "Tom" chip: GPU, Object Processor, Blitter
  • "Jerry" chip: DSP
  • Sega VDP1 (32‑bit Video Display Processor) @ 28.63 MHz (sprites, textures, polygons)[23]
  • Sega VDP2 (32‑bit Video Display Processor) @ 28.63 MHz (backgrounds, scrolling)[24]
Reality Co-Processor (64‑bit MIPS R4000 based, 128‑bit vector register processor) @ 62.5 MHz
Sound chip(s) Custom 20‑bit DSP "Jerry" chip: DSP, 2× DAC (converts digital data to analog signals) Sony SPU (Sound Processing Unit) Reality Signal Processor (DSP)
Memory 3 MB RAM 2 MB FPM DRAM (4× 512 KB chips) 5152 KB (4640 KB RAM, 512 KB ROM)[19] 3587 KB RAM
  • 2 MB DRAM
  • 1026 KB VRAM (1 MB frame buffer, 2 KB texture cache, 64 bytes FIFO buffer)
  • 512 KB sound RAM
  • 1 KB non-associative SRAM data cache
4 MB RDRAM (8 MB with Expansion Pak)
  • Resolution: 320×220 to 360×220 (progressive), 320×440 to 720×440 (interlaced)[29]
  • Colors: 79,200 (360×220) on screen, out of 16,777,216 (24‑bit) palette
  • Polygons: 10,000/sec,[30] flat shading, Gouraud shading support
  • Sprites/textures: 1,000/frame[31] (blitter objects[29]), scaling, rotation, texture mapping
  • Background: 1 bitmap plane
  • Resolution: 256×224 to 640×240 (progressive), 256×448 to 640×480 (interlaced)
  • Colors: 153,600 (640×240) on screen, out of 16,777,216 (24‑bit) palette
  • Polygons: 90,000/sec (textured, lighting, Gouraud shading)[33] to 360,000/sec[35] (flat shading)
  • Sprites/textures: 4,000/frame[36] (bitmap objects[25]), scaling, rotation, texture mapping
  • Background: 1 bitmap plane
Audio Stereo audio, with: Stereo audio, with: Stereo audio, with:[27]
  • 32 sound channels on SCSP
  • FM synthesis on all 32 SCSP channels
  • 16‑bit PCM audio with 44.1 kHz sampling rate on all 32 SCSP channels
  • 1 streaming CD-DA channel (16‑bit PCM, 44.1 kHz)
Stereo audio, with:
  • 24 ADPCM channels on SPU
  • 16‑bit audio and 44.1 kHz sampling rate on all 24 ADPCM channels
  • 1 streaming CD-DA channel (16‑bit PCM, 44.1 kHz)
Stereo audio, with:
  • Variable number of channels (up to 100 if all system resources are devoted to audio)
  • Capable of playing back different types of audio (including PCM, MP3, MIDI and tracker music)
  • 16‑bit audio and 44.1 kHz sampling rate on all channels
Accessories (retail)
  • Jaguar TeamTap
  • Jaguar Pro Controller
  • Jaguar MemoryTrack Cartridge
  • Jaguar JagLink Interface

Other consoles[edit]

Mass market
These consoles were created for the mass market, like the 5 consoles listed above. These, however, are less notable, never saw a worldwide release, and/or have sold particularly poorly, and are therefore listed as 'Other'.
Non-mass-market systems

Add-ons and remakes[edit]

Worldwide sales standings[edit]

Console Units sold
PlayStation 102.49 million shipped (74.34 million PlayStation, 28.15 million PSone) (as of March 31, 2005)[39]
Nintendo 64 32.93 million (as of March 31, 2005)[40]
Sega Saturn 9.5 million[6]
3DO 2 million (as of May 4, 2007)[6]
Atari Jaguar 250,000 (as of May 15, 2007)[41]
Amiga CD32 100,000
PC-FX <100,000
FM Towns Marty 45,000 (as of December 31, 1993)
Apple Bandai Pippin 42,000 (as of May 4, 2007)[42]

From 1996 to 1999 (when the PlayStation, N64 and Saturn were the major 5th-generation consoles still on the market) Sony managed a 47% market share of the worldwide market, followed by Nintendo with 28% (with a percentage of that figure from the 16‑bit SNES), while Sega was third with 23% (with a percentage of that from the Dreamcast).[43]

Production of the Sega Saturn was discontinued in 1999. Its demise being accelerated by rumors that work on its successor was underway; these rumors hurt the systems' sales in the west as early as 1997. The N64 was succeeded by the GameCube in 2001, but continued its production until 2004; however, PlayStation production was not ceased as it was redesigned as the PSone, further extending the life of the console around the release of the follow-up PlayStation 2. The PlayStation console production was discontinued in 2006, shortly after the Xbox 360 was released.

Handheld systems[edit]


Milestone titles[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "System List". GameFAQs. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  2. ^ a b c Christopher Dring, 2013-07-11, A Tale of Two E3s - Xbox vs Sony vs Sega, MCV
  3. ^ "The Format of the Future: CD-ROM or Cartridge?". GamePro (59) (IDG). June 1994. p. 8. 
  4. ^ Carpenter, Danyon (July 1994). "The Flood Waters Are Rising...". Electronic Gaming Monthly (60) (EGM Media, LLC). p. 6. 
  5. ^ "FM Towns Marty/FM Towns Marty 2 Console Information". Consoledatabase.com. Archived from the original on 2005-05-07. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Blake Snow (2007-05-04). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro.com. p. 1. Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  7. ^ Perelman, M: "Steal This Idea", page 60. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
  8. ^ "32X/Project Mars: Anatomy of a Failure". goodcowfilms.com. Retrieved 2007-06-22. 
  9. ^ Atari Jaguar History, AtariAge.
  10. ^ Helgeson, Matt. "Top 10 Embarrassing E3 Moments", Game Informer(208): 40–41.
  11. ^ http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:2W7jV8xhO_QJ:www.economics.rpi.edu/public_html/ruiz/EGDFall2013/readings/From%2520Barbie%2520to%2520Mortal%2520Combat.doc
  12. ^ http://www.angelfire.com/electronic2/mariotan/
  13. ^ "Japan Platinum Game Chart". The Magic Box. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  14. ^ "Gran Turismo Series Shipment Exceeds 50 Million Units Worldwide" (Press release). Sony Computer Entertainment. 2008-05-09. Archived from the original on 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  15. ^ ""Gran Turismo" Series Software Title List". Polyphony Digital. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03. 
  16. ^ "Mario sales data". GameCubicle.com. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  17. ^ "All Time Top 20 Best Selling Games". 2003-05-21. Archived from the original on 2006-02-21. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  18. ^ a b http://www.drolez.com/retro/
  19. ^ a b http://www.segatech.com/technical/saturnspecs/
  20. ^ http://www.dcshooters.co.uk/sega/saturn/saturn.php
  21. ^ "Saturn Overview Manual". Sega of America. 1994-06-06. Retrieved 2014-04-25. 
  22. ^ http://www.futuretech.blinkenlights.nl/sgi2.html
  23. ^ a b http://koti.kapsi.fi/~antime/sega/files/ST-013-R3-061694.pdf
  24. ^ a b http://koti.kapsi.fi/~antime/sega/files/ST-058-R2-060194.pdf
  25. ^ a b http://psx.rules.org/gpu.txt
  26. ^ a b http://www.consoledatabase.com/faq/segasaturn/segasaturnfaq.txt
  27. ^ a b http://koti.kapsi.fi/~antime/sega/files/ST-077-R2-052594.pdf
  28. ^ http://www.gamepilgrimage.com/NFSComp.htm
  29. ^ a b http://www.hillsoftware.com/files/atari/jaguar/jag_v8.pdf
  30. ^ http://www.ataritimes.com/index.php?page=Atari%20Jaguar
  31. ^ https://kris-genthe.squarespace.com/config
  32. ^ a b http://www.system16.com/hardware.php?id=711
  33. ^ a b http://www.gamepilgrimage.com/SATPScompare.htm
  34. ^ http://www.sega-saturn.com/saturn/other/satspecs.htm
  35. ^ http://www.8-bitcentral.com/images/sony/playstation/boxBack.jpg
  36. ^ https://archive.org/stream/nextgen-issue-001/Next_Generation_Issue_001_January_1995#page/n47/mode/2up/
  37. ^ http://n64.icequake.net/mirror/www.white-tower.demon.co.uk/n64/
  38. ^ "Atari Jaguar CD system pounces onto multimedia marketplace". Business Wire. September 21, 1995. Retrieved 2011-05-07. 
  39. ^ "PlayStation Cumulative Production Shipments of Hardware". Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. Archived from the original on 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  40. ^ "05 Nintendo Annual Report - Nintendo Co., Ltd." (PDF). Nintendo Co., Ltd. 2005-05-26. p. 33. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  41. ^ Greg Orlando (2007-05-15). "Console Portraits: A 40-Year Pictorial History of Gaming". Wired News. Condé Nast Publications. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  42. ^ a b Blake Snow (2007-05-04). "The 10 Worst-Selling Consoles of All Time". GamePro.com. p. 2. Archived from the original on 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2007-11-25. 
  43. ^ "New Versatility in Video Game Consoles Helps Boost Sales". In-Stat (NPD Group). January 23, 2001. Archived from the original on 2005-02-19. Retrieved 31 January 2012. 
  44. ^ Retro Gamer staff. "Retroinspection: Sega Nomad". Retro Gamer (Imagine Publishing) (69): 46–53. 
  45. ^ "Nintendo Adds Color to Its "Rainbow" of Products With New Game Boy Color Titles". Business Wire. October 12, 1998. Retrieved 2011-05-07. 
  46. ^ Varanini, Giancarlo. "GameSpot Greatest Games of All Time: Castlevania: Symphony of the Night". GameSpot.com. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  47. ^ "Top 100 games of All Time (2005)". ign.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  48. ^ a b c d Cork, Jeff (2009-11-16). "Game Informer's Top 100 Games of All Time (Circa Issue 100)". Game Informer. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  49. ^ Kent, Steven L. (2006-10-09). "SOMETIMES THE BEST". Sad Sam's Place. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  50. ^ http://www.gamerankings.com/saturn/198258-panzer-dragoon-saga/index.html
  51. ^ "IGN Top 100 Games 2007". IGN.com. Retrieved November 24, 2008. 
  52. ^ Top 100 Games of All Time: No.22, G4.
  53. ^ "Perfect Dark for Nintendo 64 - Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More". Metacritic. 2000-05-22. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  54. ^ "Perfect Dark - Nintendo 64". IGN. 2000-04-08. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  55. ^ "Perfect Dark XBLA Review". IGN. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 
  56. ^ "The Making Of: Sega Rally Championship 1995". Edge. Future plc. 2 October 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  57. ^ a b Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2009, page 103.
  58. ^ Edge Staff, The Making Of: Colin McRae Rally, Edge, February 5, 2010: "The basic premise for the game was based around the car handling in Sega Rally," confirms Guy Wilday, producer of the first four CMR games. "Everyone who played it loved the way the cars behaved on the different surfaces, especially the fact that you could slide the car realistically on the loose gravel. The car handling remains excellent to this day and it’s still an arcade machine I enjoy playing, given the chance."
  59. ^ "Top 25 Racing Games... Ever! Part 2". Retro Gamer. 21 September 2009. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  60. ^ "The Essential 50 Part 36: Super Mario 64". 1UP.com. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 
  61. ^ PlayStation: The Official Magazine asserts in its January 2009 issue that Tekken 3 "is still widely considered one of the finest fighting games of all time." See "Tekken 6: A History of Violence," PlayStation: The Official Magazine (January 2009): 46.
  62. ^ http://www.gamerankings.com/browse.html
  63. ^ Staff (September 1997). "Top 25 PlayStation Games of All Time". PSM 1 (1): 34. 
  64. ^ http://www.absolute-playstation.com/api_faqs/faq20.htm
  65. ^ http://www.dualshockers.com/2010/08/02/then-and-now-the-history-of-tekken/
  66. ^ a b "Record-Breaking Lara Croft Battles her Way Into New Guinness World Records", MCV. January 21, 2010.
  67. ^ Virtua Cop, IGN, July 7, 2004.
  68. ^ Martin Hollis (2004-09-02). "The Making of GoldenEye 007". Zoonami. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  69. ^ Leone, Matt, Essential 50: Virtua Fighter, 1UP.
  70. ^ Kent, Steven L. (2001). The Ultimate History of Video Games: The Story Behind the Craze that Touched our Lives and Changed the World. Roseville, California: Prima Publishing. p. 502. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. 
  71. ^ Feit, Daniel (2012-09-05). "How Virtua Fighter Saved PlayStation's Bacon". Wired. Retrieved 2014-10-09. Ryoji Akagawa: If it wasn't for Virtua Fighter, the PlayStation probably would have had a completely different hardware concept. 
  72. ^ "The Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  73. ^ "IGN Top 100 Games, #001-010 (2005)". IGN. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  74. ^ "IGN Top 100 Games, #4 (2007)". IGN. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  75. ^ "NP Top 200", Nintendo Power 200: 58–66, February 2006.
  76. ^ "The Greatest 200 Games of Their Time", Electronic Gaming Monthly 200: February 2006.
  77. ^ "All-Time Best Rankings". GameRankings. Retrieved 2008-11-26.