Hitomi Kobayashi

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Hitomi Kobayashi
Born Yukari Ishii
(1963-09-02) September 2, 1963 (age 50)[1]
Tokyo, Japan
Other names Kaori Matsumoto[2]
Ethnicity Japanese
Height 1.51 m (4 ft 11 in)
No. of adult films about 70[3]
Website
http://web.archive.org/web/20010801151740/http://www.smsm.co.jp/hitomi/

Hitomi Kobayashi (小林ひとみ Kobayashi Hitomi?) is an important early Japanese AV idol. One of the founding figures of the Japanese adult video, she has been called indispensable to any discussion of the AV.[4] Mainichi Shimbun calls her "one of the icons of Japanese adult cinema history."[3] Her unprecedented popularity in the mid-1980s, the early days of the Japanese AV, earned her the title "Queen of AV."[5][6][7] According to an adult entertainment reporter for Shukan Shincho, "She laid the foundations for the golden age of adult video."[8]

After making her debut as a non-pornographic photobook and "image video" model, Kobayashi entered the AV field in 1986.[3] Because of her rapid popularity, Nikkatsu, Japan's leading producer of softcore pornography at the time, hired her to appear in theatrical films in 1987.[7] After marriage and a semi-retirement beginning in 1989, Kobayashi fully returned to the AV industry in 1998. She announced her retirement in 2003 with a big-budget, though controversial, two-volume farewell adult video.[9]

Life and career[edit]

Early life[edit]

According to her official profile, Hitomi Kobayashi was born Yukari Ishii (石井ゆかり Ishii Yukari?) in Tokyo on September 2, 1965.[10] However, in an interview in the Weekly Post (週刊ポスト?) just before her retirement in 2003, she confessed to have actually been born in 1963.[11] Her ambition since childhood was to be an actress. She attended acting school, and registered with a talent agency.[3] Kobayashi was not particularly sexually precocious, claiming at the time of her AV debut, "I lost my virginity at 18, which is probably a bit late, and I wasn't very experienced with men."[3]

This relative sexual conservatism extended into her AV career. The sex scenes in all but her final video were simulated.[12] Even at the end of her AV career, Kobayashi's attitude towards sex remained modest. Interviewed at the time of her retirement, Kobayashi said, "I love sex. But, just because I'm an AV actress, it doesn't mean I'm brim-filled with experience. I've done orgy movies, and lesbian scenes and loads of abnormal stuff, but the world of videos isn't a real world. My normal life is really plain. I couldn't imagine having sex anywhere other than in bed and taking part in an orgy would be unthinkable. I'm happy enough with just the missionary position."[3]

Kobayashi made her debut using the stage name Kaori Matsumoto (松本かおり Matsumoto Kaori?) in May 1986 in a photobook and "image video" both titled Pounding: 19-year-old Kaori (ときめき・かおり19歳 Tokimeki: Kaori Jukyusai?).[2] However, in spite of these two releases, she believed her career was going nowhere.[3]

AV debut[edit]

Not long after her debut in the non-pornographic media, Kobayashi was presented with a new opportunity. She says, "I got this offer to do a movie called Kinjirareta Kankei (Forbidden Relationship) (for the VIP studio). I was told there were nude and love scenes, but nothing steamier than any ordinary movie."[3] Shocked when she found out this was actually an adult video, she was at first reluctant. After a long discussion with her agent she finally agreed to perform in the video only if the sex was simulated. She changed her stage name to Hitomi Kobayashi for the video which was a surprise success, selling 50,000 copies.[3] Her amazing popularity quickly made her the leading AV actress of the mid-1980s, and, not long after her debut, she had earned the title "AV Queen."[5]

Japan's censorship laws prevent the display of the sexual organs,[13] allowing Kobayashi to maintain her insistence on performing only simulated sex on camera throughout her AV career. Kobayashi considered her AV performances to be another form of acting and came up with various techniques for appearing to have actual sex. For example, she says, "I used to get the directors to tickle my feet and then tried not to laugh so it looked as though I was climaxing."[3]

Her career was put in danger when an uncensored bootleg copy of one of her videos circulated. When it could be plainly seen that the "AV Queen" was not performing real sex, Kobayashi feared that her fans would abandon her. These fears proved to be groundless, however, and her popularity continued.[3]

Theatrical career[edit]

By 1987, Kobayashi's popularity had already earned her the title "Queen of AV".[7] Nikkatsu, which had been the leader of Japanese theatrical pornography since the inception of its Roman Porno series in 1971, was rapidly losing its audience to the AV industry. Though the studio had publicly condemned the AVs for years, in an attempt to lure some of Kobayashi's AV fans into the theater, Nikkatsu hired the AV Queen to star in her own series of films. The first of these, Hitomi Kobayashi's Secret Pleasure (小林ひとみ 奥戯快感 艶 Kobayashi Hitomi ougi kaikan: tsuya?) was released in January 1987. Thomas and Yuko Mihara Weisser, in their Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films, judge the film as "little more than a Playboy or Penthouse lingerie special."[7]

The second, Hitomi Kobayashi's Heavy Petting (ハード・ペッティング Hard Petting?), released in March 1987, was part of Nikkatsu's new "Roman X" line, which was purportedly more "hardcore" than the standard Roman Porno. However, Japan's practice of censorship by fogging out genitals made this move into "hardcore" rather pointless, since, as Donald Richie put it in his pioneering essay on the Pink film, "none of the working parts are ever shown."[14] Both of these first two films were judged little more than AVs on film, and were not popular with either AV fans or the critics, who preferred Nikkatsu's older Roman Porno style.

The third in this series, Hitomi Kobayashi's Young Girl Story (小林ひとみの令嬢物語 Kobayashi Hitomi no reijo monogatari?) (released December 19, 1987), came closest to the old Nikkatsu style, in that it had some semblance of a plot,[7] but by now it was too late for the studio. It would cease production of Roman Porno in 1988, and declare bankruptcy in 1993.[15] At the height of her popularity, in 1987, Kobayashi married Toshifumi Yuzawa, who would later become the president of Kobayashi's talent agency.[9] Kobayashi put her AV performances on hold for a few years beginning in 1989 to concentrate on family matters. During this period, she never officially retired, never completely ceased appearing in AVs, and worked occasionally as a stripper.[11] In 1988 she had a major role in the mainstream Evil Dead Trap (死霊の罠 Shiryo no wana?). Allmovie describes the film as a "sickening but riveting slasher,"[16] and author and film critic Patrick Galloway calls the film, "…nothing short of a multicultural terror tour de force, featuring gruesome, brilliantly rendered sound and imagery that will stay with you to your last dying gasp."[17] Written by Takashi Ishii and directed by Toshiharu Ikeda, the film inspired two sequels.[16] Japan Home Video, which financed the film, wished to showcase Kobayashi, their top AV star at the time, as the star of the film. Director Ikeda, unsure of Kobayashi's acting abilities, instead put Miyuki Ono in the lead role of Nami, and gave Kobabayashi the supporting role of Rei. The near adult-video style sex scenes that Kobayashi performs in the film have been criticized by horror film purists as the element that prevents the film from attaining genre classic status. Galloway, however, points out that Evil Dead Trap is not pure horror, but a genre-transcending film. About the sex scenes, Galloway comments, "Ikeda handles the steamy segments like a pro, coming as he did from Nikkatsu, where he honed his craft making the studio's signature roman porno (romantic pornography).[18] In 1996 and 1997, Hitomi Kobayashi starred in two films for pioneering pink film director Satoru Kobayashi, who was the director of Flesh Market (1962) – the first pink film.[19] In 1997, she played the somewhat autobiographical role of fictional AV actress Mizuki Mahoro in the 1997 V-cinema film Destroying Mosaic (モザイク崩し?).[20] Kobayashi's official return to the AV industry was in the November 1998 video Love Bond or Immoral Bonds.[21]

Later career[edit]

Over ten years after her debut, Kobayashi was by now a "mature woman" model, and her videos began to reflect the new niche for mature models in AVs which began to appear in the mid-1990s.[22]

Kobayashi teamed up with Japan's first hardcore pornographic actress, Kyoko Aizome,[23] in the February 2001 theatrical release, Kyoko Aizome vs. Hitomi Kobayashi: Sexual Excitement Competition (愛染恭子VS小林ひとみ 発情くらべ?).[20] Aizome both starred in and directed the film, which was released by Nikkatsu's post-Roman porn distributor of theatrical pornography, Excess films.[24][25] The same year, Kobayashi and her husband opened a nightclub in Roppongi.[3]

Hitomi Kobayashi FINAL[edit]

In an industry in which the average career spans only a year and produces five to ten videos,[26] by 2003, Kobayashi had worked in the AV field for over a decade and a half and appeared in about 70 films.[3] The 39 AVs in which she had starred had sold over 600,000 copies, earning about 6 billion yen ($60 million).[8] Reflecting on her Adult Video career at this time, Kobayashi commented, "I'm delighted to have led a career where I would be elevated to being called 'AV Queen,' as well as to have lasted in the business until I turned 40."[3]

Wishing to retire on a high-note, Kobayashi and her manager/husband advertised for investors in one last, 2-volume, two-and-a-half-hour AV opus. Kobayashi sought 35 investors who would contribute 500,000 yen ($5,000) each, for the privilege of a dinner with Kobayashi, having their names listed in the video's credits, and an exclusive viewing of the video.[8] The video was released in two volumes as Hitomi Kobayashi FINAL – Disc1 (December 19, 2003) and Disc2 (December 31, 2003).[10]

Controversy followed in the wake of the release when some of the investors in the video reported they were promised dividends from their investment, but had received none. It was claimed that Kobayashi had got over 50 investors for the project, but that her husband had used the money to pay personal debt and for recreational activities unrelated to the film. Insufficient communication with the investors, the shutting down of the film's website, the company repeatedly changing its name, and changing reports on whether or not the film made a profit added to investor complaints.[9] In 2004, Kobayashi was reported working as a hostess at her nightclub in Roppongi.[9]

Filmography[edit]

Videos[edit]

Video title[27] Company Director Release date
Pounding: 19-year-old Kaori
ときめき・かおり19歳
Tokimeki: Kaori Jukyusai
debut video (non-pornographic)[2]
Docks
ダックス
May 1986
Prohibited Relations
禁じられた関係
Kinjirareta Kankei
debut adult video
VIP
2C-029
May 15, 1986
色情 VIP July 5, 1986
瓶詰め地獄 Nikkatsu July 1986
Please Come in My Mouth
お口に誘って
Shintoho
STP-27
August 5, 1986
Blinded Love
溺愛
VIP
2C-052
September 5, 1986
We Would Like You To See Hitomi Kabayashi
見られたいの 小林ひとみ
Swan Video
SH-437
現映社
Ichiro Mikage October 10, 1986
Angel's Lips
天使の唇
Tenshi no Kuchibiru
Shintoho
STY-01
October 15, 1986
Milky Devil
ミルキーデビル邪夢猫
Alice Japan
KA-1070
Hisashi Sasaki October 15, 1986
Over Heat (Do It Until I Get Finished)
燃えつきるまで
VIP
2B-063
November 15, 1986
夢で逢えたらアイドルクイーン SHOWA November 15, 1986
ミステリークイーン恋の異星人 シャリオ December 1, 1986
さよならの前に ホップ December 10, 1986
ひとみ先生のクライマックスは御一緒に Shintoho December 21, 1986
Unknown
本番深くうめて
AV Japan / Five Star
FV-8587
Masaru Watanabe January 1987
みだらな瞳 Phoenix January 10, 1987
Sex Triangle
性獣トライアングル~暴かれたハネムーン~
With Kumi Sawaguchi & Rei Takasugi
Alice Japan
KA-1087
February 10, 1987
夢犯恋人 JVD February 15, 1987
Akujo
悪女
Shintoho
STU-01
February 15, 1987
下半身の女 スリーパーツ March 1, 1987
Sexy Violence
セクシーバイオレンス
Alice Japan
KA-1092
Dori Daimon March 10, 1987
ロックビートは危険な囁き SHOWA 1987
奥戯快感 艶 Nikkatsu April 1, 1987
Mashou
魔性
Shintoho
STQ-33
April 25, 1987
Midnight Call
に乱れて
With Rei Takasugi
Nikkatsu / Shocking Pink
GP-014
May 25, 1987
桃色情交 スリーパーツ May 1987
Provocative 2
挑発/深くうめて2
AV Japan / Five Star
FV-8608
Masaru Watanabe June 1987
Zoom Up Special
ズームアップ・スペシャル
With Yuuko Maehara
Alice Japan
KA-1126
Kazuhito Kuramoto September 25, 1987
The Bible
ザ・バイブル
Alice Japan
KA-1136
Kazuhito Kuramoto November 15, 1987
Bangkok Story
バンコクストーリー
With Miku Watase
AV Japan / Five Star
FV-8722
Tetsuya Uno 1988
Sex Triangle vol.2
性獣トライアングル2
With Maya Asabuki & Youko Takagi
Alice Japan
KA-1175
Hisashi Sasaki May 15, 1988
本番深くうめて2 AV Japan / Five Star
FV-8748
1989
Zoom Up All Stars
ZOOM UPオールスターズ
Compilation with Nao Saejima, Yuka Tachihara, Yuuko Maehara and others
Alice Japan
KA-1196
Kazuhito Kuramoto September 25, 1988
Topaz
トパーズ
Velvet Blue
VB01
Jin Yuho July 31, 1993
Black Pearl
ブラックパール
Velvet Blue
VB02
Jin Yuho August 31, 1993
Sucking Lady
もろなめ夫人
Alice Japan
KA-1595
Jin Yuho October 15, 1993
Cock Sucking Lady
いもしゃぶり夫人
Alice Japan
KA-1617
Jin Yuho December 24, 1993
Alice Memories Vol. 1
アリスメモリーズVol.1
Compilation with Yukari Takeshita, Eriko Nakagawa, Toyomaru & Nao Saejima
Alice Japan
DC-003 (VCD)
March 7, 1997
Immoral Bonds
背徳の絆
KUKI Vinl
JF-511
November 26, 1996
Topaz
トパーズ
Compilation DVD containing Topaz and Black Pearl from Velvet Blue
KUKI
KDV-024
November 27, 1998
Video CD Special Vol 15
ビデオCDスペシャル15
Compilation with several other actresses
KUKI
KRM-038
February 27, 1999
Immoral Baptism
背徳の洗礼
Haitoku no Senrei
KUKI Tank
KT-360
Shusaku Mizutani March 23, 1999
Immoral Bonds
背徳の絆
Compilation DVD containing Love Bond and Immoral Baptism
KUKI
KDV-060
Shusaku Mizutani May 21, 1999
Madame Throat Deep Spot
マダムスロート奥の淫
KUKI Tank
KT-380 (VHS)
VKD-111 (VCD) (as Madame Throat)
Gasbel VHS:June 28, 1999
VCD:September 10, 1999
Neo Video CD Special Vol.1
NEOビデオCDスペシャル01
Compilation with other actresses
KUKI
KRM-043
July 20, 1999
Big Tits Tank Angels 6
乳TANKの天使たち6
With Yuri Komuro, Manami Suzuki, Naomi Yamaguchi, Momo Sugano, Risa Matsumoto & others
KUKI Tank
KT-388
Gregoru Shimizu August 18, 1999
Molesting Sexy Teachers
女教師痴漢調教
With Minoki Aoyama, Yumi Sato & Kuniyo Nakamura
ENGEL
ENG-0007
Makoto Taiga September 22, 1999
Extreme Privacy
極私性
KUKI Tank
KT-397 (VHS)
VKD-140 (VCD)
Gasbel VHS:September 25, 1999
VCD:March 10, 2000
Neo Video CD Special Vol.5
NEOビデオCDスペシャル05
With other actresses
KUKI
KRM-047
November 20, 1999
KUKI Best Actresses Vol. 11
KUKI人気女優BEST VOL.11
With Sayuri Honjo
KUKI
QX-710
Toru Daikanyama December 10, 1999
Nasty Female Teacher
女教師姦粘膜
KUKI Tank
KT-413
Hanzo Hatori December 20, 1999
Big Tits Tank Angels 7
乳TANKの天使たち7
With 7 other actresses including Sayuri Honjo
KUKI Tank
KT-424
JANGO February 18, 2000
KUKI DVD Buyer Boy 01
KUKI DVD買うボーイ 01
With 5 other actresses including Sayuri Honjo and Fuuka Sakurai
KUKI
KRM-050
March 4, 2000
Stimulant: Doctor Hitomi Kobayashi
刺激療法
KUKI Tank
KT-431 (VHS)
KDV-101 (DVD)
Gasbel VHS:March 22, 2000
DVD:May 26, 2000
KUKI Best Collection Vol.4
With Naomi Yamaguchi, Momo Sugano, Yuka Matsuda & Kaori Shimizu
KUKI
KDV-089 (DVD)
April 14, 2000
Mrs. Lawyer Hitomi Kobayashi: Theft of Love Passion
ミセス弁護士 小林ひとみ 愛欲のせっ盗
V&R Planning / Ume Gold
UG-001
Eitaro Haga April 15, 2000
Mrs. Lawyer Hitomi Kobayashi: Infernal Loan of Sexual Desires
ミセス弁護士小林ひとみ 肉欲のローン地獄
V&R Planning / Ume Gold
UG-002
Eitaro Haga April 15, 2000
Mrs. Lawyer Hitomi Kobayashi: Medical Miss of Abstinence
ミセス弁護士小林ひとみ 禁欲の医療ミス
V&R Planning / Ume Gold
UG-003
Eitaro Haga April 15, 2000
KUKI DVD Buyer Boy 03
KUKI DVD買うボーイ 03
With 4 other actresses
KUKI
KRM-052
May 2, 2000
Perfect Sniper
パーフェクト・スナイパー
KUKI Tank
KT-453 (VHS)
KDV-102 (DVD)
Gasbel VHS:June 29, 2000
DVD:July 21, 2000
CRUSH KUKI Tank
KT-461 (VHS)
KDV-114 (DVD)
Gasbel VHS:September 29, 2000
DVD:September 29, 2000
ATLAS MEGA-MIX vol.#2
アトラスMEGA-MIX II
Compilation DVD with 17 other actresses
Atlas21
AVD-041
November 17, 2000
Immoral Bonds
背徳の絆
KUKI
KDH-043 (DVD)
November 17, 2000
Hitomi Kobayashi Special: '98–'00 Complete Work
小林ひとみスペシャル
Compilation
KUKI Tank
KT-478 (VHS)
JANGO VHS:November 17, 2000
Big Tits Tank Angels 8
乳TANKの天使たち 8
With 11 other actresses including Akira Watase
KUKI Tank
KT-490
JANGO January 18, 2001
Costume Play Royale
コスプレ ロワイヤル
With Aika Miura, Kaori Houjou, Kyoko Ono Natsumi Kawahama and 9 others
KUKI Tank
KT-496
JANGO February 16, 2001
Hitomi Kobayashi Special
小林ひとみスペシャル
Compilation DVD containing Siamese Cat and Sexy Violence
KUKI
DV-052
February 23, 2001
KUKI Best Collection VOL.4
KUKI Best COLLECTIONS VOL.4
Compilation with Naomi Yamaguchi, Momo Sugano, Yuka Matsuda & Kaori Shimizu
KUKI
KDH-086 (DVD)
February 23, 2001
Lesbian Wives
極妻レズ
Co-starring Kyoko Aizome
Alice Japan Babylon
KR-9144 (VHS)
DV-086 (DVD)
Kyoko Aizome VHS:March 16, 2001
DVD:September 21, 2001
Lesbian Love Juice
レズビアン 女汁
Co-starring Hitomi Shimizu
Alice Japan Babylon
KR-9146 (VHS)
DV-104 (DVD)
Eitaro Haga VHS:April 13, 2001
DVD:December 7, 2001
School Teacher
女教師歔く
MAX-A Samansa
XS-2234
Eitaro Haga July 31, 2001
Alice Japan 2002
アリスJAPAN2002
Compilation
Alice Japan
DV-103
December 7, 2001
BEST 4 Hours – Hitomi Kobayashi
BEST 4時間 小林ひとみ
Compilation of 4 of her earlier videos
Atlas21
AVD-122
December 27, 2001
Abnormal Privacy – Slave Secretary 37
Abnormal Privacy 奴隷秘書37
CineMagic Collect
VS-680
Yutaka Akiyama June 14, 2002
Mother In-Law
義母
SOD
SGO-016
November 20, 2003
Hitomi Kobayashi FINAL – Disc1: Nostalgic
小林ひとみFINAL 上巻
Media Bank VIP
VIPD-224
Eitaro Haga December 19, 2003
Hitomi Kobayashi FINAL – Disc2: Love
小林ひとみFINAL 下巻
Media Bank VIP
VIPD-225
Eitaro Haga December 19, 2003
Hitomi Kobayashi – BOX
小林ひとみ BOX
FINAL disc 1&2 & Picture Booklet
Media Bank VIP
VIPD-226
Eitaro Haga December 19, 2003
Best of the AV QUEEN
ベスト・オブ・ザ・AVクィーン
Compilation with 5 other actresses
Atlas21
AVD-186
April 23, 2004
Uncut 4 Hours / Hitomi Kobayashi
ノーカット4時間!!小林ひとみ
Compilation
Alice Japan
DV-370
July 16, 2004
The 80's Greatest Idols
Compilation with several other actresses
TMA
12ID049
August 13, 2004
Slave Secretary EX 3
奴隷秘書EX3
Compilation with 6 other actresses
CineMagic
DD-192
Hirofumi Miyazaki
Tatsuo Hibino
June 23, 2006

Selected theatrical releases[edit]

  • The Petting (ザ・ペッティング Za Pettingu?) (8/1986)
  • Hitomi Kobayashi's Secret Pleasure (小林ひとみ 奥戯快感 艶 Kobayashi Hitomi ougi kaikan: tsuya?) (1/6/1987)
  • Hitomi Kobayashi's Heavy Petting (ハード・ペッティング Hard Petting?) (March 28, 1987)
  • Hitomi Kobayashi vs. Rei Takasugi: Double Petting (小林ひとみVS高杉レイ ダブルペッティング) (July 18, 1987)
  • Kobayashi Hitomi no Honshou (小林ひとみの本性?) (10/1987)[28]
  • Hitomi Kobayashi's Young Girl Story (小林ひとみの令嬢物語 Kobayashi Hitomi no reijo monogatari?) (December 19, 1987)
  • Sure-Fire Death 4: We Will Avenge You (Hissatsu 4: Urami harashimasu) (1987)
  • Evil Dead Trap (死霊の罠 Shiryo no wana?) (May 14, 1988)
  • Guys Who Never Learn II (1988)
  • La Valse (ラ・ヴァルス La Varusu?) (February 15, 1990)
  • Kyoko Aizome vs. Hitomi Kobayashi: Sexual Excitement Competition (愛染恭子VS小林ひとみ 発情くらべ?) (February 2, 2001)[29]

Selected print appearances[edit]

Goro[edit]

Heibon Punch (平凡パンチ)[edit]

Momoco[edit]

  • January 31, 1987 (5 pages)

Sukora (スコラ)[edit]

Weekly Playboy (週刊プレイボーイ)[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Infobox data from: "Hitomi Kobayashi". AV Idol Directory. Retrieved October 21, 2010.  and AVチャンネル 小林ひとみ 詳細情報 (Japanese)
  2. ^ a b c "1986" (in Japanese). AV 研究所 (AV Research Laboratory). Retrieved July 21, 2007. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Legs open way to 6 billion yen career". Mainichi Shimbun. December 13, 2003. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2007. 
  4. ^ "Topaz". AV Idol Directory. Retrieved October 21, 2010. "We cannot talk about AV without her. She is a legend of AV. She is like a founder of the AV world" 
  5. ^ a b "Legs open way to 6 billion yen career". Mainichi Shimbun. December 13, 2003. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2007. "Astounding sales of her works in the formative years of the VHS era made her the ruler of the adult video world and led to her being dubbed as the 'AV Queen.'" 
  6. ^ "Porno queen seeks investors' plug as she goes out with a bang". Mainichi Shimbun. July 18, 2003. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2007. "Hitomi Kobayashi, long hailed as Japan's Queen of Adult Video..." 
  7. ^ a b c d e Weisser, Thomas; Yuko Mihara Weisser (1998). Japanese Cinema Encyclopedia: The Sex Films. Miami: Vital Books : Asian Cult Cinema Publications. p. 222. ISBN 1-889288-52-7. "...the AV Queen Hitomi Kobayashi..." 
  8. ^ a b c "Porno queen seeks investors' plug as she goes out with a bang". Mainichi Shimbun. July 18, 2003. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2007. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Porn star blows wads pumping out final flop". Mainichi Shimbun. March 25, 2004. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2007. 
  10. ^ a b "Hitomi Kobayashi". AV Idol Directory. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b "Kobayashi Hitomi" (in Japanese). Japanese Wikipedia. Retrieved March 19, 2007. 
  12. ^ "Legs open way to 6 billion yen career". Mainichi Shimbun. December 13, 2003. Archived from the original on January 7, 2006. Retrieved October 9, 2007. "I finally agreed to appear, but as long as the sex was only simulated. That's how my stance on never going all the way on film started." 
  13. ^ Schönherr, Johannes (December 29, 2006). "Japanese AV – A Short Introduction". Midnight Eye. Retrieved May 31, 2007. "...Japanese porn has the problem that no genitals can be seen in the videos. They are all hidden behind pixels..." 
  14. ^ Richie, Donald (1992) [1972]. "The Japanese Eroduction". A Lateral View: Essays on Culture and Style in Contemporary Japan. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 156–169. 
  15. ^ Macias, Patrick (2001). "Nikkatsu's Roman Porno". TokyoScope: The Japanese Cult Film Companion. San Francisco: Cadence Books. pp. 187–188. ISBN 1-56931-681-3. 
  16. ^ a b Firsching, Robert. "Evil Dead Trap". Allmovie. Retrieved June 5, 2007. 
  17. ^ Galloway, Patrick (2006). "Evil Dead Trap: Shiryo no wana". Asia Shock: Horror and Dark Cinema from Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, and Thailand. Berkeley, Calif.: Stone Bridge Press. p. 165. ISBN 1-933330-12-0. 
  18. ^ Galloway, p.168.
  19. ^ "Kobayashi Satoru" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved October 9, 2007.  (小林ひとみ 男狂い有閑マダム, released July 22, 1996 and 小林ひとみの快楽熟女とろける, released 1997-07-14)
  20. ^ a b "Kobayashi Hitomi" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved March 19, 2007. 
  21. ^ "Immoral Bonds". AV Idol Directory. Retrieved October 21, 2010. "She made a come back in November with Love Bond..." 
  22. ^ "Satomi Shinozaki biography". Shin-Toho History. Archived from the original on May 15, 2007. Retrieved February 18, 2007. "...since the middle of '90s when mature women started getting popular in porn movies." 
  23. ^ Koizumi, Shinichi (December 1, 2001). "Porn-star label now a badge of honor for actress". Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on December 3, 2001. Retrieved March 3, 2007. "Kyoko Aizome is considered the first hard-core porn actress in Japan." 
  24. ^ "愛染恭子VS小林ひとみ 発情くらべ" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved May 31, 2007. 
  25. ^ Firsching, Robert. "Bed Partner 1988: Plot Synopsis". Allmovie. Retrieved May 4, 2010. "...the legendary studio proper [Nikkatsu] (its stepchild, Excess Films, limped along for years thereafter..." 
  26. ^ Fornander, Kjell (July 1992). "A Star is Porn". Tokyo Journal. Archived from the original on March 20, 2007. Retrieved May 12, 2007. "If she's only out for money, she will studiously avoid publicity and quit inside a year-the average life-span of an AV girl-with five or ten videos to her credit..." 
  27. ^ Filmography from "Hitomi Kobayashi". AV Idol Directory. Retrieved October 21, 2010. , "Discography (Hitomi Kobayashi)" (in Japanese). AV Classics On Demand. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2007.  and "Hitomi Kobayashi (Filmography)". Urabon Navigator. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  28. ^ "小林ひとみの本性". Japanese Cinema Database (Agency for Cultural Affairs). Retrieved May 28, 2010. 
  29. ^ Sources for Theatrical releases: Hitomi Kobayashi at the Internet Movie Database and "Kobayashi Hitomi" (in Japanese). Japanese Movie Database. Retrieved March 19, 2007. 
  30. ^ Print appearances from:

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