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|Motto||Captains of Industry|
|Established||1920 (Origins 1875)|
|Location||Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan|
|Colors||Crimson Red (DIC-2489)|
Hitotsubashi is considered one of the most prestigious universities and the best in economics and commerce related subjects in Japan, consistently ranking amongst the top universities in Japanese university rankings. It was ranked 25th in the world in 2011 by École des Mines de Paris and is one of the highest ranked national universities that is not one of the National Seven Universities.
Hitotsubashi has strong relationships with overseas universities. There are about 590 international students and 450 researchers from abroad under academic exchange agreements with 83 universities and research institutions, including University of Chicago, the University of Oxford and the University of California.
- 1 History
- 2 Faculties and graduate schools
- 3 Research institutes and centers
- 4 Academic exchange agreements overseas
- 5 Academic rankings
- 6 Notable faculty
- 7 Famous alumni
- 8 References
- 9 External links
When founded by Arinori Mori in 1875, Hitotsubashi was called the Institute for Business Training (商法講習所|Shōhō Kōshujo), where it nurtured businessmen to modernize Japan after the collapse of the feudal Tokugawa Shōgunate. There were talks about a merger with The University of Tokyo, but alumni and students objected—the merger was not fulfilled. This is known as the "Shinyu Incident".
From the university web page: "For 130 years Hitotsubashi graduates have played leading roles in Japanese business, hence the university's motto 'captains of industry.' Today, our former students are also prominent in finance, government, politics and the media. The quality of our research has been recognized internationally, and Hitotsubashi scholars maintain strong ties to industry and government. Hitotsubashi is an excellent base for visiting researchers, offering a well-stocked library, a beautiful campus (and in the case of ICS a location in the heart of Tokyo), and a friendly atmosphere."
- 1875: Arinori Mori established Institute for Business Training (商法講習所|Shōhō Kōshūjo) at Ginza-owarichō, Tokyo.
- 1884: became a national school under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce of Japan, and changed its name to the Tokyo Commercial School (東京商業学校|Tokyo Shōgyō Gakkō).
- 1885: came under the control of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan, and absorbed the Tokyo Foreign Language School. The school then relocated to the site of the latter institution in an education district called Hitotsubashi, Tokyo in the vicinity of the Imperial Palace.
- 1887: the status of the Tokyo Commercial School was raised to that of the Higher Commercial School (高等商業学校|Kōtō Shōgyō Gakkō).
- 1897: established affiliated institutions for foreign-language education.
- 1899: separated affiliated institutions for foreign-language education as Tokyo School of Foreign Languages (now Tokyo University of Foreign Studies).
- 1902: changed its name to the Tokyo Higher Commercial School (東京高等商業学校| Tōkyō Kōtō Shōgyō Gakkō) due to the establishment of another such school in Kansai district (now Kobe University).
- 1920: raised to and became the Tokyo College of Commerce (東京商科大学| Tōkyō Syōka Daigaku).
- 1927: moved to Kunitachi and Kodaira, Tokyo, its present location, on account of the Great Kanto Earthquake.
- 1944: changed its name to the Tokyo College of Industry (東京産業大学| Tōkyō Sangyō Daigaku) under the order of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan.
- 1947: changed its name back to the Tokyo College of Commerce (東京商科大学| Tōkyō Syōka Daigaku).
- 1949: adopted the new system and the name of Hitotsubashi University (一橋大学| Hitotsubashi Daigaku) through a student ballot, when the American education system was introduced as part of the postwar education reforms, and established Faculties of Commerce, Economics, and Law & Social Sciences.
- 1951: separated Faculty of Law & Social Sciences into Faculty of Law and Faculty of Social Science.
- 1996: established the Graduate School of Language and Society.
- 1998: established the Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy (ICS).
- 2004: established Law School due to the introduction of Law School system in Japan.
- 2005: established School of International and Public Policy.
Faculties and graduate schools
Hitotsubashi University has about 4,500 undergraduate and 2,100 postgraduate students with some 630 faculty members.
- Commerce (275)
- Economics (275)
- Law (175)
- Social Sciences (235)
- Commerce (Master Program: 108, Doctor Program: 30)
- Economics (Master Program: 70, Doctor Program: 30)
- Law (Master Program: 15, Doctor Program: 26 Juris Doctor Program: 100)
- Social Sciences (Master Program: 87, Doctor Program: 44)
- Language and Society (Master Program: 49, Doctor Program: 21)
- International Corporate Strategy (ICS) (including MBA Program)
- International and Public Policy (55)
Parentheses show the numbers of admitted students per year.
Research institutes and centers
- Institute of Economic Research
- Research and Development Center for Higher Education
- Information and Communication Technology Center
- Center for Student Exchange
- International Joint Research Center
- Institute of Innovation Research
- Center for Historical Social Science Literature
Academic exchange agreements overseas
As of 2007, Hitotsubashi University had academic exchange agreements with 84 overseas universities and research institutions, including those between departments and departments, as follows:
|Toyo Keizai National||General||7|
|NBP Greater Tokyo||Reputation||5|
|Social Sciences & Humanities|
|BE Success National||Qualification||8|
|BE Pass rate National||Qualification||2|
BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT
|Eduni MBA National||General||3|
|Eduni MBA World||General||100|
|CPA Success National||Qualification||6|
Hitotsubashi University is considered one of the most prestigious universities in Japan, consistently ranking amongst the top universities in Japanese university rankings. It is one of the highest ranked national universities that is not one of the National Seven Universities.
Hitotsubashi is a specialized institution only in social science, thus it is not as well known as other big universities such as University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. Although it has only social science departments and the place in the university rankings is always underrated, the reputation is very high. Consequently, its outstanding position in Japan can be seen in the several rankings below.
The university was ranked 7th out of 181 major universities in 2011 in the ranking called "Truly strong universities (本当に強い大学)" by Toyo Keizai. In this ranking, Hitotsubashi is 1st in average graduate salary.
According to QS World University Rankings, Hitotsubashi was ranked 314th, 314th, 420th, 378th and 365th in the world during 2005–2009. It has been ranked 114th, 101st, 99th and 178th during 2007–2010 in its social science ranking.
The Weekly Diamond reported that Hitotsubashi has the 4th highest research standard in Japan in research funding per researcher in COE Program. In the same article, it is ranked seventh in quality of education by GP funds per student.
The economics department especially has a high research standard. According to the Asahi Shimbun, Hitotsubashi was ranked 4th in Japan in economic research during 2005-2009. More recently, Repec in January 2011 ranked Hitotsubashi's Economic Department as Japan's 5th best economic research university. Currently three researchers in Hitotsubashi are listed as top 10% economists in its world economist rankings. Hitotsubashi has provided seven presidents of the Japanese Economic Association in its 42-year history; this number is the second largest.
Asahi Shimbun summarized the amount of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by university, and Hitotsubashi was ranked 7th during 2005–2009.
Graduate school rankings
Hitotsubashi Business School is ranked 2nd in Japan by Nikkei Shimbun. Eduniversal ranked Japanese business schools and Hitotsubashi was ranked 3rd in Japan (100th in the world). In this ranking, Hitotsubashi is one of three Japanese business schools categorized in "Universal business schools with major international influence". It is one of the few Japanese business schools teaching in English.
Hitotsubashi alumni are distinctively successful in Japanese industries such as shown below.
According to the Weekly Economist 2010 rankings and the President's article on October 16, 2006, graduates from Hitotsubashi have the best employment rate in 400 major companies; the average graduate salary is the second best in Japan. École des Mines de Paris ranks Hitotsubashi University as 25th in the world in 2011 in the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies, although Hitotsubashi is small compared to other Japanese universities in the ranks.
The university is ranked 8th in Japan for the number of alumni holding executive positions in the listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is 2nd in Japan.
Popularity and selectivity
Hitotsubashi is one of the most selective universities in Japan. Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as one of the top with University of Tokyo, Kyoto University and Tokyo Institute of Technology among 180 national and public universities.
- Tsuru Shigeto: ex-president
- J. Mark Ramseyer: ex-adjunct instructor, Mitsubishi professor of Japanese Legal Studies of Harvard Law School
- Ikujiro Nonaka: professor emeritus, director of Seven & I Holdings Co., director of Mitsui & Co.
- Kotaro Suzumura: professor emeritus
- Hirotaka Takeuchi: former dean of the Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy, director of ORIX
- Fumio Hayashi: professor, foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- Takeshi Mizubayashi: professor of Graduate School of Law
- Irmela Hijiya-Kirschnereit: ex-professor, Faculty of Social Sciences
- Joseph Schumpeter: visiting professor in 1931
The university's alumni association is called Josuikai (如水会) and its main building (Josui Kaikan) is next to the building where Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy (ICS) is in Kanda, Tokyo.
- Shōzō Murata: ex-minister of Railways of Japan, ex-minister of Communications of Japan, president of Osaka Shosen Kaisha (now Mitsui O.S.K. Lines)
- Baek Du-jin: ex-prime minister of South Korea, ex-speaker of National Assembly of South Korea
- Wu San-lien: first Mayor of Taipei, Taiwan
- Masayoshi Ōhira: 68th and 69th Prime Minister of Japan
- Michio Watanabe: ex-Vice Prime Minister of Japan, ex-Minister of Finance (Japan), ex-Foreign Minister of Japan
- Taketora Ogata: ex-Vice Prime Minister of Japan, ex-Chief Cabinet Secretary
- Mitsujirō Ishi: ex-Vice Prime Minister of Japan, ex-Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (Japan), ex-Minister of Transportation, ex-Minister of Justice (Japan)
- Koji Omi: ex-Minister of Finance (Japan)
- Shintarō Ishihara: author, current Governor of Tokyo, ex-Minister of Transportation
- Yasuo Tanaka: Author and former Governor of Nagano Prefecture
- Zenjirō Kaneko: current Parliamentary Secretary for Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan
- Shigeyuki Tomita: ex-State Secretary for Foreign Affairs of Japan, ex-Senior Vice Minister of the Ministry of Justice (Japan)
- Takashi Kawamura: current mayor of Nagoya City
- Rinchinnyamyn Amarjargal: ex-Prime Minister of Mongolia
- Saburō Kurusu: Imperial Japan's Ambassador to Germany
- Katsuji Debuchi: Imperial Japan's Ambassador to the United States
- Tokichi Tanaka: Imperial Japan's first Ambassador to Soviet Union
- Naotake Satō: Ex-President of House of Councillors of Japan, Ex-Foreign Minister of Japan
- Toshikazu Kase: Japan's first Ambassador to the United Nations
- Kōichirō Asakai: Ex-Japan's Ambassador to the United States
- Sadao Iguchi: Ex-Japan's Ambassador to the United States
- Makoto Taniguchi: Ex-Deputy Secretaries-General of OECD, Ex-Japan's Ambassador to United Nations, Ex-Professor of Waseda University.
- Joro Kodera: current Director General of Intelligence and Analysis Service, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, Ex-Japan's Ambassador to the United Nations
- Yoshinori Katori: current Japan's Ambassador to ASEAN
- Haruhisa Takeuchi: current Japan's Ambassador to Israel
- Wataru Nishigahiro: current Japan's Ambassador to Libya
- Toshiyuki Taga: current Japan's Ambassador to Tunisia
- Kazuhiko Nishikawa: current Japan's Ambassador to Angola
- Ichiro Komatsu: Ex-Director-General of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, Ex-Japan's Ambassador to France
- Yoichi Otabe: current Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan
- Chikao Kawai: current Deputy Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs of Japan
- Masao Matsumoto: Ex-Supreme Court Justice of Japan
- Harumi Takahashi: current governor of Hokkaidō Prefecture
- Takafumi Sato: Ex-Commissioner of Financial Services Agency of Japan
- Akira Goto: current Commissioner of Japan Fair Trade Commission, Ex-Professor of The University of Tokyo, Hitotsubashi University
- Hisashi Yamaura: current Commissioner of Board of Audit (Japan)
- Tomokatsu Tsukahara: Ex-President of Intellectual Property High Court of Japan
- Hiroshi Obayashi: current Prosecutor General of Japan, Ex-Vice Ministor of Justice of Japan
- Toshio Yanagi: current Superintending Prosecutor of Osaka High Public Prosecutors' Office, prior Commissioner of Public Security Intelligence Agency of Japan
- Yoshihiro Yasuda: Lawyer
- Fusanosuke Kuhara: Industrialist, Politician, founder of Kuhara Trading
- Hidesaburō Shōda: Father of Empress Michiko, Ex-Chairman and President of Nisshin Seifun
- Masaru Hayami: Ex-Governor of the Bank of Japan, Ex-CEO of Nissho Iwai Corp.
- Risaburo Toyota: first CEO of Toyota Motor
- Hiroshi Okuda: Ex-Chairman of Toyota Motor and Chairman of Nihon Keidanren (Japan Business Federation)
- Nobuo Yamaguchi: Ex-Chairman of Asahi Kasei Corp., and former Chairman of The Japan Chamber of Commerce and Industry
- Otogo Kataoka: first President of Nomura Securities Co., Ltd.
- Kunio Egashira: Ex-Chairman of Ajinomoto Co., Inc.
- Taikichiro Mori: founder of Mori Building (Forbes ranked him as the richest man in the world in 1991 and 1992.)
- Kichiro Furusawa: current Chairman of Chuo Mitsui Trust Holdings, Inc.
- Katsutoshi Saito: current Chairman of The Dai-ichi Mutual Life Insurance Company
- Shinichi Yokoyama: current Chairman of Sumitomo Life Insurance Company
- Hideto Ozaki: current Chairman of Aioi Insurance Co., Ltd.
- Toru Tonoike: current President of Aflac Japan
- Shusaku Minoda: current Managind Director of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and CEO of KKR Japan
- Hiroyuki Arita: current President of BlackRock Japan
- Makoto Kigawa: current President of Yamato Transport Co., Ltd.
- Hirokazu Toda: current President of Hakuhodo DY Holdings Incorporated
- Hiroshi Mikitani: current CEO of Rakuten, Inc.
- Takayuki Sasaki: current President of West Japan Railway Company
- Tsuneo Ishiwata: current President of Keihin Electric Express Railway Co., Ltd.
- Mitsunori Takahagi: current President of JX Holdings Inc. and former President & CEO of Nippon Mining & Holdings, Inc.
- Masanori Okada: current President & CEO of Nippon Mining & Metals, Co. Ltd.
- Masayoshi Matsumoto: current President & CEO of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
- Hiroshi Yao: current President of Mitsubishi Materials Corporation
- Hidenori Odaka: current Chairman of Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Company Inc.
- Tsuyoshi Okamoto: current President of Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.
- Kazuhisa Shinoda: current President & CEO of Oji Paper Company
- Okitane Usui: current COO of Sega Corp.
- Takeshi Kamigochi: current President Unilever Japan
- Tatsumi Kimishima: former CEO and Chairman of Nintendo of America
- John Ying Wai Chan[disambiguation needed]: former Vice President of JP Morgan Chase Bank
- Sotarō Takase: President of the Tokyo College of Commerce, Ex-Minister of International Trade and Industry of Japan, Ex-Minister of Education of Japan
- Tokuzō Fukuda: Economist
- Eiichi Sugimoto: Economist
- Ichiro Nakayama: Economist, President of the Tokyo College of Commerce, the first Chairman of The Tax Commission of Japan
- Heizō Takenaka: Economist, former Minister of State for Economic and Fiscal Policy of Japan, Professor at Keio University
- Hiroko Ōta: Economist, Professor of National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies, Ex-Minister of State for Special Missions of Japan
- Takatoshi Ito: Economist, Professor of The University of Tokyo, Ex-Deputy Vice Minister of Finance for International Affairs
- Iwao Nakatani: Eonocomist, current Chairman of the Board Counselor of Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting, current President of Tama University, Ex-Chairman of Board of Directors, Sony Corp. Professor emeritus of Hitotsubashi University
- Kotaro Suzumura: Economist, Professor of School of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University, Ex-Professor of Hitotsubashi University
- Tran Van Tho: Economist, Professor of School of Social Sciences, Waseda University
- Manabu Toda: Economist, Professor of School of Social Sciences, Waseda University
- Kazuo Ikeo: Economist, Professor of Faculty of Economics, Keio University
- Keizō Nagatani: Economist, Professor, University of British Columbia and Kobe University
- Liu Deqiang: Economist, Professor of Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University
- Atsushi Kajii: Economist, Professor of Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University
- Chiaki Hara: Economist, Associate Professor of Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University
- Takashi Hikino: Economist, Associate Professor of Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University
- Tomofumi Amano: Economist, Associate Professor of Graduate School of Economics, The University of Tokyo
- Hiroki Satō: Professor of Institute of Social Science, The University of Tokyo
- Ryōko Tsuneyoshi: Professor of Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo
- Ryōji Motomura: Professor of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
- Naoshi Yamawaki: Professor of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo
- Kiyonori Sakakibara: Professor of Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University, Ex-Professor of Hitotsubashi University, Ex-Associate Professor of London Business School
- Takayuki Shiibashi: Vice-President of Chuo University, Professor of Law School
- Seiichi Mori: Professor of Keio University Faculty of Law
- Ichiro Kasuga: Professor of Keio University Law School
- Yoshitaka Kobayashi: Dean of Graduate School of Accountancy, Waseda University, Ex-Professor of Keio University
- Takahiko Tanaka: Professor of School of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University, Ex-Professor of Hitotsubashi University
- Satoshi Amako: Professor of Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University
- Mau-sheng Lee: Professor of College of Law, National Taiwan University
- Ming-Jye Huang: Professor of College of Law, National Taiwan University
- Kazuo Ichijyō: Professor of International Institute for Management Development (IMD)
- Norihiko Suzuki: President of International Christian University (ICU)
- Seiichiro Kashio: Athlete, Silver Medalist of men's tennis doubles in 1920 Summer Olympics
- Masaji Kiyokawa: Athlete, Gold Medalist of backstroke in 1936 Summer Olympics, Ex-Vice Chairman of International Olympic Committee, Ex-CEO of Kanematsu Corp.
- Shinpei Mykawa: Rice farmer who introduced rice farming to an area of Texas; he came from a college that became Hitotsubashi University
- Zenzo Shimizu: Athlete, tennis player
- Kichimatsu Kishi: "Baron Kishi", oil developer in the U.S.
- George Shima: "The Potato King", the first President of the Japanese Association of America
- Futabatei Shimei: Author, Translator
- Kafū Nagai: Author
- Saburō Shiroyama: Author
- Wataru Yoshizumi: Manga artist
- Iō Kuroda: Manga artist
- Ken Ishii: musician
- Yoshiki Mizuno: musician, member of Ikimono-gakari
- Itō Sei: translator and novelist
- Ichiro Yoshizawa: Mountaineer
- Yoshiharu Sekino: Explorer
- Makoto IKEMA, "Hitotsubashi University, 1875-2000: A Hundred and Twenty-five Years of Higher Education in Japan" Palgrave Macmillan 2000
- Classements de l'école d'ingénieurs - MINES ParisTech. Mines-paristech.fr (2012-10-25). Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- 本当に強い大学【2011年版】総合ランキング･トップ100-教育力・就職力・財務力で独自ランキング | オリジナル | 東洋経済オンライン | 新世代リーダーのためのビジネスサイト. Toyokeizai.net. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- Hitotsubashi University Library, Origins of the University Symbol
- University's Official Site
- Center for Economic Institutions, Hitotsubashi University
- Center for Intergenerational Studies, Hitotsubashi University
- Center for Student Exchange, Hitotsubashi University
- Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University
- Center for Historical Social Science Literature, Hitotsubashi University
- Hitotsubashi University Data 2008
- "Truly Strong Universities" (in Japanese). Toyo Keizai. 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Employment rate in 400 major companies rankings" (in Japanese). Weekly Economist. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Nikkei BP Brand rankings of Japanese universities" (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications. 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "Nikkei BP Brand rankings of Japanese universities" (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications. 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "GBUDU University Rankings" (in Japanese). YELL books. 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- "ENSMP World University Rankings". École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
- Asahi Shimbun University rankings 2010 "Publification rankings in Law (Page 4)" (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Bar Exam Successful Applicants rankings" (in Japanese). Shikaku Seek. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Bar Exam Pass rate rankings" (in Japanese). Shikaku Seek. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Top 25% Institutions and Economists in Japan, as of January 2011". REPEC. 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "Business School Ranking in Japan". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "University and business school ranking in 5 palms (Top100)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
"University and business school ranking in 4 palms (Top101-300)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
"University and business school ranking in 3 palms (Top301-696)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
"University and business school ranking in 2 palms (Top697-896)". Eduniversal. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- "CPA Successful Applicants rankings" (in Japanese). Yutaka Honkawa. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
- 本当に強い大学【2010年版】総合ランキング･トップ100-東大5連覇、京大が阪大を逆転、関学躍進 | オリジナル | 東洋経済オンライン | 新世代リーダーのためのビジネスサイト. Toyokeizai.net. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- All Study Destinations. Top Universities. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- "週刊ダイヤモンド" ダイヤモンド社 2010/2/27 http://web.sapmed.ac.jp/kikaku/infomation/0227daiyamondokiji.pdf
- "University rankings 2011" Asahi Shinbun
- Within Country and State Rankings at IDEAS: Japan. Ideas.repec.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- Economist Rankings at IDEAS. Ideas.repec.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- Japanese Economic Association - JEA Global Site. Jeaweb.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- Recent News | Hitotsubashi University ICS - MBA Japan. Ics.hit-u.ac.jp. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- University and business school ranking in Japan. Eduniversal-ranking.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- Yomiuri Weekly 2005/7/10
- 年収偏差値・給料偏差値ランキング（2006・10・16）：稼げる大学はどれ？. Hensachi-ranking.seesaa.net (1999-02-22). Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- 出身大学別上場企業役員数ランキング (in Japanese). 大学ranking.net.
- 役員輩出率 大学ベスト30. Ranking100.web.fc2.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.
- Private universities apply different kind of exams. Thus it's only comparable between universities in the same category.
- E.g. Yoyogi seminar published Hensachi (the indication showing the entrance difficulties by prep schools) rankings http://www.yozemi.ac.jp/rank/gakubu/index.html
- In this ranking for example, Hitotsubashi Law course has the entrance difficulty of 90%, which is the top with University of Tokyo, and Economics course in Hitotsubashi as 2nd with 89%.
- Japanese journalist Kiyoshi Shimano ranks its entrance difficulty as SA (most selective/out of 11 scales) in Japan. 危ない大学・消える大学 2012年版 (in Japanese). YELL books. 2011.
- The Harvard Crimson February 5, 1998
- Connor, R. E. "How That Road Got Its Name." Houston Post, Sunday May 2, 1965. Spotlight, Page 3. - Available on microfilm at the Houston Public Library Central Library Jesse H. Jones Building
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