List of Hittite kings

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The dating and sequence of the Hittite kings is compiled from fragmentary records, supplemented by the recent find in Hattusa of a cache of more than 3500 seal impressions giving names and titles and genealogy of Hittite kings.[1] All dates given here are approximate, relying on synchronisms with known chronologies for neighbouring countries and Egypt.

Little is known of the rulers of the Middle Kingdom period. The sequence here still largely follows Bryce (1998),[2] but the short (or low) chronology is used.

McMahon (1989) lists Hattusili II and Tudhaliya III in inverse order. Bryce, among others, does not distinguish a Middle Kingdom. Instead he ends the Old Kingdom with Muwatalli I and begins the New Kingdom with Tudhaliya I. Nor is Tudhaliya "the Younger" generally included in Hittite king lists, as he was assassinated upon the death of his father, Tudhaliya II.

Hattic[edit]

Further information: Hattians
Ruler Reigned Lineage and Key events
Pamba ca. early 22nd century BC (short) King of Hatti
Pithana ca. 17th century BC (short) King of Kussara, conqueror of Neša
Piyusti ca. 17th century BC (short) King of Hatti, defeated by Anitta
Anitta ca. 17th century BC (short) King of Kussara, destroyer of Hattusa
(Tudhaliya) Great-grandfather of Hattusili I
(PU-Sarruma) Son of Tudhaliya

Old Kingdom[edit]

Ruler Reigned Lineage and key events
Labarna I ca. 1600-1586 BC (short) Traditional founder
Hattusili I a.k.a. Labarna II ca. 1586–1556 BC (short) Nephew/grandson(?) of Labarna; perhaps the first ruler to reoccupy Hattusa
Mursili I ca. 1556–1526 BC (short) Grandson of Hattusili I; sacked Babylon, ca. 1531
Hantili I ca. 1526–1496 BC (short) Brother-in-law of Mursili I; assassinated Mursili I
Zidanta I ca. 1496–1486 BC (short) Son-in-law of Hantili I; assassinated son/heir of Hantili I
Ammuna ca. 1486–1466 BC (short) Son of Zidanta I; assassinated his father
Huzziya I ca. 1466–1461 BC (short) Son of Ammuna?
Telipinus ca. 1460 BC (short) Brother-in-law of Huzziya I; usurped the throne from Huzziya

Middle Kingdom[edit]

Ruler Reigned Lineage and key events
Alluwamna ca. mid 15th century BC Son-in-law of Telipinu
Hantili II ca. 1500-1450 B.C. Son of Alluwamna
Tahurwaili Usurper. Ruled sometime between Telipinu and Zidanta II, but otherwise time is uncertain.
Zidanta II Son of Hantili II
Huzziya II Son of Zidanta II
Muwatalli I ca. 1400 BC Usurper; assassinated Huzziya II

New Kingdom (Empire)[edit]

Ruler Reigned Lineage and key events
Tudhaliya I ca. early 14th century BC (short) Lineage is uncertain; perhaps a grandson of Zidanta II. Became king after Muwatalli I was killed.
Arnuwanda I Son-in-law of Tudhaliya I
Hattusili II (?) The existence, lineage and time of his reign is disputed
Tudhaliya II ca. 1360? – 1344 BC (short) Son of Arnuwanda (or Hattusili II?)
Tudhaliya III "the Younger" Son of Tudhaliya II; assassinated upon his father's death; he may not have ruled at all.
Suppiluliuma I ca. 1344–1322 BC (short) Son of Tudhaliya II (or Hattusili II?); expanded the empire; mentioned in the Amarna letters
Arnuwanda II ca. 1322–1321 BC (short) Son of Suppiluliuma
Mursili II ca. 1321–1295 BC (short) Son of Suppiluliuma
Muwatalli II ca. 1295–1272 BC (short) Son of Mursili II; Battle of Kadesh, ca. 1274
Mursili III a.k.a. Urhi-Teshub ca. 1272–1267 BC (short) Son of Muwatalli II
Hattusili III ca. 1267–1237 BC (short) Brother of Muwatalli II; treaty with Egypt ca. 1258
Tudhaliya IV ca. 1237–1209 BC (short) Son of Hattusili III; Battle of Nihriya
Kurunta ca. 1228–1227 BC (short) Son of Muwatalli II; his reign is uncertain; may have ruled for a very brief time in the middle of Tudhaliya's reign.
Arnuwanda III ca. 1209–1207 BC (short) Son of Tudhaliya IV
Suppiluliuma II ca. 1207–1178 BC (short) Son of Tudhaliya IV; fall of Hattusa, ca. 1178

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A revised kinglist is offered in Trvor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, rev. ed. 2005:xv.
  2. ^ Bryce, Trevor (1998). The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-924010-4. 

References[edit]

  • McMahon, G., Hittite History, Biblical Archaeologist 52 (1989), 62 - 77
  • Robert S. Hardy, The Old Hittite Kingdom: A Political History, The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literature, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 177–216, 1941

External links[edit]