Ho Chi Minh City

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Coordinates: 10°46′10″N 106°40′55″E / 10.76944°N 106.68194°E / 10.76944; 106.68194

Ho Chi Minh City
Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh
Sài Gòn
Municipality
(Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương)
Top: Ho Chi Minh City skyline; Ho Chi Minh City Hall Center: Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica; Saigon Port; Bitexco Financial Tower Bottom: Bến Thành Market; Municipal Theatre
Top: Ho Chi Minh City skyline; Ho Chi Minh City Hall
Center: Saigon Notre-Dame Basilica; Saigon Port; Bitexco Financial Tower
Bottom: Bến Thành Market; Municipal Theatre
Nickname(s): Paris of the Orient, Pearl of the Far East
Location in Vietnam and Southern Vietnam
Location in Vietnam and Southern Vietnam
Coordinates: 10°46′10″N 106°40′55″E / 10.76944°N 106.68194°E / 10.76944; 106.68194
Country Vietnam Vietnam
Founded 1698
Renamed 1976
Demonym Saigonese
Government
 • Party Secretary Lê Thanh Hải
 • People's Committee chairman: Lê Hoàng Quân
 • People's Council Chairwoman: Nguyễn Thị Quyết Tâm
Area
 • Total 2,297 km2 (809.23 sq mi)
Elevation 19 m (63 ft)
Population (2014)[2]
 • Total 8,190,775[1]
 • Density 3,909/km2 (10,120/sq mi)
Area code(s) +84 (8)
GDP (nominal) 2013 estimate
 - Total 36 billion USD
 - Per capita 4,513 USD
 - Growth Increase 9.5%
Website Official website

Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; About this sound listen), formerly named Saigon (Vietnamese: Sài Gòn; About this sound listen, French: Saïgon), is the largest city in Vietnam. It was once known as Prey Nokor, an important Khmer sea port prior to annexation by the Vietnamese in the 17th century. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of the French colony of Cochinchina and later of the independent republic of South Vietnam from 1955–75. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City after Hồ Chí Minh (although the name Sài Gòn is still commonly used).[3]

The metropolitan area, which consists of the Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area, Thủ Dầu Một, Dĩ An, Biên Hòa and surrounding towns, is populated by more than 9,000,000 people,[nb 1] making it the most populous metropolitan area[4] in Vietnam. The city's population is expected to grow to 13.9 million in 2025.[5]

The Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area, a metropolitan area covering most parts of the Southeast region plus Tiền Giang Province and Long An Province under planning, will have an area of 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 sq mi) with a population of 20 million inhabitants by 2020.[6] According to the Mercer Human Resource Consulting, Economist Intelligence Unit and ECA International, Ho Chi Minh City is ranked 132 on the list of world's most expensive cities for expatriate employees.

Etymology[edit]

Sài Gòn may refer to the kapok (bông gòn) trees that are common around the city.

Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic, cultural and political groups. In the 1690s, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the Mekong Delta and its surroundings. Control of the city and the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the city the official name of Gia Định (). This name remained until the time of French conquest in the 1860s, when the occupying force adopted the name Saigon for the city, a westernized form of the traditional name,[7] although the city was still indicated as on Vietnamese maps written in Chữ Hán until at least 1891.[8] Immediately after the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after Hồ Chí Minh, the late North Vietnamese leader.[nb 2] Even today, however, the informal name of Sài Gòn / Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally, especially among the Vietnamese diaspora. In particular, Sài Gòn is still commonly used to refer to District 1.[9]

Saigon Railway Station retains the traditional name used informally since the 1620s.
Saigon

An etymology of Saigon (or Sài Gòn in Vietnamese) is that Sài is a Sino-Vietnamese word (Hán tự: ) meaning "firewood, lops, twigs; palisade", while Gòn is another Sino-Vietnamese word (Hán tự: ) meaning "stick, pole, bole", and whose meaning evolved into "cotton" in Vietnamese (bông gòn, literally "cotton stick", i.e., "cotton plant", then shortened to gòn). This name may refer to the many kapok plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, and which can still be seen at Cây Mai temple and surrounding areas. It may also refer to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor, already referred.[10]

Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon ( ), the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means "embankment" (French: quais),[nb 3] and Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor (Khmer: ព្រៃនគរ). Prey means forest or jungle, and nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, and related to the English word 'Nation' — thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom".[nb 4]

Truong Mealy (former director of King Norodom Sihanouk's royal Cabinet), says that, according to a Khmer Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor (Khmer: ព្រោះរាជនគរ), "Royal City”; later locally corrupted to "Prey kor", meaning "kapok forest", from which "Saigon" was derived (“kor” meaning "kapok” in Khmer and Cham, going into Vietnamese as “gòn” ).[11]

Ho Chi Minh City

The current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, and in French as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville (the circumflex is sometimes omitted), abbreviated HCMV. The name commemorates Hồ Chí Minh, the first leader North Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his later years. It combines a common Vietnamese surname (Hồ, ) with a given name meaning "enlightened will" (from Sino-Vietnamese ; Chí meaning 'will' (or spirit), and Minh meaning 'light'), in essence, meaning "bringer of light".[12]

History[edit]

Location of the hexagonal Gia Dinh Citadel (r) and Cholon area (tilted square, left) in 1815. Today this forms the area of Ho Chi Minh City.

Early history[edit]

Ho Chi Minh City began as a small fishing village likely known as Prey Nokor, "Forest City", or perhaps Preah Reach Nokor which, according to a Khmer Chronicle meant "Royal City".[13] The area that the city now occupies was originally swampland, and was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnamese. In Khmer folklore southern Vietnam was given to the Vietnamese government as a dowry for the marriage of a Vietnamese princess to a Khmer prince in order to stop constant invasions and pillaging of Khmer villages.[14] The early dynastical entity was the Rhead-Sivakumaran family who dominated the region in the early Romanic period, until the Qing dynasty overcame the armies of Rhead-Sivakumaran and General Behan in 820 BC.[15]

Khmer territory[edit]

Beginning in the early 17th century, colonization of the area by Vietnamese settlers gradually isolated the Khmer of the Mekong Delta from their brethren in Cambodia proper and resulted in their becoming a minority in the delta.[citation needed] In 1623, King Chey Chettha II of Cambodia (1618–28) allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn civil war in Vietnam to settle in the area of Prey Nokor and to set up a custom house there.[16] Increasing waves of Vietnamese settlers, which the Cambodian kingdom could not impede because it was weakened by war with Thailand, slowly Vietnamized the area. In time, Prey Nokor became known as Saigon. Prey Nokor was the most important commercial seaport to the Khmers. The loss of the city cut off Cambodia's southeasterly access to the sea. Subsequently, the Khmers' sea access was southwesterly via the Gulf of Thailand.[citation needed]

Nguyễn Dynasty rule[edit]

A French drawing of the French Siege of Saigon in 1859 by joint Franco-Spanish forces

In 1698, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế by sea[17] to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the area, thus detaching the area from Cambodia, which was not strong enough to intervene. He is often credited with the expansion of Saigon into a significant settlement. A large Vauban citadel called Gia Định was built, which was later destroyed by the French following the Battle of Kỳ Hòa (see Citadel of Saigon).[citation needed]

Colonial French era[edit]

Conquered by France and Spain in 1859, the city was influenced by the French during their colonial occupation of Vietnam, and a number of classical Western-style buildings and French villas in the city reflect this. Saigon had, in 1929, a population of 123,890, including 12,100 French.[18]

In 1931, Saïgon and the neighbouring city Cholon were merged to form a single city called ‘Saïgon–Cholon’; ‘Cholon’ was dropped from the city's official name in 1956 after Vietnam's independence from France in 1955.[19] The official name ‘Saïgon–Cholon’, however, never entered everyday vernacular and the city continued to be referred to as ‘Saïgon’.

Capital of South Vietnam[edit]

The Vietnamese people had proclaimed their own independence in 1945 after a combined occupation by Vichy France and Japan, and before the Communist revolution in China. They were led by Ho Chi Minh. During this time, the US supported France in regaining its control over the country. [20][21]

Former Emperor Bảo Đại made Saigon the capital of the State of Vietnam in 1949 with himself as head of state. After the Việt Minh gained control of North Vietnam in 1954, it became common to refer to the Saigon government as "South Vietnam". The government was renamed the Republic of Vietnam when Bảo Đại was deposed by his Prime Minister Ngô Đình Diệm in 1955 in a fraudulent referendum. Saigon and Cholon, an adjacent city with many Sino-Vietnamese residents, were combined into an administrative unit known as the Đô Thành Sài Gòn (Capital City Saigon).[citation needed]

Post-Vietnam War and today[edit]

At the conclusion of the Vietnam War on 30 April 1975, the city came under the control of the Vietnamese People's Army. Among Vietnamese diaspora communities and particularly the U.S. (which had fought the communists), this event is commonly called the "fall of Saigon", while the communist Socialist Republic of Vietnam refers to it as the "Liberation of Saigon". In 1976, upon the establishment of the unified communist Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the city of Saigon (including Cholon), the province of Gia Ðịnh and two suburban districts of two other nearby provinces were combined to create Ho Chi Minh City in honor of the late Communist leader Hồ Chí Minh. The former name Saigon is still widely used by many Vietnamese, especially in informal contexts.[22] Generally, the term Saigon refers only to the urban districts of Ho Chi Minh City.

Geography[edit]

Ho Chi Minh City is located in the southeastern region of Vietnam, 1,760 km (1,090 mi) south of Hanoi. The average elevation is 19 metres (62 ft) above sea level. It borders Tây Ninh Province and Bình Dương Province to the north, Đồng Nai Province and Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province to the east, Long An Province to the west and the South China Sea to the south with a coast 15 km (9 mi) long. The city covers an area of 2,095 km2 (809 sq mi or 0.63% of the surface of Vietnam), extending up to Củ Chi District (12 mi or 19 km from the Cambodian border) and down to Cần Giờ on the South China Sea. The distance from the northernmost point (Phú Mỹ Hưng Commune, Củ Chi District) to the southernmost one (Long Hòa Commune, Cần Giờ District) is 102 km (63 mi), and from the easternmost point (Long Bình ward, District Nine) to the westernmost one (Bình Chánh Commune, Bình Chánh District) is 47 km (29 mi).[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

The city has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate, with an average humidity of 75%.[23] The year is divided into two distinct seasons. The rainy season, with an average rainfall of about 1,800 millimetres (71 in) annually (about 150 rainy days per year), usually begins in May and ends in late November . The dry season lasts from December to April. The average temperature is 28 °C (82 °F), the highest temperature sometimes reaches 39 °C (102 °F) around noon in late April, while the lowest may fall below 16 °C (61 °F) in the early mornings of late December into early January.[23][24]

Climate data for Ho Chi Minh City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.6
(88.9)
32.9
(91.2)
33.9
(93)
34.6
(94.3)
34.0
(93.2)
32.4
(90.3)
32.0
(89.6)
31.8
(89.2)
31.3
(88.3)
31.2
(88.2)
31.0
(87.8)
30.8
(87.4)
32.3
(90.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.4
(79.5)
27.7
(81.9)
29.2
(84.6)
30.2
(86.4)
29.6
(85.3)
28.5
(83.3)
28.2
(82.8)
28.1
(82.6)
27.9
(82.2)
27.6
(81.7)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79)
28.03
(82.48)
Average low °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
22.5
(72.5)
24.4
(75.9)
25.8
(78.4)
25.2
(77.4)
24.6
(76.3)
24.3
(75.7)
24.3
(75.7)
24.4
(75.9)
23.9
(75)
22.8
(73)
21.4
(70.5)
23.7
(74.7)
Rainfall mm (inches) 13.8
(0.543)
4.1
(0.161)
10.5
(0.413)
50.4
(1.984)
218.4
(8.598)
311.7
(12.272)
293.7
(11.563)
269.8
(10.622)
327.1
(12.878)
266.7
(10.5)
116.5
(4.587)
48.3
(1.902)
1,931
(76.023)
Avg. rainy days 2.4 1.0 1.9 5.4 17.8 19.0 22.9 22.4 23.1 20.9 12.1 6.7 155.6
 % humidity 69 68 68 70 76 80 80 81 82 83 78 73 75.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.9 248.6 272.8 231.0 195.3 171.0 179.8 173.6 162.0 182.9 201.0 223.2 2,486.1
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (UN)[24] Weatherbase (humidity)[23]
Source #2: (sunshine hours only)[25]

Political and administrative system[edit]

Night view of the city from Bitexco Financial Tower

Saigon is a municipality at the same level as Vietnam's provinces. The city has been divided into twenty-four administrative divisions since December 2003. Five of these (1,601 km2 or 618 sq mi in area) are designated as rural (huyện). The rural districts are Nhà Bè, Cần Giờ, Hóc Môn, Củ Chi, and Bình Chánh. A rural district consists of communes () and townships (Thị trấn). The remaining districts (494 km2 or 191 sq mi in area) are designated urban or suburban (quận). This includes districts one to twelve, as well as Tân Bình, Bình Thạnh, Phú Nhuận, Thủ Đức, Bình Tân, Tân Phú and Gò Vấp. Each district is sub-divided into wards ("Phường"). Since December 2006, the city has had 259 wards, 58 communes and 5 townships (see List of HCMC administrative units below).[26]

People's Committee[edit]

The Ho Chi Minh City People's Committee is a 13-member executive council for the city. The current chairman is Lê Hoàng Quân. There are several vice chairmen and chairwomen on the committee with responsibility for various city departments. The legislative branch of the city government is called the People's Council and consists of 95 deputies. Both the committee and the council are subordinate to the city's Communist Party, currently led by Party Secretary Lê Thanh Hải. The chairman of the People's Committee is the No. 2 position in the city government while chairman of the People's Council is No. 3.[citation needed]

List of HCMC Administrative Units
Name of district
(Dec. 2003)
Sub-division units
(Dec. 2003)
Area (km2)
(Dec. 2006)
Population as of Census
October 1, 2004
Population as of Census
April 1, 2009
Population 2010 [27] Population 2011 [28]
Inner Districts:
District 1 10 wards 7.73 198,032 180,225 187,435 185,715
District 2 11 wards 49.74 125,136 147,490 140,621 136,497
District 3 14 wards 4.92 201,122 190,553 188,945 188,898
District 4 15 wards 4.18 180,548 180,980 183,261 183,043
District 5 15 wards 4.27 170,367 171,452 174,154 175,217
District 6 14 wards 7.19 241,379 249,329 253,474 251,902
District 7 10 wards 35.69 159,490 244,276 274,828 265,997
District 8 16 wards 19.18 360,722 408,772 418,961 421,547
District 9 13 wards 114 202,948 256,257 263,486 269,068
District 10 15 wards 5.72 235,231 230,345 232,450 234,188
District 11 16 wards 5.14 224,785 226,854 232,536 234,293
District 12 11 wards 52.78 290.129 405,360 427,083 451,737
Gò Vấp District 16 wards 19.74 452,083 522,690 548,145 561,068
Tân Bình District 15 wards 22.38 397,569 421,724 430,436 430,350
Tân Phú District 11 wards 16.06 366,399 398,102 407,924 419,227
Bình Thạnh District 20 wards 20.76 423,896 457,362 470,054 479,733
Phú Nhuận District 15 wards 4.88 175,293 174,535 175,175 175,631
Thủ Đức District 12 wards 47.76 336,571 442,177 455,899 474,547
Bình Tân District 10 wards 51.89 398,712 572,132 595,335 611,170
Total inner districts 259 wards 494.01 5,140,412 5,880,615 6,060,202 6,149,817
Suburban districts:
Củ Chi District 20 communes, 1 township 434.5 288,279 343,155 355,822 362,454
Hóc Môn District 11 communes, 1 township 109.18 245,381 349,065 358,640 363,171
Bình Chánh District 15 communes, 1 township 252.69 304,168 420,109 447,291 465,248
Nhà Bè District 6 communes, 1 township 100.41 72,740 101,074 103,793 109,949
Cần Giờ District 6 communes, 1 township 704.22 66,272 68,846 70,697 70,499
Total suburban districts 58 communes, 5 townships 1,601 976,839 1,282,249 1,336,244 1,371,321
Whole city 259 wards, 58 communes, 5 townships 2,095.01 6,117,251 7,162,864 7,396,446 7,521,138

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Pop.
Year population
1995 4,640,400
1996 4,747,900
1997 4,852,300
1998 4,957,300
1999 5,073,100
2000 5,274,900
2001 5,454,000
2002 5,619,400
2003 5,809,100
2004 6,007,600
2005 6,230,900
2006 6,483,100
2007 6,725,300
2008 6,946,100
2009 7,196,100
2010 7,378,000
2011 7,521,100
2012 7,750,900
Sources:[29]
Tuệ Thành meeting house in Chinatown, Ho Chi Minh City, District 5

The population of Ho Chi Minh City, as of the 1 October 2004 Census, was 6,117,251 (of which 19 inner districts had 5,140,412 residents and 5 suburban districts had 976,839 inhabitants).[26] In mid-2007, the city's population was 6,650,942 – with the 19 inner districts home to 5,564,975 residents and the five suburban districts containing 1,085,967 inhabitants. The result of the 2009 Census shows that the city's population was 7,162,864 people,[30] about 8.34% of the total population of Vietnam, making it the highest population-concentrated city in the country. As of the end of 2012, the total population of the city was 7,750,900 people, an increase of 3.1% from 2011.[31] As an administrative unit, its population is also the largest at the provincial level. The majority of the population are ethnic Vietnamese (Kinh) at about 93.52%. Ho Chi Minh City's largest minority ethnic group are the Chinese (Hoa) with 5.78%. Cholon – in District 5 and parts of Districts 6, 10 and 11 – is home to the largest Chinese community in Vietnam. Other ethnic minorities, include Khmer 0.34%, Cham 0.1%.[32]

The inhabitants of Ho Chi Minh City are usually known as "Saigonese" in English, "Saigonnais" in French and "dân Sài Gòn" in Vietnamese. The Hòa, in addition, speak Cantonese, Teochew (Chaozhou), Hokkien, Hainanese and Hakka dialects of Chinese, with only a few speaking Mandarin Chinese. A varying degree of English is spoken especially in the tourism and commerce sectors where dealing with foreign nationals is a necessity, so English has become a de facto second language for some Saigonese.[citation needed]

The three most prevalent religions in Ho Chi Minh City are Mahayana Buddhism with Taoism and Confucianism (via ancestor worship), which are often celebrated together in the same temple, the Vietnamese and Han Chinese are strongly influenced by these traditional religious practices. There is a sizeable community of Roman Catholicism (about 10% of the city's population).[33] Other minority groups included: Hòa Hảo, Cao Đài, Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, Bahá'í Faith.

Economy[edit]

Ho Chi Minh City is the economic center of Vietnam and accounts for a large proportion of the economy of Vietnam. Although the city takes up just 0.6% of the country's land area, it contains 8.34% of the population of Vietnam, 20.2% of its GDP, 27.9% of industrial output and 34.9% of the FDI projects in the country in 2005.[34] In 2005, the city had 4,344,000 laborers, of whom 130,000 are over the labor age norm (in Vietnam, 60 for male and 55 for female workers).[35] In 2009, GDP per capita reached $2,800, compared to the country's average level of $1,042.[36]

Mê Linh Point

In 2007, the city's GDP was estimated at $14.3 billion, or about $2,180 per capita, up 12.6 percent from 2006 and accounting for 20% of the country's GDP. The GDP adjusted to Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) reached $71.5 billion, or about $10,870 per capita (approximately three times higher than the country's average). The city's Industrial Product Value was $6.4 billion, equivalent to 30% of the value of the entire nation. Export – Import Turnover through HCMC ports accounted for $36 billion, or 40% of the national total, of which export revenue reached $18.3 billion (40% of Vietnam's total export revenues). In 2007, Ho Chi Minh City's contribution to the annual revenues in the national budget increased by 30 percent, accounting for about 20.5 percent of total revenues. The consumption demand of Ho Chi Minh City is higher than other Vietnamese provinces and municipalities and 1.5 times higher than that of Hanoi.[37] As of June 2006, the city has been home to three export processing zones and twelve industrial parks. Ho Chi Minh City is the leading receiver of foreign direct investment in Vietnam, with 2,530 FDI projects worth $16.6 billion at the end of 2007.[38] In 2007, the city received over 400 FDI projects worth $3 billion.[39]

In 2008, it attracted $8.5 billion in FDI.[40] In 2010, the city's GDP was estimated at $20.902 billion, or about $2,800 per capita, up 11.8 percent from 2009.[41]

By the end of 2012, the city's GDP was estimated around $28,595 billion[dubious ], or about $3,700 per capita, up 9.2 percent from 2011.[42] Total trade (export and import) reached $47.7 billion, with export at $21.57 billion and import $26.14 billion.[31] In 2013, GDP of the city grew 7.6% by Q1, 8.1% by Q2, and 10.3% by the end of Q3. By the end of 2013, the city's GDP grew 9.3%, with GDP per capital reach $4500.[43]

Sectors[edit]

The economy of Ho Chi Minh City consists of industries ranging from mining, seafood processing, agriculture, and construction, to tourism, finance, industry and trade. The state-owned sector makes up 33.3% of the economy, the private sector 4.6%, and the remainder in foreign investment. Concerning its economic structure, the service sector accounts for 51.1%, industry and construction account for 47.7% and forestry, agriculture and others make up just 1.2%.[44]

Quang Trung Software Park is a software park situated in District 12. The park is approximately 15 km (9 mi) from downtown Ho Chi Minh City and hosts software enterprises as well as dot.com companies. The park also includes a software training school. Dot.com investors here are supplied with other facilities and services such as residences and high-speed access to the internet as well as favorable taxation. Together with the hi-tech park in District 9, and the 32 ha. software park inside Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone in District 7 of the city, Ho Chi Minh City aims to become an important hi-tech city in the country and the South-East Asia region. This park helps the city in particular and Vietnam in general to become an outsourcing location for other enterprises in developed countries, as India has done. Some 300,000 businesses, including many large enterprises, are involved in high-tech, electronic, processing and light industries, and also in construction, building materials and agricultural products. Additionally, crude oil is a popular economic base in the city. Investors are still pouring money into the city. Total local private investment was 160 billion dong (7.5 million USD) [45]with 18,500 newly founded companies. Investment trends to high technology, services and real estate projects.[citation needed]

As of June 2006, the city had three export processing zones and twelve industrial parks, in addition to Quang Trung Software Park and Ho Chi Minh City hi-tech park. Intel has invested about 1 billion dollars in a factory in the city. More than fifty banks with hundreds of branches and about 20 insurance companies are also located inside the city. The Stock Exchange, the first stock exchange in Vietnam, was opened in 2001. There are 171 medium and large-scale markets as well as several supermarket chains, shopping malls, and fashion and beauty centres.[citation needed]

Some of the larger shopping malls and plazas opened recently include:

Bitexco Financial Tower, the second tallest building in Vietnam.
  • AEON Mall Tan Phu Celadon (2014) - 30 Bờ Bao Tân Thắng St, Sơn Kỳ Ward, Tân Phú District
  • Zen Plaza (1995) – 54–56 Nguyễn Trãi St, District 1
  • Saigon Centre (1997) – 65 Lê Lợi Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Tax Plaza (1998) – 135 Nguyễn Huệ Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Diamond Plaza (1999) – 34 Le Duan Blvd, District 1
  • Big C (2002) – Multiple locations (District 10, Binh Tan District, Go Vap District, Phu Nhuan District, and Tan Phu District)
  • METRO Cash & Carry – Multiple locations (District 2, District 6, and District 12)
  • Crescent Mall - Phu My Hung, District 7
  • Lotte Mart – District 7 and District 11
  • Parkson (2005–2009) – Multiple locations (District 1, District 5, District 7, District 11, and Tan Binh District)
  • Saigon Paragon (2009) – 3 Nguyễn Lữong Bang St, Tan Phu Ward, District 7
  • NowZone (2009) – 235 Nguyen Van Cu Ave, Nguyen Cu Trinh Ward, District 1
  • Kumho Asiana Plaza (2010) – 39 Le Duan Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Vincom Centre (2010) – 70–72 Lê Thánh Tông St, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1
  • Bitexco Financial Tower (2010) – Hẻm số 2 Hàm Nghi Blvd, Ben Nghe Ward, District 1

In 2007, three million foreign tourists, about 70% of the total number of tourists to Vietnam, visited the city. Total cargo transport to Ho Chi Minh City's ports reached 50.5   million metric tonnes,[46] nearly one-third of the total for Vietnam.

[47] With a population now of 8,382,287 (as of Census 2010 on 1 April 2010)[48] (registered residents plus migrant workers as well as a metropolitan population of 10 million), Ho Chi Minh City needs increased public infrastructure.[26] To this end, the city and central governments have embarked on an effort to develop new urban centers. The two most prominent projects are the Thu Thiem city center in District 2 and the Phu My Hung Urban Area, a new city center in District 7 (as part of the Saigon South project) where various international schools such as Saigon South International School and Australia's Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. In December 2007, Phu My Hung's new City Center completed the 17.8   km 10–14 lane wide Nguyen Van Linh Boulevard linking the Saigon port areas, Tan Thuan Export Processing Zone to the National Highway 1 and the Mekong Delta area. In November 2008, a brand new trade center, Saigon Exhibition and Convention Center, also opened its doors. Other projects include Grandview, Waterfront, Sky Garden, Riverside and Phu Gia 99. Phu My Hung's new City Center received the first Model New City Award from the Vietnamese Ministry of Construction.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Air[edit]

The city is served by Tân Sơn Nhất International Airport, the largest airport in Vietnam in terms of passengers handled (with an estimated number of over 15.5 million passengers per year in 2010, accounting for more than half of Vietnam's air passenger traffic[49][50]). Long Thành International Airport is scheduled to begin operating in 2025. Based in Long Thành District, Đồng Nai Province, about 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Ho Chi Minh City, Long Thành Airport will serve international flights, with a maximum traffic capacity of 100 million passengers per year when fully completed; Tân Sơn Nhất Airport will serve domestic flights.[51]

Rail[edit]

Ho Chi Minh City is also a terminal for many Vietnam Railways train routes in the country. The Reunification Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi from Saigon Railway Station in District 3, with stops at cities and provinces along the line.[citation needed] Within the city, the two main stations are Sóng Thần and Sài Gòn. In addition, there are several smaller stations such as Dĩ An, Thủ Đức, Bình Triệu, Gò Vấp. However, rail transportation is not fully developed and presently comprises only 0.6% of passenger traffic and 6% of goods shipments.[52]

Water[edit]

Mong bridge, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

The city's location on the Saigon River makes it a bustling commercial and passenger port; besides a constant stream of cargo ships, passenger boats operate regularly between Ho Chi Minh City and various destinations in Southern Vietnam and Cambodia, including Vũng Tàu, Cần Thơ and the Mekong Delta, and Phnom Penh. Traffic between Ho Chi Minh City and Vietnam's southern provinces has steadily increased over the years; the Doi and Te Canals, the main routes to the Mekong Delta, receive 100,000 waterway vehicles every year, representing around 13 million tons of cargo. A project to dredge these routes has been approved to facilitate transport, to be implemented in 2011–14.[53]

Coach bus[edit]

Ho Chi Minh City has a number of coach houses, which house coach buses to and from other areas in Vietnam. The largest coach station – in terms of passengers handled – is the Mien Dong Coach Station in the Bình Thạnh District.

Inner city transportation[edit]

Common traffic in Ho Chi Minh City

Private transport[edit]

The main means of transport within the city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and bicycles. Motorbikes remain the most common way to move around the city. Taxis are plentiful and usually have trip meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a long trip, for example, from the airport to the city centre. Public buses run on many routes and fare can be purchased on the bus. For short trips, "xe ôm" (literally, "hug vehicle") motorcycle taxis are available where the passenger sits at the rear of a motorbike. A popular activity for tourists is a tour of the city on cyclos, which allow for longer trips at a more relaxed pace. For the last few years, cars have become more popular.[citation needed]. There are approximated 340,000 cars and 3.5 million motorcycles in the city, which is almost double compare to Hanoi.[52] The growing number of motorcycles tend to cause gridlocks and pollute the air. These are two reasons why the government develops plans to reduce the number of motorcycles and to improve public transportation besides other measures to reduce traffic.[54]

Metro system[edit]

The Ho Chi Minh City Metro, a light rail rapid transit network, is currently in the preparation stages, with the first line currently under construction, to be completed by 2017. This first line will connect Bến Thành to Suối Tiên Park in District 9, with a depot in Long Binh. Planners expect the route to serve more than 160,000 passengers daily.[55] A line between Bến Thành and Tham Luong in District 12 has been approved by the government,[56] and several more lines are currently the subject of feasibility studies.[55]

Society[edit]

Healthcare[edit]

The health care system of the city is relatively developed with a chain of about 100 government owned hospitals or medical centers and dozens of privately owned clinics.[26] The 1,400 bed Chợ Rẫy Hospital, upgraded by Japanese aid and the French-sponsored Institute of Cardiology, are among the top medical facilities in Indochina.

Communications[edit]

The Word Ho Chi Minh City, an English-language magazine.

The city's media is the most developed in the country. At present, there are seven daily newspapers: Sai Gon Giai Phong (Liberated Saigon), and its Vietnamese, investment and finance, sports, evening and weekly editions; Tuổi Trẻ (Youth), the highest circulation newspaper in Vietnam; Thanh Nien (Young Men), the second largest circulation in the south of Vietnam; Nguoi Lao Dong (Labourer); The Thao (Sports); Phap Luat (Law) and the Saigon Times Daily, the English-language newspaper as well as more than 30 other newspapers and magazines. The city has hundreds of printing and publishing houses, many bookstores and a widespread network of public and school libraries; the city's General Library houses over 1.5 mìllion books. Locally based Ho Chi Minh City Television (HTV) is the second largest television network in the nation, just behind the national Vietnam Television (VTV), broadcasting 24/7 on 7 different channels (using analog and digital technology). Many major international TV channels are provided through two cable networks (SCTV and HTVC), with over one million subscribers. The Voice of Ho Chi Minh City is the largest radio station in southern Vietnam.[citation needed]

Internet coverage, especially through ADSL connections, is rapidly expanding, with over 2,200,000 subscribers and around 5.5 million frequent users. Internet service providers (ISPs) operating in Ho Chi Minh City include the Vietnam Data Communication Company (VDC), Corporation for Finance and Promoting Technology (FPT), Netnam Company, Saigon Post and Telecommunications Services Corporation (Saigon Postel Corporation, SPT) and Viettel Company. As in all of Vietnam, Internet access is regulated; websites containing sensitive political or religious content are routinely blocked,[57] and certain websites such as Facebook have been blocked, though government officials deny that this is intentional. The city has more than two million fixed telephones and about fifteen million cellular phones (the latter growing annually by 20%). Mobile phone service is provided by a number of companies, including Viettel Mobile, MobiFone, VinaPhone, and S-Fone.

Education[edit]

Students in a drawing class at the University of Architecture.

Notable high schools in Ho Chi Minh City include Lê Hồng Phong High School for the Gifted, Phổ Thông Năng Khiếu High School for the Gifted, Trần Đại Nghĩa High School for the Gifted, Nguyễn Thượng Hiền High School, Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai High School, and Gia Định High School, Lê Quý Đôn High School, among others. Though the former schools are all public, private education is also available in Ho Chi Minh City. High school consists of grade 10–12 (sophomore, junior, and senior).[citation needed]

Higher education in Ho Chi Minh City is a burgeoning industry; the city boasts over 80 universities and colleges with a total of over 400,000 students.[26] Notable universities include Vietnam National University with 50,000 students distributed among six schools; The University of Technology (Vietnamese: Đại học Bách khoa, formerly Phú Thọ National Center of Technology); The University of Sciences (formerly Saigon College of Sciences)); The University of Social Sciences and Humanities (formerly Saigon College of Letters); The International University; The University of Economics and Law; and the newly established University of Information Technology.

Some other important higher education establishments include HCMC University of Pedagogy, University of Economics, University of Architecture, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Nong Lam University (formerly University of Agriculture and Forestry), University of Law, University of Technical Education, University of Banking, University of Industry, Open University,[58] University of Sports and Physical Education, University of Fine Arts, University of Culture, the Conservatory of Music, the Saigon Institute of Technology, Văn Lang University, Saigon University and Hoa Sen University.

In addition to the above public universities, Ho Chi Minh City is also home to several private universities. One of the most notable is RMIT International University, Vietnam, a campus of Australian public research RMIT University with an enrollment of about 6,000 students. Tuition at RMIT is about 40,000 USD for an entire course of study.[59] Other private universities include The Saigon International University (or SIU), which is run by the Group of Asian International Education.[60] Enrollment at SIU averages about 12,000 students[61] Depending on the type of program, tuition at SIU costs between 5,000 and 6,000 USD per year.[62]

Tourism[edit]

Today, the city's core is still adorned with wide elegant boulevards and historic French colonial buildings. The majority of these tourist spots are located in District 1 and are a short leisurely distance from each other. The most prominent structures in the city center are the Reunification Palace (Dinh Thống Nhất), City Hall (Ủy ban nhân dân Thành phố), Municipal Theatre (Nhà hát thành phố, also known as the Opera House), City Post Office (Bưu điện thành phố), State Bank Office (Ngân hàng nhà nước), City People's Court (Tòa án nhân dân thành phố) and Notre-Dame Cathedral (Nhà thờ Đức Bà). Some of the historic hotels are the Hotel Majestic, dating from the French colonial era, and the Rex and Caravelle hotels are former hangouts for American officers and war correspondents in the 1960s/70s.

It was approximated that 4.3 million tourists visited Vietnam in 2007, of which 70 percent, approximately 3 million tourists, visited Ho Chi Minh City.[63] In 2007, the number of tourists increased by 12 percent compared to 2006, and tourism revenue increased to 19,500 billion Vietnamese dong, up 20 percent.[63]

A tour guide demonstrates a secret entrance at the Củ Chi tunnels.

The city has various museums including the Ho Chi Minh City Museum, Museum of Vietnamese History, the Revolutionary Museum, the Museum of Southeastern Armed Forces, the War Remnants Museum, the Museum of Southern Women, the Museum of Fine Art, the Nha Rong Memorial House, and the Ben Duoc Relic of Underground Tunnels. The Củ Chi tunnels are northwest of the city in Củ Chi District. The Saigon Zoo and Botanical Gardens, in District 1, dates from 1865. The Đầm Sen Tourist and Cultural Park, Suối Tiên Amusement and Culture Park, and Cần Giờ's Eco beach resort are three recreational sites inside the city which are popular with tourists.

Aside from the Municipal Theatre, there are other places of entertainment such as the Bến Thành theatre, Hòa Bình theatre, and the Lan Anh Music Stage. Ho Chi Minh City is home to hundreds of cinemas and theatres, with cinema and drama theatre revenue accounting for 60–70% of Vietnam's total revenue in this industry.[citation needed] Unlike other theatrical organizations found in Vietnam's provinces and municipalities, residents of Ho Chi Minh City keep their theatres active without the support of subsidies from the Vietnamese government. The city is also home to most of the private movie companies in Vietnam.[citation needed]

Like many of Vietnam's smaller cities, the city boasts a multitude of restaurants serving typical Vietnamese dishes such as phở or rice vermicelli. Backpacking travelers most often frequent the "Western Quarter" on Phạm Ngũ Lão Street, District 1.[citation needed]

Sports and recreation[edit]

As of 2005, Ho Chi Minh City was home to 91 football fields, 86 swimming pools, 256 gyms.[64] The largest stadium in the city is the 25,000-seat Thống Nhất Stadium, located on Đào Duy Từ Street, in Ward 6 of District 10. The next largest is Army Stadium, located near Tân Sơn Nhất Airport in Tân Bình district. Army Stadium was of the venues for the 2007 AFC Asian Cup finals. As well as being a sporting venue, it is also the site of a music school. Phú Thọ Racecourse, another notable sporting venue established during colonial times, is the only racetrack in Vietnam. The city's Department of Physical Education and Sports also manages a number of clubs, including Phan Dinh Phung, Thanh Da, and Yet Kieu.

Ho Chi Minh City is home to a number of association football clubs. One of the city's largest clubs, Ho Chi Minh City F.C., is based at Thống Nhất Stadium. As Cảng Sài Gòn, they were four-time champions of Vietnam's V-League (in 1986, 1993–94, 1997, and 2001–02). The team currently plays in Vietnam's First Division. Navibank Saigon F.C., founded as Quân Khu 4, also based at Thống Nhất Stadium, emerged as champions of the First Division in the 2008 season, and were promoted to the V-League in 2009. The city's police department also fielded a football team in the 1990s, Công An Thành Phố, which won the V-League championship in 1995. Celebrated striker Lê Huỳnh Đức, now manager of SHB Đà Nẵng F.C., played for the Police F.C. from 1995–2000, setting a league record of 25 goals in the 1996 season. In 2011, Ho Chi Minh City was awarded an expansion team for the ASEAN Basketball League.[65]

SSA Saigon Heat is the first ever international professional basketball team to represent Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City hosts a number of international sports events throughout the year, such as the AFF Futsal Championship and the Vietnam Vertical Run. Several other sports are represented by teams in the city, such as volleyball, basketball, chess, athletics, and table tennis.[citation needed]

Sister cities[edit]

There are 25 sister cities/regions of Ho Chi Minh City:[66]

City From
China Shanghai, People's Republic of China 14 May 1994
Philippines Manila, Philippines 27 June 1994
United States San Francisco, USA 10 April 1995
Japan Osaka, Japan 13 June 1995
South Korea Busan, Republic of Korea 3 November 1995
China Guangzhou, People's Republic of China 1 April 1996
France Lyon, France 17 January 1997
China Shenyang, People's Republic of China 21 April 1999
Russia Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia 5 September 2000
Laos Champasak Province, Laos 28 August 2001
Laos Vientiane, Laos 1 September 2001
France Rhône-Alpes (region), France 8 November 2001
Cambodia Phnom Penh, Cambodia June 2002
Russia Moscow, Russia 31 October 2003
Canada Toronto, Canada 13 February 2006
Japan Yokohama, Japan 23 July 2007
Japan Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan 27 October 2007
Belarus Minsk, Belarus 4 November 2008[67]
Russia Vladivostok, Russia 21 May 2009
Spain Barcelona, Spain 29 May 2009
Spain Seville, Spain 29 May 2009
South Africa Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa 10 November 2009
Mexico Monterrey, Mexico 27 May 2013
Iran Tabriz, Iran date unclear

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Đồng Nai Province's Populations: 2.254.676 (2006), Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu Province's Populations:862.081 (2002), Bình Dương province's Population: 1,2 million (2007), Ho Chi Minh City's population: 5,037,155 (1999)
  2. ^ The text of the resolution is as follows: "By the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 6th tenure, 1st session, for officially renaming Saigon-Gia Dinh City as Ho Chi Minh City.
    The National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Considering the boundless love of the people of Saigon-Gia Dinh City for President Ho Chi Minh and their wish for the city to be named after him;
    Considering the long and difficult revolutionary struggle launched in Saigon-Gia Dinh City, with several glorious feats, deserves the honor of being named after President Ho Chi Minh;
    After discussing the suggestion of the Presidium of the National Assembly's meeting;
    Decides to rename Saigon-Gia Dinh City as Ho Chi Minh City.""From Saigon to Ho Chi Minh City". People's Committee of Ho Chi Minh City. Retrieved 15 June 2010. 
  3. ^ "Un siècle plus tard (1773), la révolte des TÁYON (sic) [qu’éclata] tout, d'abord dans les montagnes de la province de Qui-Nhon, et s’étendit rapidement dans le sud, chassa de Bien-Hoa le mouvement commercial qu’y avaient attiré les Chinois. Ceux-ci abandonnèrent Cou-lao-pho, remontèrent de fleuve de Tan-Binh, et vinrent choisir la position actuele de CHOLEN. Cette création date d'environ 1778. Ils appelèrent leur nouvelle résidence TAI-NGON ou TIN-GAN. Le nom transformé par les Annamites en celui de SAIGON fut depuis appliqué à tort, par l'expédition française, au SAIGON actuel dont la dénomination locale est BEN-NGHE ou BEN-THANH." Francis Garnier, quoted in: Hồng Sến Vương, Q. Thắng Nguyễn (2002). Tuyển tập Vương Hồng Sến. Nhà xuất bản Văn học. 
  4. ^ "The Khmer name for Saigon, by the way, is Prey Nokor; prey means forest, nokor home or city." Norodom Sihanouk (1980). War and hope: the case for Cambodia. Pantheon Books. p. 54. ISBN 0-394-51115-8. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Statistic office Ho Chi Min City
  2. ^ "02.01 Dân số và mật độ dân số năm 2010 phân theo quận, huyện". Cục Thống kê Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh (in Vietnamese and English). Cục Thống kê Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  3. ^ Ben Brown (12 November 2007). "Letter from Ho Chi Minh City A Tribute to My Vietnam Vet Father". CounterPunch. CounterPunch. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  4. ^ About Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). MyVietnam.info. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  5. ^ Wendell Cox (22 March 2012). "THE EVOLVING URBAN FORM: HO CHI MINH CITY (SAIGON)". New Geography. New Geography. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  6. ^ "Quy hoạch xây dựng vùng Tp.HCM". VnEconomy. 25 April 2008. 
  7. ^ Robert M. Salkin, Trudy Ring (1996). Paul E. Schellinger, Robert M. Salkin, ed. Asia and Oceania. International Dictionary of Historic Places 5. Taylor & Francis. p. 354. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. 
  8. ^ "Comprehensive Map of Vietnam's Provinces". World Digital Library. UNESCO. 1890. 
  9. ^ Robert M. Salkin, Trudy Ring (1996). Paul E. Schellinger, Robert M. Salkin, ed. Asia and Oceania. International Dictionary of Historic Places 5. Taylor & Francis. p. 353. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. 
  10. ^ Trương Vĩnh Ký, Souvenirs historiques sur Saigon et ses environs, trong Excursions et Reconnaissance X. Saigon, Imprimerie Coloniale 1885
  11. ^ Touch Bora, ‘Jacobsen history challenged’, The Phnom Penh Post, 21 April 2006.
  12. ^ "Historic Figures: Hồ Chí Minh (1890–1969)". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 June 2010. 
  13. ^ Truong Mealy (former Cambodian Ambassador to Japan), quoted in Touch Bora, "Jacobsen history challenged", Phnom Penh Post, 21 April 2006.
  14. ^ Jean Morice, Cambodge, du sourire à l'horreur, Éditions France-Empire, 1977, p.30.
  15. ^ Schweyer, Anne-Valerie. Ancient Vietnam. 
  16. ^ Mai Thục, Vương miện lưu đày: truyện lịch sử, Nhà xuất bản Văn hóa – thông tin, 2004, p.580; Giáo sư Hoàng Xuân Việt, Nguyễn Minh Tiến hiệu đính, Tìm hiểu lịch sử chữ quốc ngữ, Ho Chi Minh City, Công ty Văn hóa Hương Trang, pp.31–33; Helen Jarvis, Cambodia, Clio Press, 1997, p.xxiii.
  17. ^ The first settlers, http://www.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/eng
  18. ^ "Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana (2006)", p. 175.
  19. ^ P. 61, Historic Dictionary of Ho Chi Minh City (written by Justin Corfield; published by Anthem Press in 2013)
  20. ^ 4 April 1967 speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. at Riverside Church in New York City
  21. ^ The Uncensored War: The Media and Vietnam by Daniel C. Hallin
  22. ^ "Pearl of the Orient is still Vietnam's heart". Travelterrific.com. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  23. ^ a b c "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Ho Chi Minh City". Weatherbase. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  24. ^ a b "World Weather Information Service – Ho Chi Minh City". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 5 September 2012. 
  25. ^ "Solar Energy and Solar Photovoltaics in Vietnam". Retrieved 15 May 2013. 
  26. ^ a b c d e "Statistical office in Ho Chi Minh City". Pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  27. ^ http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=5fdc62bc-0523-453a-b596-57ad36af9831&groupId=18
  28. ^ http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/web/guest/niengiamthongke-nam2011
  29. ^ Dân số trung bình phân theo địa phương qua các năm, Theo Tổng cục thống kê Việt Nam.
  30. ^ "General Statistics Office of Vietnam". Gso.gov.vn. Retrieved 4 October 2010. 
  31. ^ a b "Tong Cuc Thong Ke". Gso.gov.vn. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  32. ^ "Cục thống kê – Tóm tắt kết quả điều tra dân số". Pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn. 4 January 2001. Retrieved 4 October 2010. 
  33. ^ Archdiocese of Thành-Phô Hô Chí Minh (Hôchiminh Ville)
  34. ^ Statistics in 2005 on the city's official website.
  35. ^ Ho Chi Minh City Economics Institute.
  36. ^ Hana R. Alberts (21 December 2009). "''Forbes'' profile of Vietnam". Forbes. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  37. ^ Minh Anh, "Quy mô tiêu dùng 41,5 tỉ USD: Đầu kéo phát triển!" Tuổi Trẻ, 20 August 2007.
  38. ^ Hàn Ni, "TPHCM dẫn đầu thu hút vốn FDI vì biết cách bứt phá". Sài Gòn giải phóng, 2007.
  39. ^ "TPHCM sau 1 năm gia nhập WTO – Vượt lên chính mình...", Trung tâm thông tin thương mại.
  40. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City attracts record FDI in 2008". 
  41. ^ "10 điểm nổi bật trong tình hình kinh tế – xã hội TPHCM năm 2010". Bsc.com.vn. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  42. ^ vnexpress projection 2013
  43. ^ http://www.pso.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=81a32bfe-59a2-46dd-96dc-e36ae460f5b4&groupId=18
  44. ^ Chỉ tiêu tổng hợp giai đoạn 2001–06, Ho Chi Minh City government website.
  45. ^ Exchange rate from XE.com
  46. ^ "mofahcm" (in Vietnamese). mofahcm. Retrieved 3 April 2010. "Số lượng khách quốc tế đến TPHCM đã đạt tới 3 triệu lượt người, tăng 14,6% so với năm 2006, chiếm 70% tổng lượng du khách đến VN... Lượng hàng hóa vận chuyển qua cảng đạt 50,5 triệu tấn..." 
  47. ^ ===New urban areas===
  48. ^ "Tong Cuc Thong Ke". Gso.gov.vn. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  49. ^ "Expansion of Saigon – Tan Son Nhat International Airport on", Sài Gòn Giải Phóng Newspaper, 13 October 2007 [1]
  50. ^ Two more Hanoi<>Saigon flights per day for Pacific Airlines on Vietnamnet.net, accessdate 11 November 2007, (Vietnamese) [2]
  51. ^ "Airport Development News". Retrieved 19 May 2008. 
  52. ^ a b "Print Version". .mt.gov.vn. 29 May 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  53. ^ Vietnam News Service. "City to expand waterway transport". Vietnam News. 
  54. ^ Hans-Heinrich Bass, Thanh Trung Nguyen (April 2013). "Imminent gridlocks". dandc.eu. 
  55. ^ a b "Ho Chi Minh City Metro". Railway-technology.com. Retrieved 4 April 2010. 
  56. ^ Dinh Muoi. "HCMC's subway route No.2 approved". Thanh Nien. 
  57. ^ "OpenNet Initiative Vietnam Report: University Research Team Finds an Increase in Internet Censorship in Vietnam". Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. 5 August 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2008. 
  58. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City Open University". Ou.edu.vn. Retrieved 3 April 2010. 
  59. ^ "RMIT University website". Rmit.edu.vn. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  60. ^ "Saigon International University". siu.edu.vn. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  61. ^ "SIU Group of Asian International Education". siu.edu.vn. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  62. ^ "Schedule of Course Fees". siu.edu.vn. Retrieved 2 March 2013. 
  63. ^ a b [3][dead link]
  64. ^ Exercise and sports. PSO Ho Chi Minh City.
  65. ^ "ASEAN Basketball League website". Aseanbasketballleague.com. 22 October 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012. 
  66. ^ "CÁC ĐỊA PHƯƠNG NƯỚC NGOÀI ĐÃ THIẾT LẬP QUAN HỆ HỮU NGHỊ HỢP TÁC VỚI TPHCM". mofahcm.gov.vn. 9 October 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2011. 
  67. ^ "Twin towns and Sister cities of Minsk [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on 2 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 

External links[edit]