Ho Feng-Shan (traditional Chinese: 何鳳山; simplified Chinese: 何凤山; pinyin: Hé Fèngshān, also spelled "He Fengshan"; born September 10, 1901 in Yiyang, Hunan; died September 28, 1997 in San Francisco) was a Chinese diplomat in Vienna who risked his own life and career during World War II to save more than one thousand Jews. Ho's actions were recognized posthumously when he was awarded the title "Righteous among the Nations" by the Israeli organization Yad Vashem in 2000.
Ho Feng-Shan's father died when Ho was 7 years old. A diligent and hard-working student, he managed to enter the Yali School in the provincial capital of Changsha and later Yale-in-China University. He went to Munich University in 1926 and received his Ph.D. in political economics in 1932.
Activities during World War II
In 1935, Ho started his diplomatic career within the Foreign Ministry of the Republic of China. His first posting was in Turkey. He was appointed First Secretary at the ROC legation in Vienna in 1937. When Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938, and the legation was turned into a consulate, Ho was assigned the post of Consul-General.
After the Kristallnacht in 1938, the situation became rapidly more difficult for the almost 200,000 Austrian Jews. The only way for Jews to escape from Nazism was to leave Europe. In order to leave, they had to provide proof of emigration, usually a visa from a foreign nation, or a valid boat ticket. This was difficult, however, because at the 1938 Evian Conference 31 countries (out of a total of 32, which included Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) refused to accept Jewish immigrants. The only country willing to accept Jews was the Dominican Republic, which offered to accept up to 100,000 refugees. Acting against the orders of his superior Chen Jie (陳介), the ROC ambassador to Berlin, Ho started to issue visas to Shanghai for humanitarian reasons. 1,200 visas were issued by Ho in the first three months of holding office as Consul-General.
At the time it was not necessary to have a visa to enter Shanghai, but the visas allowed the Jews to leave Austria. Many Jewish families left for Shanghai, whence most of them would later leave for Hong Kong and Australia. Ho continued to issue these visas until he was ordered to return to the ROC in May 1940. The exact number of visas given by Ho to Jewish refugees is unknown. It is known that Ho issued the 200th visa in June 1938, and signed 1906th on October 27, 1938. How many Jews were saved through his actions is unknown, but given that Ho issued nearly 2,000 visas only during his first half year at his post, the number may be in the thousands.
After the war
Ho later served as the Republic of China (ROC)'s ambassador to other countries, including Egypt, Mexico, Bolivia, and Colombia. After his retirement in 1973, Ho settled in San Francisco, United States, where he wrote his memoirs, 40 Years of My Diplomatic Life (外交生涯四十年) published in 1990.
After his retirement in 1973, the ROC government on Taiwan denied Ho a pension on the grounds that he had "not properly accounted for" the equivalent of USD 300 in embassy expenses. These charges are now widely believed to have been politically motivated. Despite repeated appeals, the ROC has never exonerated him. In the 1980s, he returned several times to his native China and visited his alma mater in Changsha for its 80th anniversary in 1986.
Ho Feng-Shan died in San Francisco, California at the age of 96. He was survived by his son, Ho Man-To (何曼德), an American expert in microbiology, virology, and infectious diseases; and by his daughter, Ho Man-Li.
Ho's actions in Vienna went unnoticed during his lifetime, save for a black mark in his personnel file for disobeying orders. They were finally recognized, posthumously, when he was awarded the title Righteous Among the Nations by the Israeli organization Yad Vashem in 2001 and honored by Boys Town Jerusalem in 2004. The People's Republic of China press gave coverage to Ho's story. The PRC ambassador attended the ceremonies, with the stipulation that the ROC ambassador not attend.[dubious ]
- Jan Zwartendijk
- Chiune Sugihara
- Fugu Plan
- History of the Jews in China
- List of individuals and groups assisting Jews during the Holocaust
- Shanghai ghetto
- Oskar Schindler
- People's Daily Online, "Former Jewish refugees revisit Shanghai Ark"
- Dempsey, Amy (April 18, 2012). "Unsung hero gave Toronto family ticket out of Nazi-occupied Austria". The Toronto Star (Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- "Chinese Visas in Vienna: Feng-Shan Ho". Yad Vashem. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Crassweller RD. Trujillo. The Life and Times of a Caribbean Dictator. The MacMillan Co., New York (1966). pp. 199–200.
- Baruch Tenembaum "Feng-Shan Ho, Chinese Savior", International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation.
- Brief profile of Ho Feng-shan during World War II
- "Teaching the Chinese About the Holocaust", Rafael Medoff, Jewish Ledger, November 5, 2010