0.96% of the Vietnamese population (2009)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Vietnamese • Cantonese
Teochew • Hakka • Hokkien • Mandarin
|Mahayana Buddhism • Confucianism •
Taoism, Roman Catholicism • Protestantism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Sán Dìu • Ngái • Gin
Dân tàu (boat people) refers to a minority living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered to be ethnic Chinese. They are often referred to as either Chinese Vietnamese, Vietnamese Chinese, Sino-Vietnamese, or ethnic Chinese in/from Vietnam by the Vietnamese populace, Overseas Vietnamese, and other ethnic Chinese. The Vietnamese government's classification of the Tàu excludes two other groups of Chinese-speaking peoples, the Sán Dìu and the Ngái. The Tàu constitute one group of Overseas Chinese and contain one of the largest Overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia.
The Tàu were highly overrepresented in Vietnam's business and commerce sector before the Fall of Saigon in 1975. As of 2012[update], they comprise a well-established middle class ethnic group and make up a high percentage of Vietnam's educated and upper class. Like much of Southeast Asia, the Sino-Vietnamese are dominant in Vietnamese commerce and business. They are estimated to have controlled between 70% to 80% of the pre-fall of Saigon South Vietnamese economy. At present, Sino-Vietnamese comprise a small percentage in the modern Vietnamese economy, now mostly Vietnamese-run, as many Tàu had their businesses and property confiscated by the Communists after 1975, and many fled the country as boat people due to persecution by the new Communist government. Tàu persecution intensified in the late 1970s, which was one of the reasons for the Sino-Vietnamese War.
- 1 Migration history
- 2 Population
- 3 Trade and industry
- 4 Diaspora communities
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 References
- 9 External links
2nd century BCE–14th century: Early history
According to old Vietnamese historical records Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục ("欽定越史通鑑綱目"), An Dương Vương (Thục Phán) was a prince of the Chinese state of Shu (蜀, which shares the same Chinese character as his surname Thục), sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin Dynasty.
Some modern Vietnamese believe that Thục Phán came upon the Âu Việt territory (modern-day northernmost Vietnam, western Guangdong, and southern Guangxi province, with its capital in what is today Cao Bằng Province). After assembling an army, he defeated King Hùng Vương XVIII, the last ruler of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty, around 257 BCE. He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương ("King An Dương"). He then renamed his newly acquired state from Văn Lang to Âu Lạc and established the new capital at Phong Khê in the present-day Phú Thọ town in northern Vietnam, where he tried to build Cổ Loa Citadel, the spiral fortress approximately ten miles north of that new capital.
Han Chinese migration into Vietnam dated back to the era of 2nd Century BCE when Qin Shi Huang first placed Tonkin under Chinese rule, Chinese soldiers and fugitives from Central China migrated en masse into Tonkin from this time onwards, and introduced Chinese influences into Vietnamese culture. The Chinese military leader Zhao Tuo founded the Trieu dynasty which ruled Nanyue in southern China and northern Vietnam. The Qin Governor of Canton advisted Zhao to found his own independent Kingdom since the area was remote and there were many Chinese settlers in the area The Chinese prefect of Jiaozhi Shi Xie ruled Vietnam as an autonomous warlord and was posthumously deified by later Vietnamese Emperors. Shi Xie was the leader of the elite ruling class of Han Chinese families who immigrated to Vietnam and played a major role inndeveloping Vietnam's culture. Many Chinese fled to the Vietnamese part of the Red River Valley from Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces during the tumult which occurred during the transition from the Western to Eastern Jin Dynasty, when northern China was plunged into anarchy. The Chinese rulers encouraged the immigration of Han Chinese into Tonkin, and implemented a policy of systematic assimilation with the ancient Vietnamese people. This policy was continually enforced over the next 1,000 years of Chinese rule of Vietnam until the Ngô Dynasty when the Vietnamese regained their independence from China. The Vietnamese emperors deported some 87,000 Chinese nationals, although a large minority applied for permanent residency in Vietnam. Chinese who chose to remain in Vietnam adopted Vietnamese customs and culture.
The founder of the Early Lý Dynasty, Emperor Lý Bôn, who rebelled against the Liang Dynasty came from a family of Chinese descent, the ancestors of his family were Chinese who fled to Vietnam from Wang Mang's seizure of power during the interregnum between the Western and Eastern Han dynasties.
Sporadic Chinese migration into Vietnam continued between the 9th to 15th century. The Vietnamese court during the Lý Dynasty and the Trần Dynasty welcomed ethnic Chinese scholars and officials to fill into its administrative and bureaucratic ranks, but these migrants had to renounce their Chinese nationality and assimilate into Vietnamese society. The Vietnamese court also allowed Chinese refugees, which consisted of civilian and military officials with their family members to seek asylum in Vietnam. However, these Chinese settlers were not allowed to change their place of residence without the Court's permission, and were also required to adopt Vietnamese dress and culture. During the Early Lê dynasty some Chinese were captured in 995 after the Vietnamese raided the border. During the Lý Dynasty Vietnam raided Song Dynasty China to enslave Chinese, who were forced to serve in the Vietnamese army as soldiers. In 1050 the Cham dedicated some Chinese slaves to their goddess Lady Po Nagar at the Po Nagar temple complex, along with Thai, Khmer, and Burmese slaves. It has been speculated by Professor Kenneth Hall that these slaves were war captives taken by the Cham from the port of Panduranga after the Cham conquered the port and enslaved all of its inhabitants, including foreigners living there. In the South, the Daoyi Zhilue also mentioned Chinese merchants who went to Cham ports in Champa, married Cham women, to whom they regularly returned to after trading voyages. One notable example of such intermarriages was Chinese merchant from Quanzhou, Wang Yuanmao, who in the 12th century traded extensively with Champa, and married a Cham princess. Chinese prisoners were returned to China for captured districts in 1078 after China defeated Đại Việt and overran several of Cao Bằng Province's districts.
The founder of the Trần Dynasty Emperor Trần Thái Tông was the great grandon of a Chinese who came to Vietnam from Fujian, from the Chinese Chen clan and several members of the family like Prince Trần Quốc Tuấn continued to be able to speak Chinese The name of his great grandfather was Trần Kinh.
The Vietnamese elites who were descended from mixed marriages between Chinese and Vietnamese viewed other non Vietnamese people as beneath them and inferior due to Chinese influence.
Early immigration: 15th-18th centuries
A large amount of trade between Guangdong and Vietnam happened during this time. Early accounts recorded that the Vietnamese captured Chinese whose ships had blown off course towards the Vietnamese coast and detained them. Young Chinese men were selected by the Vietnamese for castration to become eunuch slaves to the Vietnamese. It has been speculated by modern historians that the Chinese who were captured and castrated by the Vietnamese were involved in trade between China and Vietnam instead of actually being blown off course by the wind and they were punished as part of a crackdown on foreign trade by Vietnam. Records show that the Vietnamese performed castration in a painful procedure by removing the entire genitalia with both penis and testicles being cut off with a sharp knife or metal blade. The procedure was agonizing since the entire penis was cut off. The young man's thighs and abdomen would be tied and others would pin him down on a table. The genitals would be sterilized with pepper water and then cut off. A tube would be then inserted into the urethra to allow urination during healing. Any facial hair such as the beard would fall off and the eunuch's voice would become like a girl's. The eunuchs served as slaves to the Vietnamese palace women in the harem like the consorts, concubines, maids, Queen, and Princesses, doing most of the work. The only man allowed in the Palace was the Emperor, the only others allowed were his women and the eunuchs since they were not able to have sexual relations with the women. The eunuchs were assigned to do work for the palace women like massaging and applying make up to the women and preparing them for sex with the Emperor.
A 1472 entry in the Ming Shilu reported that when some Chinese from Nanhai county escaped back to China after their ship had been blown off course into Vietnam, where they had been forced to serve as soldiers in Vietnam's military. The escapees also reported that they found out up to 100 Chinese men remained captive in Vietnam after they were caught and castrated by the Vietnamese after their ships were blown off course into Vietnam. The Chinese Ministry of Revenue responded by ordering Chinese civilians and soldiers to stop going abroad to foreign countries. China's relations with Vietnam during this period were marked by the punishment of prisoners by castration.
A 1499 entry in the Ming Shilu recorded that thirteen Chinese men from Wenchang including a young man named Wu Rui were captured by the Vietnamese maritime patrols after their ship was blown off course while traveling from Hainan to Guangdong's Qin subprefecture (Qinzhou), after which they ended up near the coast of Vietnam, during the Chenghua Emperor's rule (1447–1487) . Twelve of them were enslaved to work as agricultural laborers, while the youngest, Wu Rui (吳瑞) was selected for castration since he was the only young man and he became a eunuch attendant at the Vietnamese imperial palace in Thăng Long. After years of service, he was promoted at the death of the Vietnamese ruler in 1497 to a military position in northern Vietnam. A soldier told him of an escape route back to China and Wu Rui escaped to Longzhou. The local chief planned to sell him back to the Vietnamese, but Wu was rescued by the Pingxiang magistrate and then was sent to Beijing to work as a eunuch in the palace.
The Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư records that in 1467 in An Bang province of Đại Việt (now Quảng Ninh Province) a Chinese ship blew off course onto the shore. The Chinese were detained and not allowed to return to China as ordered by Lê Thánh Tông. This incident may be the same one where Wu Rui was captured.
The Chinese living in the Mekong Delta area settled there before any Vietnamese settled in the region. When the Ming Dynasty fell, several thousand Chinese refugees fled south and extensively settled on Cham lands and in Cambodia. Most of these Chinese were young males, and they took Cham women as wives. Their children identified more with Chinese culture. This migration occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 17th century many Chinese men from southeastern Chinese provinces like Fujian continued to move to southeast Asia, including Vietnam, many of the Chinese married native women after settling down in places like Hội An.
In the 16th century, Lê Anh Tông of the Lê Dynasty encouraged traders to visit Vietnam by opening up Thăng Long (Hanoi), Huế and Hội An. Chinese presence in the Huế/Hội An area dated back as early as 1444, when a monk from Fujian built the Buddhist temple, Chua Chuc Thanh. Hội An quickly developed into a trading port from the 16th century onwards, when Chinese and Japanese traders began to arrive in the city in greater numbers. When an Italian Jesuit priest, Father Christofo Borri, visited the city in 1618, he aptly described the city as: "The city of Faifo is so vast that one would think it is two juxtaposed cities; a Chinese city and a Japanese city." The Japanese traders quickly disappeared by the first half of the 17th century as Tokugawa shogunate imposed a policy of self-isolation, and when Dutch traders such as Francisco Groemon[who?] visited Hội An in 1642, the Japanese population was no more than 50 people, while the Chinese numbered some 5,000 individuals.
Hội An was also the first city to take on refugees from the Ming Dynasty following the Manchu conquest. An association for these refugees, commonly referred to as "Ming-Huong-Xa (明香社)" first appeared between 1645-53. Around this time, Hội An and Vietnamese territories further south were under the control of the Nguyễn lords, and the Nguyễn rulers allowed Vietnamese refugees to freely settle in disputed frontier lands with remnants of the Champa kingdom and the Khmer empire. According to the Dai Nam Chronicle, a Chinese general from Guangxi, Duong Ngan Dich led a band of 3,000 Ming loyalists to Huế to seek asylum. The Nguyễn court allowed Duong and his followers to resettle in Đồng Nai, which had been newly acquired from the Khmers. Duong's followers named their settlement as "Minh Huong", to recall their allegiance to the Ming Dynasty. More Chinese refugees followed suit to settle in Hội An and the frontier territory in Cochinchina such as Mạc Cửu, who had earlier settled in the Kampot–Hà Tiên area in the 1680s under the patronage of the Cambodian king, Chey Chettha IV. However, Cambodia fell into Thai rule under Taksin, and, in 1708, Mạc Cửu switched his alliance to the Nguyễn lords, paying tribute to Huế. Mạc Cửu was given autonomy to rule Ha Tien in return for his tribute, and throughout the 18th century his descendants implemented their own administrative policies, independent of Huế and Cambodia. The presence of these semi-autonomous fiefdoms run by Chinese refugees encouraged more Chinese to settle in the South. In contrast, very few Chinese refugees chose to settle in territories controlled by the Trịnh lords, who still mandated Chinese refugees to strictly follow Vietnamese customs and refrain from contacts with the local Vietnamese populace in the cities.
The Ming Chinese refugees were mostly male immigrants who generally married local Vietnamese or Khmer women while fostering a strong Chinese cultural identity in their descendants. Chinese trade and immigration began to increase towards the earlier half of the 18th century as population and economic pressures encouraged more Chinese men to seek trade opportunities in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam. It was around this time that the descendants of the Ming Chinese refugees–often referred to as Ming Huong Chinese–begin to foster a separate ethno-cultural identity from the newer Chinese immigrants, whom they refer to as "Thanh Nhan (清人)", or Qing people. The Thanh Nhan form independent Chinese associations along the same dialect group or clans in cities and towns where large populations prevail, including Cholon, Hội An and some towns in the Mekong Delta. The Minh Huong Chinese also formed similar associations, and notable examples include the Đình Minh Hương Gia Thạnh in Cholon, and the Dinh Tien Hien Lang Minh Huong in Hội An. Both groups of Chinese were also very active in the interior affairs of Vietnamese society; notable Minh Huong Chinese such as Trinh Tàui Duc and Ngo Nhan Tinh who became ministers under the Nguyễn court during Gia Long's reign. Many Thanh Nhan Chinese also participated as ragtag militia during the Tây Sơn rebellion, although their loyalties were divided based on their location of residence. The Thanh Nhan Chinese in Gia Định and Biên Hòa sided with Gia Long, whereas some Chinese in the Mekong Delta regions sided with the Khmers until the late 1790s.
Nguyễn Dynasty and French rule: 19th-20th centuries
The Thanh Nhan Chinese made their living by exporting rice to other Southeast Asian countries, and their participation increased greatly in the years during the early 18th century after the Tây Sơn rebellion. Under local laws, rice exports to other countries was tightly regulated, but the Chinese largely ignored this rule and exported rice en masse. The prices of rice witnessed an increase of 50-100% in the 1820s as a result of these exports, which irked the Nguyễn court under Emperor Minh Mạng. Minh Mạng's mandarin, Lê Văn Duyệt noticed that the Chinese had a great autonomy over trade affairs in Gia Dinh, which was partly attributed to the patronage of Trinh Tàui Duc who was serving as the governor of the province. Minh Mạng introduced a new series of measures to curb Chinese trade from 1831 onwards, and started by introducing new restrictions to which residents are banned from overseas travel, which culminated in a brief revolt among Gia Dinh's residents in 1833. The Nguyễn court also experimented with measures to assimilate the Chinese immigrants; in 1839 an edict was issued to abolish the Chinese clan associations in Vietnamese-ruled Cambodia, which proved to be ineffective. Minh Mạng's son, Thiệu Trị, introduced a new law to allow only Chinese-born immigrants to register with the Chinese clan associations, whereas their local born male descendants are allowed to register with the Minh-Huong-xa and adorn the Vietnamese costume. The Nguyễn court also showed signs of subtle discrimination against people of Chinese origin; only one Minh Huong Chinese was promoted to a Mandarin. This sharply contrasted with the high representation of people of Chinese descent who were able to serve the Nguyễn court under Gia Long's reign.
Chinese immigration into Vietnam visibly increased following the French colonisation of Vietnam from 1860 onwards following the signing of the Convention of Peking whereby the rights of Chinese to seek employment overseas were officially recognised by the Chinese, British and French authorities. Unlike their Vietnamese predecessors, the French were very receptive of these Chinese immigrants as it provided an opportunity to stimulate trade and industry, and they generally found employment as labourers or middlemen. The French established a special Immigration Bureau in 1874 requiring Chinese immigrants to register with the Chinese clan and dialect group associations and eased trade restrictions that were previously in place. Historians such as Khanh Tran viewed this as a divide-and-rule policy, and the intention of its implementation was to minimise the chances of any internal revolt against the French authorities. The Chinese population nevertheless witnessed an exponential increase in the late 19th century and more so in the 20th century; between the 1870s and 1890s, some 20,000 Chinese settled in Cochinchina. Another 600,000 arrived in the 1920s and 1930s, and peaks in the migration patterns was especially pronounced during the 1920s and late 1940s when the effects of fighting and economic instability arising from the Chinese Civil War became pronounced.
Statehood under North Vietnam and South Vietnam: 1950-1975
At a party plenum in 1930, the Indochinese Communist Party made a statement that the Chinese were to be treated on an equal footing with the Vietnamese, specifically defining them as "The workers and labourers among the Chinese nationals are allies of the Vietnamese revolution". One year after the state of North Vietnam was established, a mutual agreement was made between the Communist Party of China and Communist Party of Vietnam to give ethnic Chinese living in North Vietnam with Vietnamese citizenship. This process was completed by the end of the 1950s.
- 7 December 1955: A nationality law was passed which automatically qualified Vietnamese residents of mixed Chinese and Vietnamese parentage as South Vietnamese citizens.
- 21 August 1956: Decree 48 was passed which made all ethnic Chinese born in Vietnam as South Vietnamese citizens, irrespective of their family wishes. First-generation immigrants who are born in China, however were not allowed to apply for Vietnamese citizenship and had to apply for residential permits that were to be renewed periodically, on top of paying residential taxes.
- 29 August 1956: Decree 52 was passed which requires all Vietnamese citizens, regardless of their ethnic origin to adopt a Vietnamese name within six months, failing which they have to pay a heavy fine.
- 6 September 1956: Decree 53 was issued which prohibited all foreigners from engaging in eleven different trades, all of which were dominated by ethnic Chinese. The foreign shareholders were required to liquidate their business or transfer their ownership to Vietnamese citizens within 6 months to 1 year, and failure to do so would result in deportation or a fine of up to 5 million piastres.
As most ethnic Chinese in Vietnam were holders of the ROC nationality in 1955, the measures greatly reduced the number of expatriate Chinese population in South Vietnam. The fourth decree, in particular had the effect of encouraging Chinese businessmen to transfer their assets to their local-born children. In 1955, the number of ROC nationals stood at 621,000, which was greatly reduced to 3,000 by 1958. The South Vietnamese government later relaxed its stance to foreign-born Chinese in 1963, and a new nationality law was passed to allow them the choice to retain their ROC nationality or adopt South Vietnamese citizenship. The following year, the Statistics Office created a new census category, "Nguoi Viet goc Tàu" (Vietnamese people of Chinese origin), whereby Vietnamese citizens of Chinese heritage were identified as such in all official documents. No further major measures were implemented to integrate or assimilate the Chinese after 1964. The Chinese sought cultural and economic pursuits more actively during President Thiệu's rule, especially in the manufacturing, finance and transport industries. At the grassroots level, ethnic Vietnamese resentment against the Chinese were widespread for their dominance over the South Vietnamese economy.
Departure from Vietnam: 1975-1990
Following reunification of Vietnam, the Tàu bore the brunt of socialist transformation in the South. The control and regulation of markets was one of the most sensitive and persistent problems faced by the government following the beginning of North–South integration in 1975. The government, in its doctrinaire efforts to communize the commercial, market-oriented Southern economy, faced several paradoxes. The first was the need both to cultivate and to control commercial activity by ethnic Chinese in the South, especially in Ho Chi Minh City. Chinese businesses controlled much of the commerce in Ho Chi Minh City and the South generally. Following the break with China in 1978, some Vietnamese leaders evidently feared the potential for espionage activities within the Chinese commercial community. On the one hand, Chinese-owned concerns controlled trade in a number of commodities and services, such as pharmaceuticals, fertilizer distribution, grain milling, and foreign-currency exchange, that were supposed to be state monopolies. On the other hand, Chinese merchants provided excellent access to markets for Vietnamese exports through Hong Kong and Singapore. This access became increasingly important in the 1980s as a way of circumventing the boycott on trade with Vietnam imposed by a number of Asian and Western Nations. An announcement on March 24 outlawed all wholesale trade and large business activities, which forced around 30,000 businesses to close down overnight, followed up by another that banned all private trade. Further government policies forced former owners to become farmers in the countryside or join the armed forces and fight at the Vietnam-Cambodia border, and confiscated all old and foreign currencies, as well as any Vietnamese currency in excess of the US value of $250 for urban households and $150 by rural households.
While such measures were targeted at all bourgeois elements, such measures hurt ethnic Tàu the hardest and resulted in the takeover of Tàu properties in and around major cities. Tàu communities offered widespread resistance and clashes left the streets of Cholon "full of corpses". These measures, combined with external tensions stemming from Vietnam's dispute with Cambodia and China in 1978 and 1979 caused an exodus of the majority of the Tàu, of whom more than 170,000 fled overland into the province of Guangxi, China, from the North and the remainder fled by boat from the South. China received a daily influx of 4-5,000 refugees, while Southeast Asian countries saw a wave of 5,000 boat people arriving at their shores each month. China sent unarmed ships to help evacuate the refugees, but encountered diplomatic problems as the Vietnamese government denied that the Tàu suffered persecution and later refused to issue exit permits after as many as 250,000 Tàu had applied for repatriation. In an attempt to stem the refugee flow, avert Vietnamese accusations that Beijing was coercing its citizens to emigrate, and encourage Vietnam to change its policies towards ethnic Tàu, China closed off its land border in 1978. This led to a jump in the number of boat people, with as many as 100,000 arriving in other countries by the end of 1978. However, the Vietnamese government by now not only encouraged the exodus, but took the opportunity to profit from it by extorting a price of five to ten taels of gold or an equivalent of US $1,500 to $3,000 per person wishing to leave the country. The Vietnamese military also forcibly drove the thousands of border refugees across the China-Vietnam land border, causing numerous border incidents and armed clashes, while blaming these movements on China by accusing them of using saboteurs to force Vietnamese citizens into China. This new influx brought the number of refugees in China to around 200,000.
The size of the exodus increased during and after the war. The monthly number of boat people arriving in Southeast Asia increased to 11,000 during the first quarter of 1979, 28,000 by April, and 55,000 in June, while more than 90,000 fled by boat to China. In addition, the Vietnamese military also began expelling ethnic Tàu from Vietnam-occupied Kampuchea, leading to over 43,000 refugees of mostly Tàu descent fleeing overland to Thailand By now, Vietnam was openly confiscating the properties and extorting money from fleeing refugees. In April 1979 alone, Tàu outside of Vietnam had remitted a total of US $242 million (an amount equivalent to half the total value of Vietnam's 1978 exports) through Hong Kong to Ho Chi Minh City to help their friends or family pay their way out of Vietnam. By June, money from refugees had replaced the coal industry as Vietnam's largest source of foreign exchange and was expected to reach as much as 3 billion in US dollars. By 1980, the refugee population in China reached 260,000, and the number of surviving boat people refugees in Southeast Asia reached 400,000. (An estimated 50% to 70% of Vietnamese and Chinese boat people perished at sea.)
The official census from 2009 accounted the Tàu population at some 823,000 individuals and ranked 6th in terms of its population size. 70% of the Tàu live in cities and towns, mostly in Ho Chi Minh city while the remainder live in the countryside in the southern provinces. The Tàu had constituted the largest ethnic minority group in the mid 20th century and its population had previously peaked at 1.2 million, or about 2.6% of Vietnam's population in 1976 a year following the end of the Vietnam War. Just 3 years later, the Tàu population dropped to 935,000 as large swathes of Tàu left Vietnam. The 1989 census indicated the Tàu population had appreciated to 960,000 individuals, but their proportion had dropped to 1.5% by then. In 1999, the Tàu population at some 860,000 individuals, or approximately 1.1% of the country's population and by then, were ranked Vietnam's 4th largest ethnic group. The Tàu population are mainly concentrated in Cochinchina, and a 1943 census indicated that they made up the bulk (89%) of the Tàu population of Vietnam, or about 7% of Cochinchina's population.
Intermarriage between the Tàu and other ethnic groups, particularly the Vietnamese have been very common since the early days of Chinese settlement. However, for some Tàu they preferred to intermarry within their own ethnicity, since they "frowned upon inter-marriage with the local Vietnamese". Between the 17th to 20th century, offsprings of such intermarriages are identified as Minh Huong and were officially classified as a distinct group in census counts until the 1950s. Most of these intermarriages take place between Tàu males and Vietnamese females, and in a demographic study carried out by the World Bank in 2002, about a third of all Tàu are married to a spouse of another ethnic group, mostly from the Vietnamese.
The Tàu trace their ancestral origins to different parts of Southern China and they are identified based on the dialects that they speak. In cities where large Chinese communities exist such as Hội An and Saigon, Chinese communities set up clan associations that identify themselves based on surnames or their ancestral homeland. In Vietnam, five different dialects are recognised within the Tàu community, with the Cantonese forming the largest group. Each of these Tàu sub-groups tend to congregate in different towns and one dialect group may predominate over the other.
|Dialect Group||1924||1950||1974||1989||Predominant group in province/city|
|Cantonese||35.0%||45.0%||60.0%||56.5%||Ho Chi Minh City, Đồng Nai, Mỹ Tho|
|Teochew||22.0%||30.0%||20.0%||34.0%||Cần Thơ, Sóc Trăng, Kiên Giang, Bạc Liêu, Cà Mau|
|24.0%||8.0%||7.0%||6.0%||Hội An, Huế|
|Hainanese||7.0%||4.0%||7.0%||2.0%||Phú Quốc, Hà Tiên|
Trade and industry
The Tàu are traditionally associated with the commerce sector, and ethnic Chinese controlled about 75% of the economic activity in South Vietnam in 1975, including 100% of the domestic wholesale trade, 80% of the industry, 70% of the foreign trade and presided over half the retail trade. Some 117 of the 670 leading business families were of ethnic Chinese origin. Utilizing the Confucian paradigm of personal networks, Tàu have dominated several types of businesses such as finance, food, information technology, chemicals, electronic and electrical equipment, machinery, fabricated metals, wholesale trade, transportation equipment, and services. 100% of the domestic foreign trade, 80% of the industry, 70% of foreign trade, and 50% of retail trade was controlled by the Chinese minority. Constituting just 1 percent of Vietnam's population, the Chinese controlled an estimated 90 percent of non-European private capital in the mid-1960s and dominated Vietnam's retail trade, its financial, manufacturing, and transportation sectors, and all aspects of the country's rice economy. Although there were also numerous wealthy Vietnamese in the commercial class, this led to resentment from the dominant ethnic Vietnamese.
Early history & French colonial rule (16th century–1945)
Chinese settlement and immigration in Vietnam was came about from conducive opportunities for trade and business. Chinese merchants began to visit Hội An from the 16th century onwards and initially traded incense, alum and Chinese medicinal products with the local Vietnamese. Dutch, Portuguese and French traders who visited Hội An in the 17th century brought brass utensils that attracted the Chinese. In turn, other goods such as porcelain, silver bars and various metals were traded. Around this time, the local Chinese community began to establish trading associations and social associations, the latter of which is referred to as Bang in Vietnamese. The bang provided various welfare services for immigrants, including financial services such as the collection of taxes. As more immigrants arrived in the 19th century, the bang served as meeting points for Chinese community leaders to pool money to establish corporations.
When the French colonial authorities arrived in the 1860s, the French authorities allowed Chinese merchants and businessmen to own land and freely travel in and out of Indochina. Chinese merchants delved into the rice, liquor, opium and spice trade, where they set up plantations in the rural hinterlands of the Mekong delta and sold its products in Cholon. In the north, the Tàu were mainly rice farmers, fishermen, and coal miners, except for those residing in cities and provincial towns. The French regularly worked with Chinese merchants in the agriculture and industry sectors, and the latter often served as middlemen to liaise with the Vietnamese in the domestic trade. In 1906, the Chinese and French businesspeople have a total capital of 222 million francs, as compared to 2 million francs for the local Vietnamese.
South Vietnamese rule (1945–1975)
In 1970 it was estimated that while Chinese Vietnamese made up only 5.3% of the total population, but reputedly controlled 70 to 80% of the commerce sector of Vietnam. Chinese businesses controlled much of the commerce in Saigon in South Vietnam. Before the Fall of Saigon, ethnic Chinese controlled 40.9% of the small scale enterprises, 100% of the wholesale trade in South Vietnam, transitioning from smaller-scale retail firms to larger wholesale enterprises. At the end of 1974 the Tàu controlled more than 80 percent of the food, textile, chemical, metallurgy, engineering, and electrical industries, 100 percent of wholesale trade, more than 50 percent of retail trade, and 90 percent of export-import trade. Dominance over the economy enabled the Tàu to "manipulate prices" of rice and other scarce goods.
The control and regulation of markets was one of the most sensitive and persistent problems faced by the government following the beginning of North–South integration in 1975. The government, in its doctrinaire efforts to communize the commercial, market-oriented Southern economy, faced several paradoxes. The first was the need both to cultivate and to control commercial activity by ethnic Chinese in the South, especially in Ho Chi Minh City. Chinese businesses controlled much of the commerce in Ho Chi Minh City and the South generally. Following the break with China in 1978, some Vietnamese leaders evidently feared the potential for espionage activities within the Chinese commercial community. On the one hand, Chinese-owned concerns controlled trade in a number of commodities and services, such as pharmaceuticals, fertilizer distribution, grain milling, and foreign-currency exchange, that were supposed to be state monopolies. On the other hand, Chinese merchants provided excellent access to markets for Vietnamese exports through Hong Kong and Singapore. This access became increasingly important in the 1980s as a way of circumventing the boycott on trade with Vietnam imposed by a number of Asian and Western Nations.
As they are inclined to be entrepreneurs, Chinese Vietnamese have dominated several types of businesses such as selling rice, crewed junk, rice transportation, and ship building during their early arrival to Vietnam. Through enterprise, organization, and cooperation many Chinese became part of a prosperous, urban middle class that controlled retail trade. Chinese shops filled every town in sea route rice selling and transportation remained one of the most profitable businesses in the nation. In addition, the Tàu became actively involved in commerce, particularly in the area of Saigon, where Chinese worked as vendors and sold an array of products as an industrious enterprising ethnic group. Many would then work as butchers and tailors, and then venture into confectionery. Many Chinese also worked as money lenders, bankers, and money changers. Products such as tea, porcelain, drugs and medicine, and cabinet-work were shipped to Vietnam from China. Government officials said the ethnic Chinese in Cholon were active in municipal interests and the Vietnamese Communist Party. But their main interest was enterprise. The Chinese feel secure in business as well as their social and cultural life. About 20% of 6,000 private companies and 150,000 small individual businesses in the city were run by Chinese. The Chinese accounted for more than 30% of Ho Chi Minh City's business output due to better equipment used by the businesses.
In the South, they controlled more than 90% of the non-European capital, 80 percent of the food, textile, chemical, metallurgy, engineering, and electrical industries, 100% of the wholesale trade, more than 50% of the retail trade, and 90 percent of the import-export trade. Economic dominance presided accusations from the Vietnamese that the Tàu manipulated prices of rice and other scarce commodities. It was noted by 1983 that more than 60% of southern Vietnam's bourgeoisie were of Chinese extraction. They controlled the entire rice paddy market and obtained up to 80% of the bank loans in the south. Tàu also owned 42 of the 60 corporations having a large annual turnover of more than 1 million dong and investments accounted for two-thirds of the total investment in South Vietnam.
Reunification and Doi Moi (1975–present)
In the aftermath of the Vietnam War, and new economic zones established by the ethnic Vietnamese, the Tàu became scapegoats for the communists, and later, due to the Sino-Vietnamese War, many fled or were driven out of Vietnam.
Today, there are many Tàu communities in Australia, Canada, France and the United States, where they have reinvigorated old existing Chinatowns. For example, the established Chinatowns of Los Angeles, Houston, Toronto, Honolulu, and Paris have a Vietnamese atmosphere due to the large presence of Tàu people. Some of these communities also have associations for transplanted Tàu refugees such as the Association des Résidents en France d'origine indochinoise in Paris.
The Chinese Vietnamese population in China now number up to 300,000, and live mostly in 194 refugee settlements mostly in the provinces of Guangdong, Yunnan, Fujian, Hainan, Jiangxi, and Guangxi. More than 85% have achieved economic independence, but the remainder live below the poverty line in rural areas. While they have most of the same rights as Chinese nationals, including employment, education, housing, property ownership, pensions, and health care, they had not been granted citizenship and continued to be regarded by the government as refugees. Their refugee status allowed them to receive UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) assistance and aid until the early 21st century. In 2007, the Chinese government began drafting legislation to grant full Chinese citizenship to Indochinese refugees, including the ethnic Tàu which make up the majority, living within its borders.
- General Statistics Office of Vietnam. "Kết quả toàn bộ Tổng điều tra Dân số và Nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009–Phần I: Biểu Tổng hợp". p. 134/882. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Lam, Lawrence, From being uprooted to surviving: resettlement of Vietnamese-Chinese "boat-people" in Montreal, 1980–1990, Toronto, Ontario: Centre for Refugee Studies, University of York, ISBN 978-1-55014-296-9
- West (2010), pp. 289-90
- "Vietnam-Tàu". Mongabay.com. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Orientation - Chinese in Southeast Asia". Everyculture.com. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Vietnam-Internal Commerce". Mongabay.com. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Taylor (1983), p. 19
- Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1 (1990), p. 36
- Gernet (1996), p. 180 A, p. 180, at Google Books
- Long Le (February 8, 2008). "Chinese Colonial Diasporas (207 B.C.-939 A.D.)". University of Houston Bauer The Global Viet. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Long Le (January 30, 2008). "Colonial Diasporas & Traditional Vietnamese Society". University of Houston Bauer The Global Viet. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Taylor (1983), p. 23
- Taylor (1983), p. 70
- Gernet (1996), p. 180 A History of Chinese Civilization, p. 180, at Google Books
- Khanh (1993), p. 14-15
- Taylor (1983), p. 135
- Walker (2012), p. 134 East Asia: A New History, p. 134, at Google Books
- Catino (2010), p. 142 The Aggressors: Ho Chi Minh, North Vietnam, and the Communist Bloc, p. 142, at Google Books
- Kohn (2006), p. 308 Dictionary of Wars, p. 320, at Google Books
- Coedès (1966), p. 45 The Making of South East Asia, p. 45, at Google Books
- Coedès (1966), p. 46 The Making of South East Asia, p. 46, at Google Books
- Lockhart (2010), p. 221 The A to Z of Vietnam, p. 221, at Google Books
- Lockhart (2010), p. 221 The A to Z of Vietnam, p. 221, at Google Books
- West (2009), p. 870 Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, p. 870, at Google Books
- Taylor (1991), p. 155 The Birth of Vietnam, p. 155, at Google Books
- Khanh (1993), p. 17
- Khanh (1993), p. 15
- Li (1998), p. 19 Nguyễn Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, p. 19, at Google Books
- Journal of Southeast Asian studies, Volume 37, Issue 1 (2006), p. 87
- Taylor (1995), p. 42 Essays Into Vietnamese Pasts, p. 42, at Google Books
- Stratton (2002), p. 54 Evolution Of Indian Stupa Architecture In East Asia, p. 54, at Google Books
- Cœdès (1968), p. 140 The Indianized States of South-East Asia, p. 140, at Google Books
- Hall (2010), p. 62 A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development, 100–1500, p. 62, at Google Books
- Heng (1992), p. 133
- Wicks (1992), p. 215
- Cœdès (1966), p. 84
- Taylor (2013), p. 120
- Hall (2008), p. 159
- Taylor (2013), p. 166
- Hall (2008), p. 161
- Andaya (2006), p. 23
- 黄啟臣 (2008-03-16). "明代广东海上丝绸之路的高度发展". 國學網－－中國經濟史論壇(China Economic History Forum). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- "明代广东海上丝绸之路的高度发展". 中國評論學術出版社(China Review Academic Publishers Unlimited). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- http://www.zhgpl.com/crn-webapp/cbspub/secDetail.jsp?bookid=3222&secid=3257 (http://www.zhgpl.com/crn-webapp/doc/docDetailCreate.jsp?coluid=56&kindid=1201&docid=100107474&mdate=0911123624
- "鄭和下西洋與廣東商人的海外移民". 中國評論新聞網 (www.ChinaReviewNews.com). 2006-03-08. p. 1. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- coluid=6&kindid=30&docid=100107474)(http://www.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1001/0/7/4/100107474.html?coluid=56&kindid=1201&docid=100107474&mdate=0911123624) (http://www.chinareviewnews.com/crn-webapp/doc/docDetailCNML.jsp?coluid=55&kindid=1160&docid=100107474)(http://www.chinareviewnews.com/crn-webapp/doc/docDetailCNML.jsp?coluid=56&kindid=1201&docid=100151090)(http://www.chinareviewnews.com/doc/1001/5/1/0/100151090.html?coluid=56&kindid=1201&docid=100151090&mdate=0911123624)(http://www.chinareviewnews.com/crn-webapp/doc/docDetailCreate.jsp?coluid=56&kindid=1201&docid=100107474&mdate=0911123624%7C)
- "郑和下西洋与广东商人的海外移民人文历史". 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). 2009-10-20. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- 李慶新. "貿易、移殖與文化交流:15-17 世紀廣東人與越南". 廣東省社會科學院歷史研究所 南開大學中國社會歷史研究中心. p. 12. Retrieved 5 January 2013. "此外,沿海平民在海上航行或捕撈漁獵,遇風漂流至越南者時有發生。如成化十三年, 廣東珠池奉御陳彜奏:南海縣民遭風飄至安南被編入軍隊及被閹禁者超過 100 人。5成化中, 海南文昌人吳瑞與同鄉劉求等 13 人到欽州做生意,遇風飄至安南,當局將他們"俱發屯田, 以瑞獨少,宮之"。6... 6《明孝宗實錄》卷一百五十三,弘治十二年八月辛卯。"
- 李慶新. "貿易、移殖與文化交流:15-17 世紀廣東人與越南". 廣東省社會科學院歷史研究所 南開大學中國社會歷史研究中心. p. 12. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Chuyện 'tịnh thân' hãi hùng của thái giám Việt xưa". Viet Bao. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Chuyện 'tịnh thân' hãi hùng của thái giám Việt xưa". Ngôi sao. Theo Đất Việt. 2012-04-10. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". Báo Mới. Báo Đất Việt. 2012-05-08. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Thê lương chuyện ‘của quý’ của thái giám Việt xưa". 2sao. Theo Đất Việt. 2012-08-08. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Thê lương chuyện 'của quý' của thái giám Việt xưa". Treonline. ĐVO. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Hành trình đau khổ của những hoạn quan thời xưa". Báo Gia đình & Xã hội. Theo Báo Đất Việt. 2011-08-24. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". Zing News. Theo Công An Nhân Dân. 2013-07-18. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- Theo Công An Nhân Dân (2013-07-18). "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". Zing news. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Lê Quyết - GĐXH (2012-06-06). "Tàung lạnh khu mộ địa thái giám độc nhất Việt Nam". Vĩ Nhân Online. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Kim TTàu - Lê Quyết (2012-12-27). "Chuyện ở khu nghĩa địa thái giám Việt Nam". Người Đưa Tin. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Phan Bùi Bảo Thy (2013-07-18). "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung nhà Nguyễn: Những phận đời đặc biệt". Báo Dân trí. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Lê Khắc Niên (Bee.net) (2011-07-29). "Thái giám dưới thời Minh Mạng". Báo Dân trí. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Văn Nguyễn (2011-05-24). "Những thái giám trong hậu cung triều Nguyễn". Báo Dân trí. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Bí mật về thái giám trong cung triều Nguyễn". VnExpress. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Nguyễn Đắc Xuân (2010-06-13). "Thái giám - người phục vụ đặc biệt trong cung Nguyễn". queviet.pl (Hội người Việt Nam tại Ba Lan). KTàu học Đời Sống. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Thái giám và bí mật phòng the của vua chúa Việt Nam". Góc Cuộc Sống. Theo Đất Việt. 2013-02-08. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- "Thái giám, loại công chức đặc biệt trong cung Nguyễn". Gác Thọ Lộc. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Nguyen Dac Xuan (May 2013). "The safe sex and thier(sic) amorous duties". (No.4, Vol.3, May 2013 Vietnam Heritage Magazine). Vol.3 (No.4). Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Wade 2005, p. 2078/79
- Lary (2007), p. 92 The Chinese State at the Borders, p. 92, at Google Books
- Leo K. Shin (2007). "Ming China and Its Border with Annam". In Diana Lary. The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. p. 92. ISBN 0774813334. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 49-明实录宪宗实录-- > 106-明宪宗纯皇帝实录卷之一百六". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 January 2013. "Simplified Chinese:○癸亥广东守珠池奉御陈彝奏南海县民为风飘至安南国被其国王编以为军其后逸归言中国人飘泊被留及所为阉禁者百余人奏下户部请移文巡抚镇守等官禁约军民人等毋得指以□贩私通番国且令守珠军人设法堤备从之 Traditional Chinese:○癸亥廣東守珠池奉禦陳彝奏南海縣民為風飄至安南國被其國王編以為軍其後逸歸言中國人飄泊被留及所為閹禁者百余人奏下戶部請移文巡撫鎮守等官禁約軍民人等毋得指以□販私通番國且令守珠軍人設法堤備從之"
- Tsai (1996), p. 16 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 16, at Google Books
- Tsai (1996), p. 245 The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan), p. 245, at Google Books
- Lary (2007), p. 91 The Chinese State at the Borders, p. 91, at Google Books
- Leo K. Shin (2007). "Ming China and Its Border with Annam". In Diana Lary. The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. p. 91. ISBN 0774813334. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Cooke (2011), p. 109 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 109, at Google Books
- Wade 2005, p. 2704/05
- "首页 > 06史藏-1725部 > 03别史-100部 > 47-明实录孝宗实录-- > 146-明孝宗敬皇帝实录卷之一百五十三". 明實錄 (Ming Shilu) (in Chinese). Retrieved 5 January 2013. "Simplified Chinese:○金星昼见于辰位○辛卯吴瑞者广东文昌县人成化中与同乡刘求等十三人于钦州贸易遭风飘至安南海边罗者得之送本国求等俱发屯田以瑞独少宫之弘治十年国王黎灏卒瑞往东津点军得谅山卫军杨三知归路缘山行九日达龙州主头目韦琛家谋告守备官送还琛不欲久之安南国知之恐泄其国事遣探儿持百金为赎琛少之议未决而凭祥州知州李广宁闻之卒兵夺送于分守官都御史邓廷瓒遣送至京礼部请罪琛为边人之戒奖广宁为土官之劝从之瑞送司礼监给役 Traditional Chinese:○金星晝見於辰位○辛卯吳瑞者廣東文昌縣人成化中與同鄉劉求等十三人於欽州貿易遭風飄至安南海邊羅者得之送本國求等俱發屯田以瑞獨少宮之弘治十年國王黎灝卒瑞往東津點軍得諒山衛軍楊三知歸路緣山行九日達龍州主頭目韋琛家謀告守備官送還琛不欲久之安南國知之恐洩其國事遣探兒持百金為贖琛少之議未決而憑祥州知州李廣寧聞之卒兵奪送於分守官都御史鄧廷瓚遣送至京禮部請罪琛為邊人之戒獎廣寧為土官之勸從之瑞送司禮監給役"
- Cooke (2011), p. 108 The Tongking Gulf Through History, p. 108, at Google Books
- PGS.TSKH Nguyễn Hải Kế(Associate Professor Dr. Nguyen Hai Ke) (March 28, 2013). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- PGS.TSKH Nguyễn Hải Kế(Associate Professor Dr. Nguyen Hai Ke) (2013-04-22). "CÓ MỘT VÂN ĐỒN Ở GIỮA YÊN BANG, YÊN QUẢNG KHÔNG TĨNH LẶNG". 广州日报大洋网(www.dayoo.com). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu, Phan Phu Tiên, Ngô Sĩ Liên... soạn thảo (1272–1697)., ed. (1993). "Phần 26 (Bản kỷ thực lục Q2(a) Nhà Hậu Lê (1460–1472).)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện KTàu Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985–1992). Nhà xuất bản KTàu Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Lê Văn Hưu, Phan Phu Tiên, Ngô Sĩ Liên... soạn thảo (1272–1697)., ed. (1993). "DVSK Bản Kỷ Thực Lục 12: Nhà Hậu Lê (1460–1472) ... Phần 1(Đại Việt Sử Ký Bản Kỷ Thực Lục Quyển XII [1a] Kỷ Nhà Lê Thánh Tông Thuần Hoàng Đế)". Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư. Viện KTàu Học Xã Hội Việt Nam dịch (1985–1992). Nhà xuất bản KTàu Học Xã Hội (Hà Nội) ấn hành (1993). Retrieved 26 July 2013.
- Taylor (2007), p. 255
- Encyclopædia Britannica (2003), p. 669
- Andaya (2006), p. 146
- Andaya (2006), p. 126
- Huang (December 2004), p. 164
- Huang (December 2004), pp. 159-60
- Lee (2010), p. 6
- Khanh (1993), pp. 15-16
- Lee (2010), pp. 8-9
- Long Le (February 22, 2008). "Vietnam’s Expansion & Colonial Diaspora (1471-1859)". University of Houston Bauer The Global Viet. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Cooke, Li (2004), pp. 85-86
- Cooke, Li (2004), pp. 47-48, 86
- Cooke, Li (2004), pp. 87-88
- Cooke, Li (2004), pp. 94, 96
- Cooke, Li (2004), p. 95
- Khanh (1993), pp. 21-22
- Khanh (1993), p. 28
- Tong (2010), p. 77
- Khanh (1993), pp. 22-23
- Khanh (1993), p. 30
- Khanh (1993), pp. 28-29
- Khanh (1993), p. 32
- Herod, Bill. "Vietnam - INTERNAL COMMERCE". Country Data.
- Gibney, Hansen (2005), p. 664-5
- Far East Economic Review, 14 April 1978, p. 12
- Far East Economic Review, 5 May 1978, p. 10–11
- Asiaweek, 28 April 1978, p. 16–18
- Straits Times, 4 May 1978, p. 26
- Straits Times, 5 May 1978, p. 1
- Straits Times, 30 May 1978, p. 12
- Straits Times, 27 June 1978, p. 1
- Straits Times, 22 May 1978, p. 1
- Straits Times, 10 June 1978, p. 1
- Chang, Pao-min pg. 207
- Straits Times, 18 September 1978, p. 2
- Chang, Pao-min. pp. 215-218
- Xinhua, New China News Agency, 11 June 1978
- Chang, Pao-min. p. 222
- Far Eastern Economic Review, 12 May 1978, p. 9
- Far Eastern Economic Review, 22 December 1978, p. 9
- Straits Times, 15 November 1978, p. 1
- Straits Times, 20 November 1978, p. 2
- Chang, Pao-min. p. 223
- British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, Pt. III, The Far East, No. 5881 (3 August 1978), p. A3/6
- British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, Pt. III, The Far East, No. 5883 (5 August 1978), p. A3/3
- British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, Pt. III, The Far East, No. 5897 (22 August 1978), p. A3/2
- British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, Pt. III, The Far East, No. 5900 (25 August 1978), p. A3/3
- British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, Pt. III, The Far East, No. 6902 (29 August 1978), p. A3/1-2
- Xinhua, New China News Agency, 5 January 1979
- Chang, Pao-min pg. 227
- New York Times, 13 June 1979
- Straits Times, 8 June 1979, p. 36
- Straits Times, 10 July 1989
- Based on UNHCR estimates. see Straits Times, 13 October 1978, p. 3
- Straits Times, 8 June 1979
- Straits Times, 8 May 1980
- Khanh (1993), pp. 23, 25
- "Dân số dân tộc Tàu tại thời điểm 1/4/1999 phân theo giới tính" (Excel) (Press release) (in Vietnamese). No. 6B Tàung Dieu Street, Bo Dinh, Hanoi: General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- "Structure of population as of 1 April 1999 by ethnic group" (Excel) (Press release). No. 6B Tàung Dieu Street, Bo Dinh, Hanoi: General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Khanh (1993), pp. 24
- Baulch (2002), p. 8
- Suryadinata (1997), p. 290
- Khanh (1993), p. 31
- Tetsudosho (1917), p. 190
- Cooke, Li (2004), p. 153
- 越南胡志明市潮州义安会馆 (Ho Chi Minh's city Teochew Nghia An clan association), Chaofeng.org (website maintained by Shantou library), retrieved 21 October 2012
- Cooke, Li (2004), p. 60-61
- Lai (2004), p. 234
- Chew Chye Lay, Grace (2010-01-01). "The Tàu of Phu Quoc in Vietnam: Local Institutions, Education, and Studying Mandarin". Journal of Chinese Overseas 6 (2): 311–332. doi:10.1163/179325410X526140.
- Nguyen (2007), p. 174
- Marr, White (1988), p. 77-89
- Marr, White (1988), p. 77
- Khanh (1993), p. 18
- Khanh (1993), p. 35-6
- Khanh (1993), p. 44
- Khanh (1993), p. 56
- Chen (1987), p. 54-6
- Herod, Bill. "Vietnam - Internal Commerce". Country Data.
- Yates, Dean. "Chinese flourish in Vietnam business hub". Reuters.
- Largo, V (June 2002). "Vietnam: Current Issues and Historical Background". Vietnam: Current Issues and Historical Background (Nova Science Pub Inc): 156.
- Chen (1987), p. 54-5
- MacKerras (2003), p. 120
- Tom Lam (2000). "The Exodus of Tàu Refugees from Vietnam and their Settlement in Guangxi: China's Refugee Settlement Strategies". Journal of Refugee Studies 13 (4): 374–390. doi:10.1093/jrs/13.4.374.
- U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, World Refugee Survey
- Indochinese refugees may get Chinese citizenship, Reuters, Friday, 1 June 2007 12:40AM EDT. 
- Andaya, Barbara Watson (2006). The flaming womb: repositioning women in early modern Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. p. 146. ISBN 0-8248-2955-7. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Bob Baulch; Truong Thi Kim Chuyen; Dominique Haughton; Jonathan Haughton (May 2002). Ethnic Minority Development in Vietnam –A Socioeconomic Perspective. WPS 2836. The World Bank–Development Research Group. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Chen, King C. (1987). China's War With Vietnam, 1979: Issues, Decisions, and Implications. Hoover Press. ISBN 0817985727. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- Cœdès, George. (1966). The Making of South East Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520050614. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana; Anderson, James, eds. (2011). The Tongking Gulf Through History (illustrated ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812243366. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana (2004). Water Frontier: Commerce and the Chinese in the Lower Mekong Region, 1750-1880. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0742530833. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized States of South-East Asia (3 ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 082480368X. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica 8. 2003. ISBN 0-85229-961-3. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Contributor: Far-Eastern Prehistory Association Asian Perspectives, Volume 28, Issue 1. (1990) University Press of Hawaii. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Gernet, Jacques (1996). A History of Chinese Civilization (2, illustrated, revised, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521497817.
- Hall, Kenneth R., ed. (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Volume 1 of Comparative urban studies. Lexington Books. ISBN 0739128353. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Hall, Kenneth R. (2010). A History of Early Southeast Asia: Maritime Trade and Societal Development, 100–1500 (illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0742567621. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Gibney, Matthew J; Hansen, Randall (2005-06-30). Immigration and Asylum: From 1900 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576077969. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Heng, Derek (2009). Sino-Malay Trade and Diplomacy from the Tenth Through the Fourteenth Century. Ohio University Press. ISBN 0-89680-271-X. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Journal of Southeast Asian studies 37 (1). 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Khánh, Trâǹ (1993). The Ethnic Chinese and Economic Development in Vietnam. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Lai, H. Mark (2004). On Becoming Chinese American: A History of Communities and Institutions. Rowman Altamira. ISBN 0759104581.
- Diana Lary, ed. (2007). The Chinese State at the Borders (illustrated ed.). UBC Press. ISBN 0774813334. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Li, Tana (1998). Cornell University. Southeast Asia Program, ed. Nguyễn Cochinchina: Southern Vietnam in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Volume 23 of Studies on Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.). SEAP Publications. ISBN 0877277222. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Logan, William Stewart (2000). Hanoi: Biography of a City. UNSW Press. ISBN 0868404438. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- MacKerras, Colin (2003). Ethnicity in Asia. Routledge-Curzon. ISBN 0415258170. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Marr, David G.; White, Christine Pelzer (1988). Postwar Vietnam: Dilemmas in Socialist Development–Issue 3 of Southeast Asia Program Series. SEAP Publications. ISBN 0877271208. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Stratton, Eric (2002). Evolution Of Indian Stupa Architecture In East Asia (illustrated ed.). Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd. ISBN 8179360067. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Suryadinata, Leo (1997-09-15). Ethnic Chinese As Southeast Asians. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0312175760. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
- Taylor, K. W. (2013). A History of the Vietnamese (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521875862. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Taylor, Keith Weller. (1983). The Birth of Vietnam (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of California Press. ISBN 0520074173. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- Taylor, Keith Weller; Whitmore, John K., eds. (1995). Essays Into Vietnamese Pasts. SEAP Publications. ISBN 0877277184. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
- Taylor, Philip (2007). Cham Muslims of the Mekong Delta: place and mobility in the cosmopolitan periphery. NUS Press. ISBN 9971-69-361-5. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Tetsudosho (1917). An Official Guide to Eastern Asia: East Indies, Vol. 5. Imperial Japanese Government Railways.
- Tong, Chee Kiong (2010). Identity and Ethnic Relations in Southeast Asia: Racializing Chineseness. Springer. ISBN 904818908X. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
- Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan) (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. ISBN 0791426874. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Wade, Geoff (2005), Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, retrieved 6 November 2012
- West, Barbara A. (2010-05-19). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- Wicks, Robert S. (1992). Money, markets, and trade in early Southeast Asia: the development of indigenous monetary systems to AD 1400. SEAP Publications. p. 215. ISBN 0-87727-710-9. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Huang, Lan Xiang (黃蘭翔); 本院台灣史研究所副研究員 (December 2004). 華人聚落在越南的深植與變遷：以會安為例. Research Center for Humanities and Social Sciences, Academica Sinica. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
- Lee, Qingxin (李庆新) (2010-11-30). 越南明香与明乡社. 广东省社会科学院 历史研究所广东 广州 510610. Retrieved 27 June 2012.
- Nguyen, Xuan Tinh et al. (2007). Thông báo văn hoá dân gian 2006. Vietnam: Nhà xuá̂t bản KTàu học xa̋ hội. Retrieved 13 December 2010.