Hoe (Korean pronunciation: [hwe] ~ [ɸe]) may refer to various raw food dishes in Korean cuisine. Saengseon hoe (생선회) or "Hwal-eo hoe" (활어회) is thinly sliced raw fish or other raw seafood (similar to Japanese sashimi); yukhoe (육회) is hoe made with raw beef and seasoned with soy sauce, sesame oil, and rice wine; and gan hoe (간회) is raw beef liver with a sauce of sesame oil and salt.
When people finish a meal of saengseon hoe at a restaurant, they sometimes order maeuntang (spicy fish stew, from the fish heads and remaining meat) together with various vegetables.
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It can be assumed that the tradition of eating hoe was introduced from China to Korea during the early Three Kingdoms Period (57 BC-668 AD), facilitated by frequent interchanges between China and the Korean peninsula. According to the Confucian Analects, written in the 1st century BC, Confucius said "Do not shun rice that is well clean; do not shun kuai that is thinly sliced" (食不厭精，膾不厭細). While the term kuai (膾) originally referred to finely sliced raw fish or other meats such as beef or lamb, since the Qin and Han Dynasties it has referred mainly to raw fish. However, since Buddhism flourished in Korea from the middle part of the period until the late Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392), the killing of living beings was avoided, so that the habit of eating meat in general almost disappeared along with eating hoe. As the dominant influence of Buddhism fell off in the late Goryeo period, the consumption of hoe was revived. During the Joseon Dynasty, the state highly regarded Confucianism, and, as Confucius was known to have enjoyed eating raw meat, eating hoe was accepted without any resistance at that time.
On the other hand, the consumption of raw meat or seafood is rare in present day Chinese cuisine apart from in a few regions, such as the Chaozhou dish yusheng. A 20th century Taiwanese-Japanese historical novelist, Chin Shunshin, speculates that the consumption of raw meat disappeared after an epidemic spread to the continent in the 11th century. In light of a poem composed by Mei Yaochen, a leading poet of the Song Dynasty, which depicts a host presenting kuai for waiting guests, it appears that the consumption of raw meat dishes was thriving until at least that time.
Hoe naengmyeon, a variety of naengmyeon made with hoe
- "LX F&B Akamatsu (아까마쯔)". Korea Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "Yukhoe". South China Morning Post. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- Kim Hak-min (김학민) (2003-07-16). "공자 사모님 힘드셨겠네" (in Korean). The Hankyoreh. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
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