Hogan's Fountain Pavilion

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Hogan's Fountain Pavilion
Hogan Fountain Pavilion.JPG
Snow-covered pavilion. Taken December 2010
Alternative names Teepee, Witch's Hat
General information
Architectural style Mid-Century Modern
Location in Cherokee Park
Address 3110 Scenic Loop, Louisville, Kentucky, 40205
Country U.S.
Coordinates 38°14′20″N 85°41′48″W / 38.23889°N 85.69667°W / 38.23889; -85.69667Coordinates: 38°14′20″N 85°41′48″W / 38.23889°N 85.69667°W / 38.23889; -85.69667
Construction started 1965
Inaugurated October 1965
Cost $49,915
Owner Metro Louisville Government
Landlord Metro Parks
Height
Height 56 feet (17 m)
Roof Wood shake over asbestos shingles
Technical details
Floor area 96 feet wide
Design and construction
Architect E.J. Schickli, Jr.
Architecture firm Tafel-Schickli Architects
Main contractor C.G. Campbell & Son, Inc.
Awards and prizes Louisville's Best Local Landmark in 2011 and 2012
Designations 2011–2012 Most Endangered Historic Places in Kentucky, 2012 A Historic Landmark
Other information
Seating capacity 200
Parking Adjacent
Website
savetheteepee.com
References
http://leoweekly.com/special-issues/2011-readers-choice, http://www.preservationkentucky.org/pages.php?id=17

The Hogan's Fountain Pavilion is a large gazebo and picnic shelter of mid-century modern architecture located within Cherokee Park, Louisville, Kentucky, built in 1965. This pavilion is available for rental for a variety of events. When not rented, the pavilion is available, at no charge, to all park visitors. Due to the welcoming nature of the facility, as well as its proximity to additional features such as nearby restrooms, parking and playground equipment, it is an extremely popular[citation needed] location for a diverse cross-section of the community.

Known as the City of Parks[1] and for its unconventional architecture, it is fitting that Louisville's most popular park is home to the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion, the most prominent landmark in Cherokee Park.

Often affectionately referred to by its admiring fans as "weird"[citation needed] or "offbeat"[citation needed], the Pavilion's eccentric appearance fits in very well[citation needed], in a city that prides itself on "Keeping Louisville Weird".[2]

In 1974, the pavilion survived a Category F4 tornado[3] with minor damage although Cherokee Park was heavily affected, losing over 2,000 mature trees to the twister. After 1994, the Parks Department and the Olmsted Parks Conservancy agreed to, and have set into motion plans for, the eventual demise and removal of the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion stating, "...removing the tepee when its natural life span ends."[4] as part of a Master Plan[5] to recapture the original 1892 design that Frederick Law Olmsted envisioned for Cherokee Park.

In the spring of 2010, in response to local public hearings being held in reference to the implementation of a second Master Plan,[6] a group of local Pavilion-restoration supporters organized a grassroots effort to save the structure from demolition. As a result of this group's efforts, the Parks Department agreed to delay removal of the pavilion to allow private funds to be raised for its repair.[7]

Geography[edit]

The Hogan's Fountain Pavilion is located atop Bonnycastle Hill and acts as an architectural centerpiece along the 2.4 mile Scenic Loop in Cherokee Park in Louisville.

History[edit]

Commissioned by the City Director of the Department of Parks and Recreation, George F. Kinkead[8] in 1964, the originally named Hogan's Fountain Pavilion and Comfort Station, which was subsequently shortened to Hogan's Fountain Pavilion[9] project was put out for bids. Fifteen offers were made. The highest was for $72,299. The lowest bid exceeded the $40,000 budget city officials had set aside for the project. The successful bid accepted was from C.G. Campbell & Son, Inc., and they were awarded a contract in the amount of $49,915 with a projected "ready for use" time of early May 1965.[10]

In October 1965, Mayor William Cowger dedicated the Pavilion.

In a Local Landmark Designation Report prepared by Cynthia Johnson in 2012 for the Metro Historic Landmarks and Preservation Districts Commission, she writes of the pavilions earlier name history "…the facility was originally named the McCall Shelter in honor of Alderman C.W. "Ches" McCall who was killed in an auto accident in 1962. Although the structure was officially named for McCall, the local vernacular continues to refer to the shelter as the "Teepee." [11]

Architect[edit]

The Hogan's Fountain Pavilion was originally designed by Edward Jacob (E.J.) Schickli, Jr., of Tafel–Schickli Architects. Mr. Schickli felt that a conical "wigwam" or "teepee" shaped design was appropriate as it reflected Cherokee Park's Native American-derived name.

Born January 1928, Mr. Schickli graduated from MIT in 1950,[12] and became a registered architect in 1954, President of the West Kentucky Chapter of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in 1961,[13] Designed the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion in 1964, President of the Kentucky Society of Architects in 1965[citation needed] Achieving all of these prestigious accomplishments before 37 years of age.

Other prominent civic contributions by Schickli included the design of the original Louisville Zoo and Botanical Gardens in 1969 and Louisville's Standiford Field Airport expansion project in 1970, currently called the Louisville International Airport.[14]

Being an active member of the community and the architecture industry, as late as September 2006, Schickli, then 78, served on the State of Kentucky's Division of Engineering selection committee which oversees architects selected for state funded design projects.[15]

Schickli visited his creation in June 2010 for the first time in 15 years and was disappointed by the mentality of what he saw, that of discard the past and start anew. "That's the problem with most public and semi-public entities," Schickli said, shaking his head as he looked at the pavilion's deteriorating roof. "Money is often appropriated to build them but never to provide maintenance for them. It doesn't matter if it's this or any other structure. It's a mind-set I will never understand." He hopes the pavilion will be around for a while longer. "It has a lot of life left in it …" he said.[14] When recently asked by the Courier-Journal about his teepee project, Schickli said he would like to see his project preserved. "It's a whimsical structure; the type of thing I believe belongs in parks."[16]

Structure and development[edit]

Erecting the pavilion's first structural beams.

Because of the shape of the shelter, it garnered a great deal of both media and public attention. "It will be a departure from the usual rectangular-shaped shelters built in parks in the past."[8] So it was that Al Blunk, photographer for the Louisville Times captured an early construction shot of the raising of the oversized laminated wood beams. The Times reported "Beams curve skyward, hinting at the shape of things to come …"[17]

Design[edit]

Striking in appearance, the pavilion's atypical, octagonal shaped roof stretches skyward. Designed to be rustic in appearance[citation needed], the pavilion was intended to have a wood shake shingle roof. However, per a notation by M. Newton on February 5, 1965 onto the original blueprint; he approved the shingle change from shake to that of cement shingles laid over a single layer of 15 lb. asphalt felt.[9]

The floor of the pavilion is constructed of a round concrete pad, originally with a large interior circular fire pit surrounded by wooden picnic tables. Above the fire pit is a substantial sized 13 foot diameter smokestack to provide proper venting. The sides of the building were left open to help facilitate cooling by transferring the warm air upward out through an opening at the top. Exiting the top of the covered roof, copper was clad to the exposed structural beams to cap them from the elements. The addition of copper gutter beds and scuppers highlight this unconventional[citation needed] structure.

The laminated wood beams are anchored in eight considerable sized concrete buttresses sheathed with native stone from the area. Lastly, a rectangular brick façade building was attached to the west side of the pavilion that would house the restrooms.

The finished teepee structure measures 56 feet wide by 56 feet in height. It is fitting that "tipi", a variant spelling of "teepee" translates to [from ti to dwell + pi used for].[18] This further illustrates the intentionally ambitious Native American design concept Schickli had in mind for this park setting.[citation needed]

Surviving the Super Outbreak tornado[edit]

On April 3, 1974 Louisville experienced unprecedented tornadic activity the likes of which have not been seen since, dubbed "The Super Outbreak". According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in an article titled, The Super Outbreak: Outbreak of the Century,[19] the authors reported "massive devastation, 335 dead . . . more than 6000 injured" in the storms. On a local level Tom Wills, Chief Meteorologist for WAVE 3, remembers the tornado, "… we heard reports that Cherokee Park was really devastated. So we sent out this reporter to go and check it out. We hear him back on the two-way radio …" "It's Gone!!" When asked what's gone? The reporter replied "The PARK! IT'S GONE!!!"[20]

Approximately 2,200 or (75%) of the park's mature tree population was decimated by that Category F4 tornado.[21] Amongst it all, the Teepee pavilion stood strong on the lumber strewn hill seemingly none the worse for wear save for some missing shingles.

Repairs and renovations[edit]

After the tornado an ad was placed in the Louisville Times on September 30, 1974 requesting bids on repairing the pavilions roof. Six bids were entertained with the highest being $8,975 and the lowest from Kentucky Lumber Co. who was awarded the contract for $2,110 labor. The materials for the roof consisted of 15 squares of 18" x 1/2" hand split cedar shake shingles and 160 linear feet of hip shingles at a cost of $652. Work on the roof began on September 18, 1975.[22]

In an effort to repair the damaged roof at a cost-savings, Parks Department officials elected to place the wood shake over the existing cement shingles, without removing them, adding yet another obstacle in the saga of the pavilion supporters' restoration efforts.[23]

$2,000 was paid on October 6, 1978 to engineers, Rangaswamy, Hatfield and Associates for their professional services rendered in detailing needed structural repairs to damaged support beams. An ad was placed in the Louisville Times Paper on December 4, 1978 requesting bids. So it was that in 1979 structural beams #6 and #7 were encased in steel to strengthen the pavilion's supports for $12,000.[22]

What was dubbed, Phase II, of needed pavilion repairs by the Parks Department, engineers Rangaswamy, Yost and Associates were once again contracted for their recommendations. On June 30, 1983 some painting and repairs were made to the smoke hood and flue. The creek stone on the abutments was also tended to for the amount of $850. On July 15, 1983, work began to encase the water damaged beams #1, #3, #5 and #8 in steel at a cost of $16,000.[22]

The March 2, 1989 repair drawings explained the process of inserting two rows of ¾" solid rods 12" deep thru the existing beams, plug welding and then grinding smooth, whereas the commencement of encasing beams #2 and #4 with ¼" steel began. Additionally a 90˚ bent ¼" steel plate was welded onto all eight beams to prevent children from climbing onto the roof.[22]

Current configuration with ring of grills and tables

Activities and amenities[edit]

Immediately surrounding the pavilion are the following features and facilities:

  • 2.4 mile paved road (one lane for pedestrians, one lane for vehicles)
  • Children's playground
  • Full basketball court
  • Hiking and biking trails
  • Horseshoe pits
  • Parking
  • Restrooms
  • Softball field
  • Sprayground
  • Swings
  • Volleyball
  • Water fountains

Rentals[edit]

Metro Parks has a four-tier rental rate for its shelters and pavilions. Ranking on the first-tier is Cherokee Park with the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion being the most popular site within the park, renting for $150 per day. Other tiers within the park system rent respectively for $125, $90 and $35 depending on the size of the shelter and location.[24] The pavilions are available year round from 8am to 10pm and are free on a first come, first served basis unless otherwise posted as rented for exclusive use.

The Hogan's Fountain Pavilion remains cool in the midst of a hot Kentucky summer day insuring that the pavilion is a busy venue in the warmer months with rentals earning in excess of $18,000 a year.[25] Church groups, Scouting troops, Non-Profit organizations, Corporations, wedding parties and families are regular rental patrons of this venue.

The Pavilion's 200 seat capacity is a significant factor in its continued popularity. There are eight grills with corresponding extra-large picnic tables affording accommodations for eight individual families under one roof. Additional picnic tables are located adjacent to the pavilion. Parking, restrooms, and a children's playground are all located within easy access.

Fall into disrepair[edit]

Weather damage to pavilion roof as of December 2010

After the issuance of the 1994 Master Plan for the Hogan's Fountain area[5] by Metro Parks and the Olmsted Parks Conservancy, upkeep of the pavilion became nearly nonexistent.[citation needed] The lack of maintenance otherwise known as 'demolition by neglect'[citation needed] has taken a heavy toll on the pavilion's roof.[citation needed] There has not been any maintenance concerning the wood shingles since 1989,[citation needed] consequently the roof has degraded to a very poor condition[citation needed] allowing substantial moisture infiltration by the elements.[citation needed] Additionally, the stone surrounding the buttresses has become loosened[citation needed] and is separating from the concrete beneath it.[citation needed] Through an open records request,[26] it was determined that from April 2007 to August 2010, the only repairs performed on the pavilion were to two barbecue grills.[citation needed]

The Olmsted Parks Conservancy, not bound by the City's purchasing requirements and guidelines, solicited one bid in August 2009 to repair the pavilion roof. This bid, in the amount of $148,500 was submitted by Merrick-Kemper of Louisville.[27]

A grassroots group of concerned citizens took it upon themselves to seek out additional bids for the work. Integral Structures of Louisville, reviewed the condition of the roof and agreed to donate a substantial portion of the labor and forego any mark-up on materials for a repair cost of $82,000. The group continues to explore options to further reduce the restoration costs and make the pavilion restoration more financially feasible. Consequently, this is when fundraising began and the formalized group known as Save Hogan's Fountain Pavilion was formed.[28]

In November 2011, Commonwealth Roofing gave an estimate of $35,895 to repair the pavilions roof which reflected a donation of the overhead and profit, as well as a portion of the labor. Included were Metro Parks approved high-end dimensioned asphalt shingles that would mimic the current wood shake, but have a longer warranty, require less maintenance, and last longer in the conditions present in the Ohio Valley.

Finally, after two years of fundraising along with public and private responsiveness the supporters had raised the necessary funds to repair the Pavilions roof. Equipped with this information the grassroots group approached the Parks Department for a logistics meeting to hash out the details.[29] They were not equipped to deal with the last obstacle the Parks Department had for them.

Since the Pavilion is on city property there are procurement regulations that dictate the bidding process.[30] While preparing for this, Metro Parks Department Project Manager, David Wilding was taking photographs of the pavilion when he spotted the shingles and contacted OSHA and requested that they test for asbestos.

In what seems to be a tangle of unending hurdles for the pavilion supporters, Joe Irwin, of Louisville Metro OSHA, requested an analysis of the original shingles. On March 9, 2012 QuanTEM Laboratories performed a polarized light microscopy asbestos analysis which reported the shingle sample as having 4% asbestos present. The report goes on to list the shingles as non-friable.[23] Using this report, the Metro Parks Department has mandated a professional asbestos abatement firm remove the shingles They received a quote from National Environmental Contracting (NEC) on April 9, 2012 in the amount of $28,129, thus raising the price tag to restore the pavilion.[25]

Controversy[edit]

A controversy arose in May 2010, after a public meeting presented by the Louisville Metro Parks Department and the Olmsted Parks Conservancy announced the second Master Plan for the Hogan's Fountain area,[6] including the replacement of the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion. The Plan provided for a number of changes and improvements throughout the Hogan's Fountain area, including the removal of the pavilion and its replacement with two smaller box-like structures.

The position taken by Metro Parks is that over usage of the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion and surrounding areas, as stated by John Swintosky, Louisville Metro Parks project director for the Hogan area plan, "…area has been degraded as a consequence of people's 'loving a place to death'"[31] and "… the towering picnic shelter … is now considered the wrong style for the historic park.[32] Margaret Brosko, Metro Parks Communications Manager, says it is cheaper to replace the pavilion than to repair it.[33] Referring to the Olmsted Parks Conservancy's figures for roof repair of approximately $150,000 and Metro Parks figures listed on pg. 33 of the December 2010, Hogan Fountain Area Master Plan,[6] the cost summary for demolition of the teepee shelter and walks with the building of a 25 person shelter at $300,000.[6] This cost does not include the plans for the additional shelter, steps and walkways which are listed at an additional $450,000.

The Olmsted Parks Conservancy's primary stated goal is that of the preservation of an 1892 Olmstedian vision. That vision did not include the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion. The Olmsted Parks philosophy of "restore, enhance and preserve" has gradually implemented removal of elements that are inconsistent with the Olmsted design intent …"[34]

Frederick Law Olmsted Sr.'s intent was very clear when he "advised the Board of Park Commissioners to resist public demands for golf courses, tennis courts, ball fields, and other forms of active recreation in the large parks." He preferred instead to provide "suitable means for making the enjoyment of the scenery of each park available to those escaping from the city, in the form of walks, roads, and places to rest."[35] However, to date no plans have been made to remove any of these features from Cherokee Park except the pavilion. Further stated by the authors, it is important to consider "In attempting to protect the Olmsted legacy, advocates must avoid the pitfalls of elitism and arrogance."[35]

Rachel Worley, 2011 President, AIA Central Kentucky Chapter, stated: "As the local American Institute of Architects, we recognize the importance of preserving the character and historic fabric of the structures that help define the beautiful Olmstead parks in Louisville. AIA Central Kentucky Chapter has been an advocate for historic preservation and believes that preserving this structure (the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion) would promote that mission. We believe this structure connects the community and will conserve resources by not continuing the deterioration of this existing structure."[36]

Mimi Zinniel, President and CEO of the Louisville Olmsted Parks Conservancy, has been very vocal [37] in expressing the Olmsted Parks Conservancy's position of replacing the teepee with two separate smaller box-like shelters as specified in the February 2010 Hogan Fountain Master Plan rendering as well as other major changes to the Hogan's Fountain area.[38]

Rachel Kennedy, Executive Director, Preservation Kentucky spoke of the pavilion by saying, "It's scale, massing, materials, and design features are extremely complimentary to the park's setting and in no way detracts from Olmsted's courageous design for Cherokee Park. Just as Olmsted used the natural environment as a key design feature, this piece of modernism responds eloquently to its setting."[36]

In October 2009, prior to the finalization of the Hogan Fountain Area Master Plan in December 2010,[6] there were two alternate concepts proposed for this location. The first concept included the renovation of the existing pavilion and plans to build a second, smaller shelter to the south side of the Hogan's Fountain area. The idea being that the big shelter could be reserved for larger functions, with the smaller one available simultaneously for family picnics or smaller events. The second concept showed the removal of the existing pavilion and its replacement, along with the plans for the additional smaller shelter to the south side of the Hogan's Fountain area.[39] In October 2009, Concept #1 of the Master Plan solved most concerns the Metro Parks had for the Hogan's Fountain area, but this option has been eliminated via the 2010 final Master Plan.[6] Renderings of this failed option can be seen on the Louisville Metro Parks website.[40]

Preservation efforts[edit]

In March 2010, Louisville resident Lark Phillips led a number of concerned citizens interested in preserving and restoring the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion to form the Save Hogan's Fountain Pavilion group in hopes of saving this unusual architectural structure from demolition.[41]

Meetings between the preservation group and Metro Parks Department Director, Mike Heitz, resulted in the temporary delay of any removal or replacement of the pavilion, if private funds can be raised to repair the iconic structure.[7]

To the defense of the pavilion, Devin Colman, President, Recent Past Preservation Network wrote: "This type of revisionist history (demolishing and replacing) will result in the loss of a legitimately historic structure and the construction of a new building that is supposed to look old. Ultimately, such actions degrade the overall historic integrity of Cherokee Park while ignoring the fact that cultural landscapes change over time."[42] Colman also pointed out that the Parks Department proposition was directly in violation of the U.S. Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation,[43] specifically Standards #3 and #4 which read:

Fundraising[edit]

Fundraising to save the pavilion began after receipt of Integral Structures' $82,000 roof repair bid. So it began that the Save Hogan's Fountain Pavilion group and Adam Matthews Foundation, a non-profit (501c3) organization, partnered as a fundraising vehicle to begin the restoration process.[44] The Adam Matthews Foundation has also matched donations in the amount of $1500 towards the preservation efforts.[45]

The group's first fundraiser was a concert at Headliner's Music Hall in August 2010. Another one was held in December 2010, at Just Creations, a company that works directly with artisans and farmers to ensure that Fair Trade principles are practiced.[citation needed] They collected $146 at the monthly Community Shopping Night for Not-For-Profits that allows them 10% of profits raised during the event.[citation needed]

Hogan's Fountain Pavilion supporters participated in the 2010 on-line competition "We Hear You America", sponsored by Reader's Digest Magazine.[46] They 'cheered' daily voting for their hometown's civic projects. In Louisville, repairing the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion was the overwhelming favorite of the voters. They were awarded two checks for their efforts; the first $1,000 was for being selected as one of the Best 100 Cities in America, based on participation in the contest. The second $10,000 was for being runner up in a winning city with a population of 500,000 or more residents.[47] This award triggered a $5,000 challenge grant from Louisville Metro Councilwoman, Tina Ward-Pugh, D-9th District.[48]

There has been various financial support from political figures, neighborhood associations, corporate and individuals starting with Councilwoman, Tina Ward-Pugh, who was the first politician to make a pledge towards the restoration of the Pavilion with an initial $5,000 challenge grant and a subsequent $5,000 matching grant. In addition, Tom Owen, Louisville Metro Councilman, D-8th District, who made a pledge to fund the last $3,800 of the cost to re-roof the Pavilion[49] and who recently made an additional pledge of $1,000 .[25]

Neighborhood associations surrounding Cherokee Park and the Pavilion have been generous and vocal with their support. The Belknap Neighborhood Association in April 2011 donated $250 stating, "The Tee Pee is a symbol of resilience. Its survival as a beacon of hope following the 1974 tornado is well documented in the hearts and minds of the public."[50] Later they made another donation of $400. Likewise, the Highland Douglass Neighborhood Association (HDNA) has donated twice; the first time in June 2011 in the amount of $300 and again in August 2012, donating an additional $500. Andrew J. Douds, President, HDNA, writes "…we believe that architecture gives meaning to the community and when threatened, alternative solutions and public opinion must be considered before change occurs that would alter what is familiar and necessary to the community."[51] Additional donations have been made by Deer Park Neighborhood Association who contributed $300, as well as the Bonnycastle Homestead Association delivering $150 in June 2011.[45]

Raising awareness and gathering local support.

Local bands and concerts have attracted support and funds alike. The band "Hogan's Fountain" donated 50% of profits (during February and March 2011) for iTunes sales of their song "Shine Your Light on Me - Remix".[52]

Several volunteers of the grassroots group have manned booths at various local festivals spreading the message and raising awareness within the community, in conjunction with collecting donations. One successful fundraising method used by the group has been selling T-shirts.[33] T-shirt sales have been so popular that the brown 2010 and the purple 2011 versions have sold out.

The group also undertook a small letter writing campaign to notify organizations who had patronized the pavilion that they were working to save it and asking for donations and or support. One such letter produced a $1,000 donation from YUM Brands.[45]

The local community has rallied together coming up with creative ideas for fundraising. One such event was held by O'Shea's Family of Pubs on what they call Fund Day,[53] in which 100% of the net profits from all food and drink at O'Shea's Pub and Flanagan's Ale House were designated to benefit the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion. In June 2011 they presented a check totaling $2,500 to the grassroots group.

On Facebook, an event titled the Louisville Hippie's Reunion/Benefit Hogans Fountain TeePee[54] was held on August 5, 2012 at Stevie Ray's Blues Bar in downtown Louisville. Several bands donated their time and talent for the cause as well as the receipt of several donated handmade items. Proceeds from the event netted the pavilion group $1,700 towards its much needed repairs.

Additionally, the pavilions architect was present and gave a speech in which when asked "How long did you think the structure would stand?" Answered "Well, my body at almost 85 years of age, it's stood along time, but I've had maintenance; and if I had so little maintenance as that structure I would have been gone long ago." [55]

In honor of their father, the sons of Mr. Schickli, have respectfully donated $5,000 and allocated a $5,000 dollar for dollar matching grant beginning in September 2011 that was met eagerly. Upon completion they donated an addition $500.[45]

As of August 2012 the Save Hogan's Fountain Pavilion group has raised over $45,000 towards its goal to repair the roof of the pavilion.[25]

Opponents[edit]

As of March 2011, the Louisville Metro Parks Department and the Olmsted Parks Conservancy, through various public meetings, newspaper articles and television interviews, have expressed opposition to the restoration and preservation of the Pavilion.

"Whenever possible, and when funds permit, structures should be renovated or replaced in a manner that's consistent with Olmsted's design philosophy. In the case of the Hogan's Fountain teepee, we believe that it is out of character with this Olmsted Park, and the community would be best served with a new shelter." Margaret Brosko said on behalf of Metro Parks and the conservancy, which raises money to support projects in the Olmsted Parks.[56]

Mimi Zinniel, President and CEO of the Louisville Olmsted Parks Conservancy says, "Its design, its structure, its size and its location really invites a lot of concentrated use and that can cause things like erosion, soil compaction and damage to nearby historic trees".[37]

Supporters[edit]

"It's important to preserve significant architecture that makes Louisville unique." said Tammy Madigan, a spokeswoman for the teepee supporters.[48]

The Courier-Journal reported that "Over the past year, the effort to protect the pavilion has drawn support from the Kentucky Heritage Council, Preservation Kentucky, Preservation Louisville, Louisville Historical League, the Southern Regional Office of the National Trust for Historic Preservation …" among others.[48]

The Hogan's Fountain Pavilion recently received a letter from Richard Guy Wilson, Commonwealth Professor, Architectural History, University of Virginia and noted author. Wilson is also a commentator on the History Channel's "America's Castles." In his recommendation to nominate the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion as one of "America's 11 Most Endangered Historic Places" to the National Trust for Historic Preservation he wrote: "This vision of the American past as a sanitized place in which nothing ever changes is not very smart, especially when you have such an outstanding design as Hogan's Pavilion."[57]

"Here, the community supports saving this structure and it would be an unfortunate irony if it were to be razed." says, Steve Wiser, President, Louisville Historical League.[58] From Marianne Zickuhr, Executive Director with Preservation Louisville, "We recognize that the Hogan's Fountain Teepee is an important part of the Highlands area and plays a role in its cultural history."[59]

Dr. Daniel Vivian, Assistant Professor and Director, Public History Program, University of Louisville spoke of "…the need for sympathetic care and stewardship…" for the pavilion. He summed up by saying, "…the pavilion is a locally important example of midcentury recreational architecture. Its design represents an innovative, highly distinctive union of modernist influences and traditional modes of park architecture."[60]

Mark Dennen, Executive Director and State Historic Preservation Officer for the Kentucky Heritage Council said, "It is my opinion that the Pavilion is a fine example of modernist architecture and worthy of protection. Not only has the Pavilion become an icon in Cherokee Park, but it has proven to be a focal point for gatherings since it was constructed. The loss of this structure would be a sad loss for Louisville."[61]

In September 2011, the citizens of Louisville voted in the Annual LEO Reader's Choice Awards.[62] The Hogan's Fountain Pavilion garnered number one in Best Local Landmark and the grassroots group, Save Hogan's Fountain Pavilion, ranked number two in the Best Nonprofit category. One of the groups Co-Chairs, Lark Phillips, was awarded Best Community Role Model. Once again in September 2012, the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion was voted among the top Louisville Landmarks and Beth Hafling of Save Hogan's Fountain Pavilion group was voted Best Community Role Model in the Annual LEO Reader's Choice Awards.

On October 14, 2011, Rachel Kennedy, Director of Preservation Kentucky, announced that the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion had been placed on its 2011 – 2012 Most Endangered Historic Places in Kentucky List.[63] E.J. Schickli, Jr., was present for the designation and spoke about his creation.

Landmarking[edit]

In an effort to preserve the Pavilion after its restoration the grassroots group gathered over 400 signatures via a petition and submitted them along with a $500 fee with the application to the Historic Landmarks and Preservation Districts Commission early August 2011.

More than a year after submitting their application to the Landmarks Commission, a Historic Landmarks Designation Hearing was held on September 24, 2012.[64] On the agenda was case #18003, the Pavilion.[65] As referenced on the Louisvilleky.gov website "The purpose of the public hearing will be to receive testimony and to consider the question of local landmark designation for the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion...".[64] Included in the proceedings was a 29-page Landmark Designation Report [11] drafted and submitted by Cynthia Johnson, Preservation Officer, Historic Landmarks and Preservation Districts Commission.

After four and a half hours of contentious testimony the hearing concluded with Hogan's Fountain Pavilion being designated with official individual Local Landmark status.[66] The Commission voted five yay, zero nay, with two abstentions.

As with most architecture, the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion in Cherokee Park is many things to many people.[citation needed] Still today, this celebrated structure is capturing the attention of architects, historians, preservationists and educators.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "City of Parks". LouisvilleKy.gov. 2005-02-22. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  2. ^ "Louisville Independent Business Alliance - Welcome". Keeplouisvilleweird.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  3. ^ "The Fujita Scale". Tornadoproject.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  4. ^ Hogan's Fountain in Cherokee Park Martha Elson. Courier-Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Jul 7, 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Chapter 5: Cherokee Park". Master Plan for Louisville's Olmsted Parks & Parkways. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Hogan Fountain Area Master Plan". December 2010. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  7. ^ a b Metro Parks will save "teepee" shelter in Cherokee Park Martha Elson. Courier-Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Jun 17, 2010.
  8. ^ a b "Cherokee Park to get "Wigwam" Shelter House" Courier-Journal 13 Sept 1964; E7.
  9. ^ a b open records request from Metro Parks August 2010
  10. ^ "Wigwam Shelter Bid is $49,915" Courier-Journal 10 Feb. 1965: B1.
  11. ^ a b Metro Historic Landmarks and Preservation Districts Commission (September 24, 2012). "Hogan's Fountain Pavilion Designation Report". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  12. ^ "Schicklis, Ed & Clara". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  13. ^ "Aia-Ckc". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  14. ^ a b Jones, Michael L. (2010-06-26). "Hogan's Fountain Pavilion, Revisited". Thehighlanderonline.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  15. ^ "Kentucky: Finance Cabinet - A&E Spreadsheet". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  16. ^ Support may be building to preserve park's tepee:$80,000 sought for Cherokee Park pavilion Sheldon S Shafer. Courier - Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Jan 27, 2011. p. B.1
  17. ^ "Cherokee's Teepee-Type Shelter" Louisville Times 26 July 1965.
  18. ^ "Teepee | Define Teepee at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  19. ^ Stephen F. Corfidi,* Jason J. Levit and Steven J. Weiss. "The Super Outbreak: Outbreak of the Century". Norman, OK: NOAA/NWS/NCEP/Storm Prediction Center. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
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  21. ^ CARREIRO, M. M. and ZIPPERER, W. C. , Co-adapting societal and ecological interactions following large disturbances in urban park woodlands. Austral Ecology, no. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2010.02237.x
  22. ^ a b c d Open Record Request from Metro Parks Feb. 25, 2011
  23. ^ a b Photo of report in Gallery
  24. ^ "Picnic Shelter Rental - Field & Facility Rentals". LouisvilleKy.gov. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  25. ^ a b c d "Asbestos issue delays Cherokee Park pavilion renovation". Courier-Journal. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  26. ^ open records request from Metro Parks Aug 9 2010
  27. ^ open records request 2010 from Metro Parks
  28. ^ Pavilion supporters mobilize Courier-Journal. Louisville, KY. July 2, 2010.
  29. ^ Meeting between Save Hogan's Fountain Pavilion and Metro Parks Department in March 2012
  30. ^ "The Government Contracts Law Report Procurement Regulations Page". Attny.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  31. ^ "ProQuest Login - ProQuest". Proquest.umi.com. Retrieved 2013-09-25. 
  32. ^ "Restoration, amenities discussed for popular spots" Courier - Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Mar 4, 2009. p. A.5
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  35. ^ a b Louisville's Olmstedian Legacy: An Interpretive Analysis and Documentary Inventory, p. 24 , Louisville Friends of Olmsted Parks, September 1988
  36. ^ a b "Support Letter from AIA Central Kentucky Chapter". February 22, 2011. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
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  38. ^ "Hogan Fountain Master Plan Cherokee Park, Louisville Draft Final Plan". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  39. ^ Cherokee Park work eyed:Officials consider improvements Sheldon S Shafer. Courier - Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Oct 24, 2009. p. B.1
  40. ^ "Hogan Fountain Master Plan Cherokee Park, Louisville Concept Plan 1". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  41. ^ "Save Hogan's Fountain Teepee Pavilion". Savetheteepee.com. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  42. ^ "Welcome to Save Hogan's Fountain Teepee Pavilion". Wayback.archive.org. 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  43. ^ "The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation & Illustrated Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings- Standards". Wayback.archive.org. 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  44. ^ Tepee is tops to supporters:Cherokee Park Martha Elson. Courier - Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Jul 7, 2010. p. A.4
  45. ^ a b c d "Hogan's Fountain Teepee Pavilion Preservation, Restoration & Donations". Wayback.archive.org. 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  46. ^ "We Hear You America". Wayback.archive.org. 2011-10-10. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  47. ^ Cherokee pavilion project gets $10,000 magazine grant Courier - Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Feb 18, 2011.
  48. ^ a b c Effort to save Cherokee Park pavilion gets $10,000 grant; Supporters need Courier - Journal. Louisville, Ky.: Feb 19, 2011. p. B.1
  49. ^ "Tom Owen Support Letter 0001". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  50. ^ "Support Letter from Belknap Neighborhood Association". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  51. ^ "Highlands-Douglass Neighborhood Association Support Letter 0001". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  52. ^ "Cherokee Park Without the Teepee?". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  53. ^ "It's a MONDAY FUND DAY for Save the Hogan's Fountain Pavilion!". 38.241539, -85.725402: Louisville.com. Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  54. ^ "Louisville Hippies Reunion / Hogan's Fountain Teepee Benefit". Facebook. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  55. ^ Speech given at Stevie Ray's Blues Bar on August 5, 2012
  56. ^ Support may be building to preserve Cherokee Park pavilion Sheldon S Shafer. Courier - Journal. Louisville, Ky.:Jan 26, 2011.
  57. ^ "University of Virginia Architectural History Department Recommend Letter". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  58. ^ Louisville Historical League. "Re: Nomination for 2011 "America's 11 Most Endangered Historic Places"". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
  59. ^ "Preservation Kentucky letter". Retrieved 2013-09-26. 
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