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Hogmanay (Scots: [ˌhʌɡməˈneː], HUG-mə-NAY, Scottish English: [ˌhɔɡməˈneː] HOG-mə-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. However, it is normally only the start of a celebration that lasts through the night until the morning of New Year's Day (1 January) or, in some cases, 2 January—a Scottish Bank Holiday.
The etymology of the word is obscure. The three main theories derive it either from a French, Norse or a Goidelic (Insular Celtic) root. The word is first recorded in 1604 in the Elgin Records as hagmonay (delatit to haue been singand hagmonayis on Satirday) and again in 1692 in an entry of the Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, "It is ordinary among some plebeians in the South of Scotland to go about from door to door upon New-years Eve, crying Hagmane".
Although "Hogmanay" is currently the predominant spelling and pronunciation, a number of variant spellings and pronunciations have been recorded, including:
with the first syllable variously being /hɔg/, /hog/, /hʌg/, /hʌug/ or /haŋ/.
Possible French etymologies 
It may have been introduced to Middle Scots through the Auld Alliance. The most commonly cited explanation is a derivation from the Northern French dialect word hoguinané, or variants such as hoginane, hoginono and hoguinettes, those being derived from 16th century Old French aguillanneuf meaning either a gift given at New Year, a children's cry for such a gift, or New Year's Eve itself. This explanation is supported by a children's tradition, observed up to the 1960s in some parts of Scotland at least, of visiting houses in their locality on New Year's Eve and requesting and receiving small treats such as sweets or fruit. The second element would appear to be l'an neuf (the New Year), with some sources suggesting a druidical origin of the practice overall. Compare those to Norman hoguinané and the obsolete customs in Jersey of crying ma hodgîngnole, and in Guernsey of asking for an oguinane, for a New Year gift (see also La Guiannee). In Québec, "la guignolée" was a door-to-door collection for the poor.
Other suggestions include au mener ('lead to the mistletoe'), a gueux mener ('bring to the beggars'), au gui l'an neuf ('to the mistletoe the new year'), or (l')homme est né ('(the) man is born').
Possible Goidelic etymologies 
Fraser and Kelley report a Manx new-year song that begins with the line To-night is New Year's Night, Hogunnaa but did not record the full text in Manx. Other sources parse this as hog-un-naa and give the modern Manx form as Hob dy naa. Manx dictionaries though give Hop-tu-Naa (Manx pronunciation: [hopʰ tθu neː]), generally glossing it as "Hallowe'en", same as many of the more Manx-specific folklore collections.
In this context it is also recorded that in the south of Scotland, for example Roxburghshire, there is no <m>, the word thus being Hunganay, which could suggest the <m> is intrusive. However, in spite of these recorded Manx forms, no satisfactory etymology has been proposed for Hop-tu-Naa within Goidelic.
Another theory occasionally encountered is a derivation from the phrase thog mi an èigh/eugh ([hok mi ˈɲeː]) I raised the cry, which, in pronunciation, resembles Hogmanay, as part of the rhymes traditionally recited at New Year but it is unclear if this is simply a case of folk etymology.
Possible Norse etymologies 
Some authors reject both the French and Goidelic theories, and instead suggest that the ultimate source both for the Norman French, Scots, and Goidelic variants of this word have a common Norse root. It is suggested that the full forms
- Hoginanaye-Trollalay/Hogman aye, Troll a lay (with a Manx cognate Hop-tu-Naa, Trolla-laa)
- Hogmanay, Trollolay, give us of your white bread and none of your gray
invoke the hill-men (Icelandic haugmenn, cf Anglo-Saxon hoghmen) or "elves" and banishes the trolls into the sea (Norse á læ "into the sea"). Repp furthermore makes a link between Trollalay/Trolla-laa and the rhyme recorded in Percy's Relics Trolle on away, trolle on awaye. Synge heave and howe rombelowe trolle on away, which he reads as a straightforward invocation of troll-banning.
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The roots of Hogmanay perhaps reach back to the celebration of the winter solstice among the Norse, as well as incorporating customs from the Gaelic celebration of Samhain. The Vikings celebrated Yule, which later contributed to the Twelve Days of Christmas, or the "Daft Days" as they were sometimes called in Scotland. The winter festival went underground with the Protestant Reformation and ensuing years (see Christmas in Scotland), but re-emerged near the end of the 17th century.
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There are many customs, both national and local, associated with Hogmanay. The most widespread national custom is the practice of first-footing, which starts immediately after midnight. This involves being the first person to cross the threshold of a friend or neighbour and often involves the giving of symbolic gifts such as salt (less common today), coal, shortbread, whisky, and black bun (a rich fruit cake) intended to bring different kinds of luck to the householder. Food and drink (as the gifts) are then given to the guests. This may go on throughout the early hours of the morning and well into the next day (although modern days see people visiting houses well into the middle of January). The first-foot is supposed to set the luck for the rest of the year. Traditionally, tall dark men are preferred as the first-foot.
Local customs 
Areas of Scotland often developed their own Hogmanay rituals.
An example of a local Hogmanay custom is the fireball swinging that takes place in Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire in north-east Scotland. This involves local people making up 'balls' of chicken wire filled with old newspaper, sticks, rags, and other dry flammable material up to a diameter of 2 feet (0.61 m), each attached to about 3 feet (0.91 m) of wire, chain or nonflammable rope. As the Old Town House bell sounds to mark the new year, the balls are set alight and the swingers set off up the High Street from the Mercat Cross to the Cannon and back, swinging the burning balls around their heads as they go. At the end of the ceremony, any fireballs that are still burning are cast into the harbour. Many people enjoy this display, and large crowds flock to see it, with 12,000 attending the 2007/2008 event. In recent years, additional attractions have been added to entertain the crowds as they wait for midnight, such as fire poi, a pipe band, street drumming and a firework display after the last fireball is cast into the sea. The festivities are now streamed live over the Internet. Another example of a pagan fire festival is the burning the clavie in the town of Burghead in Moray.
In the east coast fishing communities and Dundee, first-footers once carried a decorated herring while in Falkland in Fife, local men marched in torchlight procession to the top of the Lomond Hills as midnight approached. Bakers in St Andrews baked special cakes for their Hogmanay celebration (known as 'Cake Day') and distributed them to local children.
In Glasgow and the central areas of Scotland, the tradition is to hold Hogmanay parties that involve singing, dancing, eating of steak pie or stew, storytelling and drink. These usually extend into the daylight hours of 1 January.
Institutions also had their own traditions. For example, amongst the Scottish regiments, officers waited on the men at special dinners while at the bells, the Old Year is piped out of barrack gates. The sentry then challenges the new escort outside the gates: 'Who goes there?' The answer is 'The New Year, all's well.'
An old custom in the Highlands, which has survived to a small extent and seen some degree of revival, is to celebrate Hogmanay with the saining (Scots for 'protecting, blessing') of the household and livestock. Early on New Year's morning, householders drink and then sprinkle 'magic water' from 'a dead and living ford' around the house (a 'dead and living ford' refers to a river ford that is routinely crossed by both the living and the dead). After the sprinkling of the water in every room, on the beds and all the inhabitants, the house is sealed up tight and branches of juniper are set on fire and carried throughout the house and byre. The juniper smoke is allowed to thoroughly fumigate the buildings until it causes sneezing and coughing among the inhabitants. Then all the doors and windows are flung open to let in the cold, fresh air of the new year. The woman of the house then administers 'a restorative' from the whisky bottle, and the household sits down to its New Year breakfast.
"Auld Lang Syne" 
The Hogmanay custom of singing "Auld Lang Syne" has become common in many countries. "Auld Lang Syne" is a traditional poem reinterpreted by Robert Burns, which was later set to music. It is now common to sing this in a circle of linked arms that are crossed over one another as the clock strikes midnight for New Year's Day, though it is only intended that participants link arms at the beginning of the final verse, co-ordinating with the lines of the song that contain the lyrics to do so. Typically, it is only in Scotland this practice is carried out correctly.
Auld Lang Syne is now sung regularly at "The Last Night of the Proms" in London by the full audience with their arms crossed over one another.
In the media 
Between 1957 and 1968 a New Year's Eve television programme, called "The White Heather Club", was presented to herald in the Hogmanay celebrations.
The show was presented by Andy Stewart who always began by singing "Come in, come in, it's nice to see you...." The show always ended with Andy Stewart and the cast singing, "Haste ye Back":
- Haste ye back, we loue you dearly,
- Call again you're welcome here.
- May your days be free from sorrow,
- And your friends be ever near.
- May the paths o'er which you wander,
- Be to you a joy each day.
- Haste ye back we loue you dearly,
- Haste ye back on friendship's way.
The performers were Jimmy Shand and band, Ian Powrie and his band, Scottish country dancers: Dixie Ingram and the Dixie Ingram Dancers, Joe Gordon Folk Four, James Urquhart, Ann & Laura Brand, Moira Anderson & Kenneth McKellar. All the male dancers and Andy Stewart wore kilts, and the female dancers wore long white dresses with tartan sashes.
Following the demise of the White Heather Club, Andy Stewart continued to feature regularly in TV Hogmanay shows until his retirement. His last appearance was in 1992.
In the 1980s comedian Andy Cameron presented the Hogmanay show on BBC Scotland while Peter Morrison presented a show called "A Highland Hogmanay" on STV/Grampian. This was axed in 1993.
For many years, a staple of New Year's Eve television programming in Scotland was the comedy sketch show Scotch and Wry featuring the comedian Rikki Fulton, which invariably included a hilarious monologue from him as the preternaturally gloomy Reverend I.M. Jolly.
Presbyterian influence 
The following quote is one of the first mentions of the holiday in official church records:
- It is ordinary among some plebeians in the South of Scotland to go about from door to door upon New-years Eve, crying Hagmane.
Although Christmas Day held its normal religious nature in Scotland amongst its Catholic and Presbyterian communities, the Presbyterian national church, the Church of Scotland, had discouraged the celebration of Christmas for over 400 years. However, 1 and 2 January remain public holidays in Scotland and Hogmanay still is associated with as much celebration as Christmas in Scotland. Most Scots still celebrate New Year's Day with a special dinner, usually steak pie.
New Year's Day 
When New Year's Day falls on a Sunday, 3 January becomes an additional public holiday in Scotland; when New Year's Day falls on a Saturday, both 3 and 4 January will be public holidays in Scotland; when New Year's Day falls on a Friday, 4 January becomes an additional public holiday in Scotland.
Major celebrations 
As in much of the world, the largest Scottish cities, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Aberdeen hold all-night celebrations, as do Stirling and Inverness. The Edinburgh Hogmanay celebrations are among the largest in the world. Celebrations in Edinburgh in 1996-97 were recognised by the Guinness Book of Records at the world's largest New Year party, with approx. 400,000 people in attendance. Numbers have since been restricted due to safety concerns.
In 2003-4 most of the organised events were cancelled at short notice due to very high winds. The Stonehaven Fireballs went ahead as planned, however, with some 6000 people braving the stormy weather to watch 42 fireball swingers process along the High Street. Similarly, the 2006-07 celebrations in Edinburgh, Glasgow and Stirling were all cancelled on the day, again due to high winds and heavy rain. The Aberdeen celebration, however, went ahead, and was opened by the pop music group, Wet Wet Wet.
Handsel Day 
Historically, presents were given in Scotland on the first Monday of the New Year. This would be celebrated often by the employer giving his staff presents and parents giving children presents. Handsel Day is marked by teachers giving gifts to their students. A roast dinner would be eaten to celebrate the festival. Handsel was a word for gift box and hence Handsel Day. In modern Scotland this practice has died out.
- "Hagmane". Dictionary of the Scots Language. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- Robinson, Mairi (ed) The Concise Scots Dictionary (1985) The Scottish National Dictionary Association ISBN 0-08-028491-4
- Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black. Edinburgh, Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 p. 575: "'Hogmanay' is French in origin. In northern French dialect it was hoguinané, going back to Old French aguillaneuf, meaning a gift given on New Year's eve or the word cried out in soliciting it."
- Encyclopaedia Brittanica Vol I (1823) 6th Edition
- Chambers, R. Popular Rhymes of Scotland Chambers (1841) 3rd Edition
- Hogmanay 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
- Fraser, Sir James George The Golden Bough 1922
- Kelley, Ruth The Book of Hallowe'en (1919)
- Folk-lore - A Quarterly Review of Myth, Tradition, Institution and Custom Vol II (1891) The Folk-lore Society
- Broderick, G. A Handbook of Late Spoken Manx Niemeyer (1984) ISBN 3-484-42904-6
- Fargher, Douglas Fockleyr Baarle-Gaelg (1979) Shearwater Press ISBN 0-904980-23-5
- Moore, A.W. Manx Ballads & Music (1896) G R Johnson
- "Originn of Hogmaney". Townsville Daily Bulletin. 5 January 1940. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- MacBain, A. Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (1896)
- Dwelly, E. The Illustrated Gaelic-English Dictionary (1941)
- Mark, Colin The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2004) Routledge ISBN 0-415-29761-3
- Harrison, W. Mona Miscellany (1869) Manx Society
- Chambers, R. Popular Rhymes of Scotland (1841) W&R Chambers p. 165
- Repp, Thorl On the Scottish Formula of Congratulation on New Year's Eve - "Hogmanay, Trollalay" (1831) Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Vol IV
- Percy, Thomas Percy's Reliques (1765)
- Stonehaven Fireball Association photos and videos of festivities. Retrieved 31 December 2007.
- Aberdeen Press and Journal 2 January 2008. "around 12,000 turned out in Stonehaven to watch the town's traditional fireball ceremony." Retrieved 3 January 2008.
- 'Hogmanay Traditions' at Scotland's Tourism Board. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
- McNeill, F. Marian (1961). "X Hogmany Rites and Superstitions". The Silver Bough, Vol.3: A Calendar of Scottish National Festivals, Halloween to Yule. Glasgow: William MacLellan. p. 113. ISBN 0-948474-04-1.
- "Queen stays at arm's length". Lancashire Evening Telegraph, 5 January 2000.
- 1692 Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence (ed. 2) p. 82.
- 'Scottish Hogmanay Customs and Traditions at New Year' at About Aberdeen. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
- 'History of the Stonehaven Fireballs Ceremony', 3 January 2008, at Stonehaven Fireballs Association. Retrieved 3 January 2008.
- 'Weather spoils Hogmanay parties', 1 January 2007, at BBC News, Scotland. Retrieved 21 December 2007.
See also 
- Observations on the Popular Antiquities of Great Britain, Brand, London, 1859
- Dictiounnaire Angllais-Guernesiais, de Garis, Chichester, 1982
- Dictionnaire Jersiais-Français, Le Maistre, Jersey, 1966
- 1692 Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, Edinburgh
- Dictionary of the Scots Language, Edinburgh
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hogmanay|
- Edinburgh's Hogmanay Official Web Site
- Biggar Bonfire Web Site
- Edinburgh Hogmany 2011/2012 Information
- Scottish Hogmanay Customs and Traditions