- For the district in Germany, see Hohenlohe (district). For other uses, see Hohenlohe (disambiguation).
|County (Principality) of Hohenlohe
Grafschaft (Fürstentum) Hohenlohe
|State of the Holy Roman Empire|
Hohenlohe estates, Homann 1748
|-||1157–70||Albert the Bear (first)|
|-||1797–1806||Frederick William IV (last)|
|21 May 1744|
|12 July 1806|
Hohenlohe is the name of a German noble dynasty, as well as the name of their Imperial State. Since 1450 rulers of an immediate county (Reichsgrafen), its two branches were raised to the rank of principalities of the Holy Roman Empire in 1744 and 1764 respectively; in 1806 they lost their independence and their lands formed part of the Kingdoms of Bavaria and of Württemberg. At the time of the mediatization in 1806, the area of Hohenlohe was 1 760 km² and its estimated population was 108,000.
An early ancestor was mentioned in 1153 as one Conrad, Lord of Weikersheim. His son Conrad jun. called himself the possessor of Hohlach (Hohenloch or Hohenlohe) Castle near Uffenheim, and the dynasty's influence was soon perceptible in-between the Franconian valleys of the Kocher, the Jagst and the Tauber Rivers, an area that was to be called the Hohenlohe Plateau.
Heinrich I (d. 1183) was the first to take the title of Count of Hohenlohe, and in 1230 his grandsons, Gottfried and Conrad, supporters of Emperor Frederick II, founded the lines of Hohenlohe-Hohenlohe and Hohenlohe-Brauneck, names taken from their respective castles. The latter became extinct in 1390, its lands passing later to Brandenburg, while the former was divided into several branches, only two of which, however, Hohenlohe-Weikersheim and Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld, need be mentioned here. Hohenlohe-Weikersheim, descended from Count Kraft I (d. 1313), also underwent several divisions, that which took place after the deaths of Counts Albert and George in 1551 being specially important. At this time the lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg were founded by the sons of Count George. Meanwhile, in 1412, the family of Hohenlohe-Uffenheim-Speckfeld had become extinct, and its lands had passed through the marriages of its heiresses into other families. George Hohenlohe was archbishop of Esztergom (1418 – 1423), serving the King Sigismund of Hungary (later also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia).
The existing branches of the Hohenlohe family are descended from the lines of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein and Hohenlohe-Waldenburg, established in 1551. The former of these became Protestant, while the latter remained Roman Catholic. Of the family of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, which underwent several partitions and inherited Gleichen in 1631, the senior line became extinct in 1805, while in 1701 the junior line divided itself into three branches, those of Langenburg, Ingelfingen and Kirchberg. Kirchberg died out in 1861, but members of the families of Hohenlohe-Langenburg and Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen are still alive, the latter being represented by the branches of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and Hohenlohe-Öhringen. The Roman Catholic family of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg was soon divided into three branches, but two of these had died out by 1729. The surviving branch, that of Schillingsfürst, was divided into the lines of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst and Hohenlohe-Bartenstein; other divisions followed, and the four existing lines of this branch of the family are those of Waldenburg, Schillingsfürst, Jagstberg, and Bartenstein. The family of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst possesses the Duchies of Ratibor and of Corvey, inherited in 1834.
The current prince is Friedrich-Karl zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst who lives at Waldenburg.
Notable members of the von Hohenlohe family include:
- Heinrich von Hohenlohe, 13th century Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights
- Gottfried von Hohenlohe, 14th century Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights
- Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1746-1818), Prussian general
- Louis Aloy de Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (1765–1829), marshal and peer of France
- August, Prince of Hohenlohe-Öhringen (1784-1853), general
- Prince Alexander of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (1794-1849), priest
- Kraft, Prinz zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1827–1892), Prussian general and writer
- Victor I, Duke of Ratibor, Prince of Corvey, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1818-1893)
- Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1819–1901), Chancellor of Germany
- Gustav Adolf Hohenlohe (1823-1896), a Roman Catholic cardinal
- Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (1863-1918), Austrian statesman and aristocrat
- Prince Friedrich Franz von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (1879-1958), Austrian military attache and later German spy-master. His first wife, Stephanie von Hohenlohe (1891-1972), was a German spy in the 1930s and at the start of WWII.
- Kraft, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Öhringen (b. 1933), current head of the Hohenlohe-Öhringen branch
- Philipp, Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg (b. 1970), current head of the Hohenlohe-Langenburg branch
Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (1863-1918), Prime Minister of Austria-Hungary (1906)
Legion de Hohenlohe
The Legion de Hohenlohe was a unit of foreign soldiers serving in the French Army until 1831, when its members as well as those of the disbanded Swiss Guards were folded into the newly raised French Foreign Legion for service in Algeria.
Palaces of the House of Hohenlohe
Waldenburg town and castle*
Rudy near Ratibor, Silesia (Poland)
Imperial Abbey of Corvey*, Westfalia
Grafenegg Castle*, Lower Austria
(*) still owned by members of the House of Hohenlohe
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Hohenlohe.|
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- See generally A. F. Fischer, Geschichte des Hauses Hohenlohe (1866–1871);
- K. Weller, Hohenlohisches Urkundenbuch. 1153–1350 (Stuttgart, 1899–1901), and
- Geschichte des Hauses Hohenlohe (Stuttgart, 1904). (W. A. P.; C. F. A.)