The Hokkaido(北海道犬,Hokkaidō-inu or Hokkaidō-ken?) is a breed of dog. Other names for the breed include Ainu-ken, Seta, Ainu dog. In Japan, its name is sometimes shortened to Dō-ken. The Hokkaido is native to the prefecture of the same name in Japan.
The breed is medium in size, and has small, triangular, upright ears. The small eyes have a rising triangular outline. The Hokkaido has a coat of long, stiff fur, and a second, shorter coat of soft fur. Colors include red, white, black, tiger, sesame, black and tan and wolf-gray. Males are typically 50 cm tall, and females a few centimeters shorter, with body masses in the 20 kg range.
The breed is known for fidelity to its owner, bravery, and the ability to withstand the cold, among other traits. It has an innate sense of direction and can therefore return to its master no matter how great the distance. This breed has the unusual capability of fighting against the Hokkaido Brown Bear, or Higuma to protect its master. The way in which the Ainu Dog accomplishes this is to attack the bear's back, then bite and hold the dorsal flesh of the bear's neck until the bear retreats. Despite its long history as a working breed, the Ainu Dog ideally combines the roles of family pet and hunter. This breed should not be allowed to run free around other animals. They are good with children if they are raised with them as pups. This dog is not recommended for apartment life. It is moderately active indoors and will do best with a large yard.
In 1937, the Ainu dog was designated in Japan as "a rare species protected by law" by the Ministry of Education and it was decided that the official name of the breed would be Hokkaido-Inu. However, the dogs are almost always called Hokkaido-Ken among the Japanese people.