The Hokkaido Shinkansen (北海道新幹線 Hokkaidō Shinkansen?) is a Japanese high-speed shinkansen rail line currently under construction between Aomori Prefecture in Honshu and Hokkaido through the undersea Seikan Tunnel. Construction started in May 2005, and the initial Shin-Aomori to Shin-Hakodate section is projected to open in March 2016. On 30 June 2012, the government approved construction of the line to Sapporo by fiscal year 2035. The line will be operated by the Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido).
In preparation for the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen, the Seikan Tunnel (Kaikyō Line) is being converted to dual gauge, with both 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard and 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) narrow-gauge tracks.
The Tōhoku Shinkansen to Shin-Aomori operates at a maximum speed of 320 km/h (200 mph). JR East has announced it is investigating the requirements to increase the maximum speed to 360 km/h (225 mph) by 2020.
Initially the maximum speed through the Seikan tunnel will be 140 km/h (85 mph) due to the risk of a narrow gauge freight train travelling in the opposite direction being derailed by the shockwave of air that moves ahead of Shinkansen trains at higher speeds in tunnels. There are approximately 50 freight trains passing through the Seikan Tunnel each day, and so limiting the travel of such trains through the tunnel to times outside of Shinkansen services is not an option.
By 2018, it is proposed to allow one Shinkansen service each day to travel at 260 km/h (160 mph) (the maximum speed proposed for the tunnel) by ensuring no freight trains are scheduled to travel through the tunnel at that time. To achieve the full benefit of Shinkansen trains travelling through the tunnel at 260 km/h (160 mph), other alternatives are being considered, such as a system to automatically slow Shinkansen trains down to 200 km/h (125 mph) when passing narrow gauge trains, and loading freight trains onto special "Train on Train" standard gauge trains (akin to a covered piggyback flatcar train) built to withstand the shockwaves of oncoming Shinkansen trains traveling at full speed. This would enable a travel time from Tokyo to Shin-Hakodate of 3 hours and 45 minutes.
JR Hokkaido is extending the Hokkaido Shinkansen from Shin-Hakodate to Sapporo, planned to open by 2035. Tunnelling work on the 5,265 metres (17,274 ft) Murayama tunnel, situated about 18 kilometres (11 mi) north of Shin-Hakodate station is proposed to commence by March 2015, and be completed by March 2021. If Hokkaido Shinkansen services are ultimately able to be operated at speeds of up to 360 km/h (225 mph), the estimated journey time from Tokyo to Sapporo would be 5 hours and 1 minute.
In the early 1970s, two other Shinkansen routes were proposed for Hokkaido: Sapporo - Asahikawa (Hokkaido Shinkansen extension) and Oshamambe - Muroran – Sapporo (Hokkaido South Route). There were also further unofficial plans to connect to Abashiri, Kushiro, and Wakkanai. These plans have been indefinitely shelved.
|Station name||Japanese||Distance (km)||Transfers||Location|
|Shin-Aomori||新青森||0.0||Ōu Main Line, Tōhoku Shinkansen||Aomori||Aomori|
|Oku-Tsugaru-Imabetsu||奥津軽いまべつ||38.5||Tsugaru Line (Tsugaru-Futamata)
Kaikyō Line (Tsugaru-Imabetsu[* 1])
|Kikonai||木古内||113.3||Esashi Line, Kaikyō Line||Kikonai||Hokkaido|
|Shin-Hakodate-Hokuto||新函館北斗||148.9||Hakodate Main Line (Oshima-Ōno[* 1])||Hokuto|
|Oshamambe||長万部||236.1||Hakodate Main Line, Muroran Main Line||Oshamambe|
|Kutchan||倶知安||290.2||Hakodate Main Line||Kutchan|
|Sapporo||札幌||360.2||Chitose Line, Hakodate Main Line, Sasshō Line (Gakuen-Toshi Line)
Namboku Line, Tōhō Line
- Will be renamed when Shinkansen line opens
- Tentative name
In February 2014, JR Hokkaido placed an order for four 10-car H5 Series Shinkansen trainsets for use on Hokkaido Shinkansen services from March 2016. Based on the E5 series trainsets operated by JR East since 2011, the order for 40 vehicles cost approximately 18 billion yen. The first two sets of the order are scheduled to be delivered to Hakodate Depot by road from Hakodate Port in October 2014, with test running commencing before the end of the year. The remaining two sets on order are scheduled to be delivered in 2015.
- Press, Jiji. "Shinkansen to get 3 new sections". The Yomiuri Shimbun. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- Kyodo News, "Bullet-train extensions approved", The Japan Times, 30 June 2012, p. 2
- Kyodo News, "DPJ may OK three new bullet-train sections", The Japan Times, 17 December 2011, p. 1.
- "北海道新幹線「Ｈ５系」、内装には雪の結晶も" [Hokkaido Shinkansen "H5 series" - Interiors to feature snowflake design]. Yomiuri Online (in Japanese). Japan: The Yomiuri Shimbun. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "北海道新幹線車両、函館港に１０月陸揚げ 今年まず２０両、基地へ陸送" [Hokkaido Shinkansen trains to arrive at Hakodate Port in October with 20 vehicles delivered to depot this year]. Doshin Web (in Japanese). Japan: The Hokkaido Shimbun Press. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014.