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The Hokkaido Shinkansen (北海道新幹線 Hokkaidō Shinkansen?) is a Japanese high-speed shinkansen rail line currently under construction between Aomori Prefecture in Honshu and Hokkaido through the undersea Seikan Tunnel. Construction started in May 2005, and the initial Shin-Aomori to Shin-Hakodate section is projected to open in March 2016. On 30 June 2012, the government approved construction of the line to Sapporo by fiscal year 2035. The line will be operated by the Hokkaido Railway Company (JR Hokkaido).
In preparation for the opening of the Hokkaido Shinkansen, the Seikan Tunnel (Kaikyō Line) is being converted to dual gauge, with both 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard and 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) narrow-gauge tracks.
As of March 2013, the Tōhoku Shinkansen to Shin-Aomori operates at a maximum speed of 320 km/h (200 mph). JR East has announced it is investigating the requirements to increase the maximum speed to 360 km/h (225 mph) by 2020. Initially the maximum speed through the Seikan tunnel will be 140 km/h (85 mph) due to the risk of a narrow gauge freight train travelling in the opposite direction being derailed by the shockwave of air that moves ahead of Shinkansen trains at higher speeds in tunnels. There are approximately 50 freight trains passing through the Seikan Tunnel each day, and so limiting the travel of such trains through the tunnel to times outside of Shinkansen services is not an option. By 2018, it is proposed to allow one Shinkansen service each day to travel at 260 km/h (160 mph) (the maximum speed proposed for the tunnel) by ensuring no freight trains are scheduled to travel through the tunnel at that time. To achieve the full benefit of Shinkansen trains travelling through the tunnel at 260 km/h (160 mph), other alternatives are being considered, such as a system to automatically slow Shinkansen trains down to 200 km/h (125 mph) when passing narrow gauge trains, and loading freight trains onto special "Train on Train" standard gauge trains (akin to a covered piggyback flatcar train) built to withstand the shockwaves of oncoming Shinkansen trains traveling at full speed. This would enable a travel time from Tokyo to Shin-Hakodate of 3 hours and 45 minutes. If Hokkaido Shinkansen services are ultimately able to be operated at speeds of up to 360 km/h (225 mph), the estimated journey time from Tokyo to Sapporo would be 5 hours and 1 minute.
JR Hokkaido is extending the Hokkaido Shinkansen from Shin-Hakodate to Sapporo, planned to open by 2035. Tunnelling work on the 5,265 metres (17,274 ft) Murayama tunnel, situated about 18 kilometres (11 mi) north of Shin-Hakodate station is proposed to commence by March 2015, and be completed by March 2021.
In the early 1970s, two other Shinkansen routes were proposed for Hokkaido: Sapporo - Asahikawa (Hokkaido Shinkansen extension) and Oshamambe - Muroran – Sapporo (Hokkaido South Route). There were also further unofficial plans to connect to Abashiri, Kushiro, and Wakkanai. These plans have been indefinitely shelved.
|Shin-Aomori||新青森||0.0||Ōu Main Line, Tōhoku Shinkansen||Aomori||Aomori|
|Oku-Tsugaru[* 1]||奥津軽||38.5 km (23.9 mi)||Tsugaru Line (Tsugaru-Futamata)
Kaikyō Line (Tsugaru-Imabetsu[* 2])
|Kikonai||木古内||113.3 km (70.4 mi)||Esashi Line, Kaikyō Line||Kikonai||Hokkaido|
|Shin-Hakodate[* 1]||新函館||148.9 km (92.5 mi)||Hakodate Main Line (Oshima-Ōno[* 2])||Hokuto|
|Shin-Yakumo[* 1]||新八雲||203.0 km (126.1 mi)||Yakumo|
|Oshamambe||長万部||236.1 km (146.7 mi)||Hakodate Main Line, Muroran Main Line||Oshamambe|
|Kutchan||倶知安||290.2 km (180.3 mi)||Hakodate Main Line||Kutchan|
|Shin-Otaru[* 1]||新小樽||328.2 km (203.9 mi)||Otaru|
|Sapporo||札幌||360.2 km (223.8 mi)||Chitose Line, Hakodate Main Line, Sasshō Line (Gakuen-Toshi Line)
Namboku Line, Tōhō Line
- Tentative name
- Will be renamed when Shinkansen line opens