Holy See–Russia relations
Holy See–Russia relations (Russian: Российско-Ватиканские отношения) is the bilateral relationship between the two countries, Vatican City and Russia. The Holy See has an Apostolic Nunciature in Moscow. Russia has a permanent representative to the Holy See based in Rome.
Ecumenical relations 
Holy See–Russia relations are largely linked to ecumenical relations with the Russian Orthodox Church.
Relationship before the 1917 revolution 
Pope Pius IX, who faced his own problems with revolutionary movements in his Church State, first tried to position himself in the middle, strongly opposing revolutionary and violent opposition against the Russian authorities and appealing to them for more Church freedom.
John Paul II 
There were mixed reactions in Russia on the papacy of John Paul II. Many Russians were happy that John Paul had reduced the influence of atheistic communism in Eastern Europe and contributed to a rebirth of Christianity in the country. However, many others did not like the fact that the fall of the Soviet Union had also provoked a loss of Russian influence in Eastern Europe. The fact that John Paul was Polish also caused tensions, since there is a historic ethno-religious rivalry between Poland and Russia.
See also 
- "Russia and the Vatican establish full diplomatic ties". BBC News. 2009-12-03. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Holy See–Russia relations|
- (Russian) Documents on the Holy See – Russia relationship from the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- (Russian) Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See in Moscow
- Benedict XVI receives President of the Russian Federation Video of meeting between Pope Benedict XVI and President Dmitry Medvedev from Official YouTube channel of the Vatican. December 3, 2009, Retrieved November 20, 2010