Holy See of Cilicia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia
(Holy See of Cilicia)
Holy-see-of-cilicia-coat-of-arms.gif
The coat of arms of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia
Founder The Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus
Independence Apostolic Era
Recognition Armenian Apostolic Church
Primate Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia, Aram I.
Headquarters Antelias, Lebanon previously Kozan, Adana
Territory Cilicia & Western Armenia
Possessions Middle East, Europe, North America, South America, Oceania,and Africa.
Language Armenian
Members 4,000,000
Website Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia
Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral
Սուրբ Գրիգոր Լուսաւորիչ մայր տաճար
St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral.jpg
Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral in the Armenian Catholicosate of Cilicia
Holy See of Cilicia is located in Lebanon
Holy See of Cilicia
Shown within Lebanon
Basic information
Location Antelias,  Lebanon
Geographic coordinates 33°55′06″N 35°35′07″E / 33.918275°N 35.585328°E / 33.918275; 35.585328Coordinates: 33°55′06″N 35°35′07″E / 33.918275°N 35.585328°E / 33.918275; 35.585328
Affiliation Armenian Apostolic Church
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Cathedral
Status Active
Architectural description
Architectural style Armenian
Completed 1940
Partial view of the Catholicosate complex on the Mediterranean Sea in Antelias
Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral (1940)
Interior of the St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral
Memorial chapel to the Armenian Genocide at the Catholicosate premises in Antelias
The Veharan, the residence of the Catholicos in Antelias, Lebanon
Holy Mother of God Church (Sourp Asdvadzadzin) at the seminary in Bikfaya

The Armenian Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia (Armenian: Կաթողիկոսութիւն Հայոց Մեծի Տանն Կիլիկիոյ) is a hierarchal see of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Since 1930, the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia has been headquartered in Antelias, Lebanon. His Holiness Aram I has served as Catholicos of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Church since 1995.

Great House of Cilicia eras[edit]

  • First Sis era, 267-301: According to the order of Catholicoi, *St. Gregory I the Enlightener (also known as Gregory the Illuminator) was seated in Sis 267-301 before moving to Etchmiadzin in 301 where he continued in office until 325.
  • In 485 AD, the Catholicosate was transferred to the new capital of Armenia Dvin. In the 10th century it moved from Dvin to Dzoravank and then to Aghtamar (927 AD), to Arghina (947 AD) and to Ani (992 AD)
  • Sivas era, 1058–1062
  • Tavbloor era, 1062–1066
  • Dzamendav (Zamidia, now Zamantı) era, 1066–1116
  • Dzovk (Present aka Island of Gölcük and under the lake of Hazar), era, 1116–1149
  • Hromgla (now Halfeti) era, 1149–1293
  • Second Sis era, 1293-1930 (with the Catholicosate of All Armenians returned to Etchmiadzin in 1441)
  • Antelias, Lebanon era, since 1930 - having transferred there from Sis in Cilicia in the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide.

Early history of the Armenian Church[edit]

The origin of the Armenian Church dates back to the Apostolic age and according to the ancient tradition was established by St. Thaddeus and St. Bartholomew. In 301 AD, Christianity was officially accepted by the Armenians as the state religion.[1]

St. Gregory the Illuminator, the patron Saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church, and King Tiridates III of Armenia, the ruler of the time, played a pivotal role in the official Christianization of Armenia. St. Gregory the Illuminator became the organizer of the Armenian Church hierarchy. From that time, the heads of the Armenian Church have been called Catholicos and still hold the same title. St. Gregory chose as the site of the Catholicosate then the capital city of Vagharshapat, in Armenia. He built the pontifical residence next to the church called "Holy Mother of God" (which in recent times would take on the name of Holy Etchmiadzin).

In 485 AD, the Catholicosate was transferred to the new capital Dvin. In the 10th century it moved from Dvin to Dzoravank and then to Aghtamar (927 AD), to Arghina (947 AD) and to Ani (992 AD).

Early era of the Catholicosate in Cilicia (1058-1293)[edit]

After the fall of Ani and the Armenian Kingdom of Bagradits in 1045, masses of Armenians migrated to Cilicia. The Catholicosate, together with the people, settled there. The seat of the church (now known as The Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia) was first established in Sivas (1058 AD) moving to Tavbloor (1062 AD), then to Dzamendav (1066 AD), Dzovk (1116 AD), Hromgla (1149 AD), and finally in Sis (1293), the capital of the Cilician Kingdom.

After the fall of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, in 1375, the Church also assumed the role of national leadership, and the Catholicos was recognized as Ethnarch (Head of Nation). This national responsibility considerably broadened the scope of the Church's mission.

Two Catholicosates starting 1441 AD[edit]

In 1441, a new Catholicos of All Armenians was elected in Holy Etchmiadzin in the person of Kirakos I Virapetsi of Armenia. At the same time the retiring Catholicos in Sis Gregory IX Mousabegian (1439–1446) remained as the Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia. Therefore, since 1441, there have been two Catholicosates in the Armenian Apostolic Church with the primacy of the Catholicosate of All Armenians in the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin recognized by the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia. The Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians resides in the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin.

Catholicosate in Sis (1293-1930)[edit]

The city of Sis (modern-day Kozan, Adana, Turkey) was the center of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia for more than six centuries, starting in 1293 when the Catholicosate moved from Hromgla to Sis. The monastery of St. Sophia of Sis, home of the Catholicosate, dominates the town in early 20th-century photographs. During the Armenian Genocide, in 1915, the Armenian population in Cilicia was mostly destroyed.[2] The last Catholicos to reside in Sis was Sahak II (Catholicos from 1902 to 1939). In 1921, after renewed massacres of Armenians in Cilicia by Kemalist Turkey, Sahak II, with the surviving Armenian population, fled to find refuge in Syria.

Catholicosate in Antelias, Lebanon (1930-Present)[edit]

Sahak II after leaving the premises of the Catholicosate in Sis stayed at various locations in Northern Syria and in Lebanon, running the affairs of the Catholicosate.

In 1922 the American Committee for Relief in the Near East established an orphanage in Antilias for survivors of the genocide. It continued operating until 1928. After the foundation's Executive Committee was petitioned in 1929 by Sahak II, in 1930 the now-vacant buildings of the orphanage were leased to the Cilicia Catholicate for a period of five years to be used as a seat for the Catholicosate and a seminary for training priests and teachers. The foundation also agreed to contribute $6000-$7000 yearly towards running costs. [3]The first liturgy in the Catholicosate's seminary at Antilias took place on Sunday, October 12th, 1930.

Using donations from Simon and Mathilde Kayekjian, the Catholicosate eventually purchased the property and land at Antilias housing the Catholicosate. The ailing Catholicos who served until 1939 was aided in his later years by Papken I of Cilicia who served as Coadjutor for the Catholicos from 1931-1936.

The main cathedral called St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral was built through the donation of an unknown benefactor, whose name was kept a secret until his death according to his wishes. His name, Sarkis Kenadjian, was revealed only after his death.

A chapel in memory of the one and a half million Armenian martyrs was built, followed by a residence for the Catholicos (called Veharan) and a new Seminary building, constructed one after the other. The chapel was built after the donation of Armenian-Cypriot benefactor and art collector Vahram Utidjian, the son of the famous official translator for the British Apisoghom Utidjian. Catholicos Sahag II died in 1939. However the Museum is a much later development and built and inaugurated in 1997.

The complex of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia (in Antelias, Lebanon) includes:

  • St. Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral built in 1940
  • The Catholicosate Library (established 1932)
  • "Cilicia" church museum (1997)
  • Chapel dedicated to the memorial of the victims of the Armenian Genocide, built after the donation of Armenian-Cypriot Vahram Utidjian.
  • The "Veharan" (Վեհարան), the location of the catholicos' residence.

The Catholicosate complex also includes the mausoleum / cemetery where a number of the heads of the Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia are buried. For a certain period, the Catholicosate also hosted an elementary Armenian school within the Catholicosate complex but the school was moved to a new location a few kilometers away due to the expanding number of students and grade levels and the need for additional classroom space.

A theological seminary is located in the nearby mountains in Bikfaya that also serves as summer residence for the Catholicos and the clergy.

Publications[edit]

Hask[edit]

Main article: Hask (periodical)

The Catholicossate has its own publishing house and has a number of publications, most notably the monthly "Hask" (in Armenian Հասկ), the official organ of the Holy See of Cilicia.

Others[edit]

The Catholicosate also publishes a great number of books in Armenian and other languages, mainly on church literature as well as Armenian historical, cultural and literary subjects and series/collections of important Armenian literature.

The Catholicosate of the Great House of Cilicia also organizes an annual book fair on the occasion of Feast of the Holy Translators (known also as Surb Tarkmantchats), an official holiday on the calendar of the Armenian Apostolic Church to commemorate the legacy of the translators of the Bible and other Christian religious books to Armenian language in the 5th century.

Hask Armenological Review[edit]

It also publishes the annual "Hask Armenological Review" (in Armenian Հասկ Հայագիտական Հանդէս) on Armenian studies

Prelacies and Dioceses, and Churches[edit]

(in parenthesis, the residence of the Prelate / Archbishop / Bishop)

  • Lebanon
    • Armenian Diocese of Lebanon, in Beirut
  • Greece
    • Armenian Diocese of Greece, in Athens
  • Iran
    • Armenian Diocese of Tehran, in Tehran
    • Armenian Diocese of Isfahan, in Isfahan
    • Armenian Diocese of Atrpatakan, in Tabriz
  • Persian Gulf
    • Armenian Diocese of Kuwait, in Kuwait City
    • Armenian Diocese of the United Arab Emirates and Qatar, in Abu Dhabi

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]