Holy Synod of Milan
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It began as the Diocese for Western Europe of the Old Calendarist Greek Orthodox Church which (after receiving a hierarchy with the aid of bishops of the ROCOR) was united under Archbishops Akakios of Diavleia (Greek Old Calendarists) and Auxentios.
The West European Diocese was established in 1978 by Archbishop Auxentios (Athens) with the election of Archimandrite Gabriel to the Episcopate of Lisbon. This action was a source of friction between ROCOR and the GOC of Greece, as Archimandrite Gabriel had been taken in from the Diocese of Western Europe under Archbishop Anthony of Geneva without a canonical release. The diocese was granted a tomos of autonomy in 1984 from Archbishop Auxentios in order to pursue missionary work among the non-Orthodox people of the West. The title of the Synod at this time was the Metropolia of Western Europe. In 1984 another Bishop Tiago of Lisbon was established under the Synod of West while the Synod of Greece was going through schism.
After the departure of its first Chief Hierarch, Metropolitan Gabriel of Portugal, to the autocephalous Church of Poland, Archimandrite Evloghios of Milan was chosen as second Chief Hierarch and the Primate of the Synod in 1990. His rank was elevated to the metropolitan. An Orthodox Episcopate in the see of Saint Ambrose was reestablished for the first time since the schism of the West. In 1990 the Synod came into communion with Metropolitan Mstyslav of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in Exile (Patriarch of Kyiv). In 1994 Patriarch Volodomyr (Romaniuk) recognized the autonomy of the Synod. However after the split of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church initiated by the newly-elected Patriarch Filaret (Denysenko) (excommunicated in 1997) the Synod has not been in communion with any particular Patriarchate.
Important is the fact that American Archdioceses predate creation of the Synod. Both Archdioceses were closely tied to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. In 1997 Archdiocese of Texas (originally established by the Ukrainian Church) was accepted into Synod. Since then Archbishop Hilarion became the senior bishop for Americas while the Archdiocese of New York and New Jersey of Archbishop John was converted to diocese for the eastern part of the United States.
The American Archdioces was granted independence early 2011, and became an autonomous sister church with the Milan Synod.
On April 4, 2011, the Milan Synod broke communion with its America, Greek, and Bulgarian Sister Synods; this was precipitated by the Milan Synod's desire to unite with the Moscow Patriarchate. That day, the American Synod (the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of North and South America and the British Isles) confirmed that a cessation of communion had occurred due to the European Synod's desire to unite with the Mosocw Patriarchate. The American Synod had previously published statements condmening the Moscow Patriarchate and all the Patriarchs that participated in ecumenism as heretical and abominations.
Today Metropolitan Evloghios remains at the helm of the Holy Synod of bishops of the Church of Milan, which comprises 5 dioceses in Europe, as well as missionary deaneries in France and South Africa.
Members of Synod 
Starting in 1997 the Milan Synod included a number of Western Rite communities, mainly in the United States. The principal rite of the Synod of Milan is the Byzantine Rite of the Orthodox Church, celebrated most commonly in the Slavic style, but in some parishes in the Greek style. These communities are not longer with the Milan Synod, since the American Archdioceses were granted autonomy and recognized as an independent Sister Synod; on April 4, 2011, communion between the Milan Synod and the American Sister Synod ( the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of North and South America and the British Isles ) ended, due to the Milan Synod's public announcement that it was seeking to join the Moscow Patriarchate. The Milan Synod announced that it would cease communion with all previous Sister Churches, including its new Sister Church ( the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of North and South America and the British Isles ), as well as its Bulgarian and Greek Sister Churches. The Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of North and South America and the British Isles confirmed that such a cessation had taken; thus removing any present connection the Milan Synod has to the minority Western rite communities in the Autonomous Orthodox Metropolia of North and South America and the British Isles.
In 2011, the majority of the clergy of the Spanish diocese, including Bishop (now Archimandrite) Pablo, were received into ROCOR by Metropolitan Hilarion of New York.
In the spring on 2012, Metropolitan Evloghios and Archbishop Abundius resigned episcopal rank and styled themselves "Archimandrites".
In August of 2012, Archbishop Onufrie of Bergamo was granted the rank of Metropolitan by the American Metropolia and consecrated new Bishops.