Amiga Hombre chipset
Commodore also planned to build a 3D accelerator PCI card based on Hombre. However, due to Commodore International's bankruptcy Hombre had never seen the light of day.
In 1993, Commodore International stopped the development of the AAA chipset and began to design a new 64-bit 3D graphics chipset based on PA-RISC architecture that would once again bring the Amiga back into the limelight. It was codenamed Hombre (pronounced "ómbre" which means man in Spanish) and was developed in conjunction with Hewlett-Packard over an estimated 18 month period.
Hombre did not support any planar mode, it did not even include any emulation for Amiga chipset or motorola 680x0 cpu registers, so it was completely incompatible with former Amiga models. According to Hombre designer (Dr. ED Hepler) Commodore was thinking to produce a single chip AGA Amiga to solve the backward compatibility issues (Amiga on a chip almost like Siamese/InsideOut cards or FPGA natami). this single chip will include Motorola MC680x0 core, plus AGA chipset. the chip could be integrated in Hombre based computers for backward compatibility with AGA software.
Hombre was based around two chips: a System Controller-chip and a Display Controller chip.
The System Controller-chip was designed by Dr. Ed Hepler, well known as the designer of the AAA Andrea chip. The chip is similar in principle to the chip bus controller found in Agnus, Alice, and Andrea of the Amiga chipsets. The chip featured the following:
- A 100+ MHz PA-7150 SIMD microprocessor
- An advanced DMA engine and blitter with 3D texture mapping and gouraud shading
- 16-bit resolution sound processor with eight voices
The Display Controller Chip was designed by Tim McDonald, also known as the designer of the AAA Monica chip. It is similar in principle to the Denise, Lisa, and Monica chips found on original Amigas. In addition, the chipset also supported future official or third party upgrades through extension for an external PA-RISC processor.
There were plans to port the AmigaOS Exec kernel to low-end systems, but this was not possible due to financial troubles facing Commodore at that time. Therefore, a licensed OpenGL library was to be used for the low-end entertainment system.
The original plan for the Hombre-based computer system was to have Windows NT compatibility, with native AmigaOS recompiled for the new big-endian CPU to run legacy 68k Amiga software through emulation. Commodore chose the PA-7150 microprocessor over the MIPS R3000 microprocessor and first generation embedded PowerPC microprocessors, mainly because these low-cost microprocessors were unqualified to run Windows NT. This wasn't the case for the 64-bit MIPS R4200, but it was rejected for its high price at the time.
Hombre was designed as a clean break from traditional Amiga chipset architecture with no planar mode support. Commodore also decided to drop support of the original Amiga eight sprites because at the time sprites became less attractive to developers for its limitations compared to fast blitters. Despite lack of compatibility, Hombre introduced modern technologies including:
- A fill rate of 30 million 3D rendered pixels per second. (roughly same as Sony's PlayStation performance)
- 16-bit chunky graphic modes, to keep the cost down Commodore abandoned 256 color mode with Color LUT registers.
- 32-bit chunky with 8-bit alpha channel)
- 1280 x 1024 progressive resolution in 16.8 million colors
- One 16.8 million colors sprite (used for mouse pointer)
- 4 playfields at 16-bit graphics mode each
- 3D texture mapping engine
- Gouraud shading
- YUV compatibility with JPEG support
- Standard TV / HDTV compatibility
- 64-bit internal data bus and registers
The chipset could be sold either as a high end PCI graphics card with minimal peripherals ASICs and 64-bit DRAM, or as a lower cost CD-ROM based game system (CD64) using cheap 32-bit DRAM. It could also be used for Set-Top-Box embedded systems.
- Dave Haynie (1995-01-24). "CBM's Plans for the RISC-Chipset". Gareth Knight. Retrieved 31 January 2010. "The initial schedule of 18 months was for the Hombre game machine hardware. There's no real OS here, just a library of routines, including a 3D package which would probably be licensed. The Amiga OS was not to have run on this system in any form."
- Dr. ED Hepler (1998-05-21). "An Interview with Hombre designer Dr. Ed Hepler". "I reported to the VP of Engineering and was responsible for the architecture of next generation Amigas. In that role, I performed various studies including one which would have produced a single chip Amiga (Motorola MC680x0 core, plus AA logic), and early versions of Hombre which contained a SIMD processor for graphics, etc."
- Description of Hombre chipset by Ed Hepler during an interview
- Hombre History - RISC Selection By Dr. Edward L. Hepler
- Hombre- The last Commodore custom chipset
- The Dave Haynie Archive with lots of detailed info & specs
- Amiga ReTargetable Graphics
- CD64: Hombre CD32-style console
- Chris Ludwig Interview- Conducted by Amiga News, 1995
- (French) Chris Ludwig Interview
- (French) Article about Hombre
- CBM's Plans for the RISC-Chipset, by Dave Haynie