Government of Ireland Act 1914
|Long title||An Act to provide for the better Government of Ireland.|
|Chapter||4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90|
|Royal Assent||18 September 1914|
|Commencement||Postponed by Suspensory Act 1914|
|Repeal date||23 December 1920|
|Repealing legislation||Government of Ireland Act 1920|
The Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5 c. 90), also known as the Home Rule Act, and before enactment as the Third Home Rule Bill, was an Act passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to provide home rule (self-government within the United Kingdom) for Ireland. It was the third such bill introduced by a Liberal government in a thirty-year period in response to the Irish Home Rule movement.
The Act was the first law ever passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom that sought to establish devolved government in any part of the United Kingdom. However, the implementation of both it and the equally controversial Welsh Church Act 1914 was formally postponed for a minimum of twelve months with the outbreak of the First World War. Subsequent developments in Ireland led to further postponements, meaning that the Act never took effect; it was finally superseded by a fourth home rule bill, enacted as the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which partitioned Ireland, creating Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland, both intended to enjoy Home Rule.
In 1922, rather than Home Rule as envisioned in the 1914 and 1920 Acts, Southern Ireland was granted dominion status as the Irish Free State, while Northern Ireland, the island's six north-eastern counties, was given the right to decide to remain in Union with Great Britain; a right which it quickly exercised.
In 1909, a constitutional crisis arose when the House of Lords rejected David Lloyd George's Finance Bill. Two general elections took place in January and December 1910, both of which left the Liberals and Conservatives equally matched, with John Redmond's Irish Parliamentary Party holding the balance of power in the House of Commons. The Irish Party, which had campaigned for home rule for Ireland since the 1870s, pledged to support the Liberals in return for the introduction of a home rule bill. The Parliament Act 1911 replaced the unlimited veto of the Lords with one lasting only two years, ensuring that a home rule bill passed by the Commons would be enacted within two years.
|Name and origin|
|Official name of Legislation||Government of Ireland Act, 1914|
|Government introduced||Asquith (Liberal)|
|House of Commons passed?||Yes|
|House of Lords Passed?||No; passed under Parliament Act 1911|
|Which House||House of Lords 3 times (over-ruled)|
|Date||1912, 1913, 1914 (over-ruled)|
|Details of Legislation|
lower: House of Commons
Assembly: 164 members
|MPs in Westminster||42 MPs|
|Executive head||Lord Lieutenant|
|Executive body||Executive Committee of the Privy Council of Ireland|
|Prime Minister in text||none|
|Act implemented||not implemented|
|Succeeded by||Government of Ireland Act 1920|
- A bicameral Irish Parliament to be set up in Dublin (a 40-member Senate and a 164-member House of Commons) with powers to deal with most national affairs;
- A number of Irish MPs would continue to sit in the Imperial Parliament (42 MPs, rather than 103).
- The abolition of Dublin Castle, though with the retention of the Lord Lieutenant.
The financial situation was a concern. Irish taxes had yielded a surplus of £2 million in 1893, that had turned into a current spending net deficit of £1.5m by 1910 that had to be raised by London. An annual "Transferred Sum" mechanism was proposed to maintain spending in Ireland as it was.
The Bill was passed by the Commons by a majority of 10 votes in 1912 but the House of Lords rejected it 326 votes to 69 in January 1913. In 1913 it was reintroduced and again passed by the Commons but was again rejected by the Lords by 302 votes to 64. In 1914 after the third reading, the Bill was passed by the Commons on 25 May by a majority of 77. Having been defeated a third time in the Lords, the Government used the provisions of the Parliament Act to override the Lords and send it for Royal Assent.
Unionists in Ulster were opposed to a home rule Ireland governed from Dublin. Early in 1912 they began forming small local militias. By April the Irish Unionist leader, Sir Edward Carson, could review 100,000 marching Ulster Volunteers. On 28 September over 500,000 unionists signed the Ulster Covenant pledging to defy Home Rule by all means possible. The Covenant was drawn up by Carson and organised by Sir James Craig. In January 1913 the Unionist Council reorganised their volunteers into a paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), whose members threatened to resist by physical force the implementation of the Act and the authority of any restored Dublin Parliament by force of arms. On 28 November 1913, Irish nationalists responded by setting up the Irish Volunteers "to secure the rights and liberties common to all the people of Ireland" The government's ability to face down the unionist threat was thrown into question by the "Curragh incident", when army officers tendered their resignations rather than fight the Ulster Volunteers, forcing a climb-down by the government.
At the Bill's third reading on 21 May several members asked about a proposal to exclude the whole of Ulster for six years. Asquith was seeking any solution that would avoid a civil war. Sir Edward Carson and the Irish Unionist Party (mostly Ulster MPs) backed by a Lords' recommendation, supported the government's Amending Bill in the Lords on 8 July 1914 for the "temporary exclusion of Ulster" from the workings of the future Act, but the number of counties (four, six or nine) and whether exclusion was to be temporary or permanent, all still to be negotiated. The compromise proposed by Asquith was straightforward. Six counties in northeast Ulster were to be excluded "temporarily" from the territory of the new Irish parliament and government, and to continue to be governed as before from Westminster and Whitehall. How temporary the exclusion would be, and whether northeastern Ireland would eventually be governed by the Irish parliament and government, remained an issue of some controversy.
To save endless debate in parliament, George V called the Buckingham Palace Conference with two MPs from each of the British Liberal and Conservative parties, and two each from the nationalists and unionists. The conference, held between 21 and 24 July, achieved very little.
The passing of the Bill
With the outbreak of war with Germany in August 1914, Asquith decided to abandon his Amending Bill, and instead rushed through a new bill the Suspensory Act 1914 which was presented for Royal Assent simultaneously with both the Government of Ireland Act 1914 and the Welsh Church Act 1914; although the two controversial Bills had now finally reached the statute books on 18 September 1914, the Suspensory Act ensured that Home Rule would be postponed for the duration of the conflict and would not come into operation until the end of the war. The Ulster question was 'solved' in the same way: through the promise of amending legislation which was left undefined.
After the Easter Rising of 1916, two attempts were made by Prime Minister H. H. Asquith during the First World War to implement the Act. The first attempt came in June 1916, when David Lloyd George, then Minister for Munitions, was sent to Dublin to offer immediate implementation to the leaders of the Irish Party, Redmond and Dillon. The scheme revolved around partition, officially a temporary arrangement, as understood by Redmond. Lloyd George however gave the Ulster leader Carson a written guarantee that Ulster would not be forced into a self-governing Ireland. His tactic was to see that neither side would find out before a compromise was implemented. A modified Act of 1914 had been drawn up by the Cabinet on 17 June. The Act had two amendments enforced by Unionists on 19 July – permanent exclusion and a reduction of Ireland’s representation in the Commons. When informed by Lloyd George on 22 July 1916, Redmond accused the government of treachery. This was decisive in sealing the future fortunes of the Home Rule movement. Asquith made a second attempt to implement Home Rule in 1917, with the calling of the Irish Convention chaired by Horace Plunkett. This consisted of Nationalist and Unionist respresentatives who, by April 1918, only succeeded in agreeing a report with an 'understanding' on recommendations for the establishment of self-government.
The end of the war in November 1918 was followed in January 1919 by the Irish War of Independence, so that the Act was never implemented. The future of Home Rule was determined by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. It established Northern Ireland, with a functional government, and Southern Ireland, whose governmental institutions never fully functioned. Southern Ireland, following the Anglo-Irish Treaty, became the Irish Free State.
- James F. Lydon, The Making of Ireland: From Ancient Times to the Present, Routledge, 1998, p. 326
- Hansard online, start of the debate 11 April 1912; accessed 20 January 2009
- Future financial arrangements, Hansard 11 April 1912 – accessed 20 January 2009
- Stewart, A.T.Q., The Ulster Crisis, Resistance to Home Rule, 1912–14, pp.58–68, Faber and Faber (1967) ISBN 0-571-08066-9
- Stewart (1967), pp.69–78
- Annie Ryan, Witnesses: Inside the Easter Rising, Liberties Press, 2005, p. 12
- Holmes, Richard (2004). The Little Field Marshal: A Life of Sir John French. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 178–89. ISBN 0-297-84614-0.
- Jackson, Alvin: pp.161–63
- Jackson, Alvin: p.164
- Hennessey, Thomas: Dividing Ireland, World War I and Partition, The passing of the Home Rule Bill p.76, Routledge Press (1998) ISBN 0-415-17420-1
- Eventually Home Rule was considered by the Irish Convention in 1917–18, and by the cabinet from September 1919; the Welsh Church Act was delayed until March 1920.
- Maume, Patrick: The long Gestation, Irish Nationalist Life 1891–1918, pp.182–84, Gill & Macmillan (1999) ISBN 0-7171-2744-3
- Sir Edward Carson
- John Redmond
- John Dillon
- William O'Brien
- Parliament of Southern Ireland
- Parliament of Northern Ireland
- Solemn League and Covenant (Ulster)
- Unionists (Ireland)
- Curragh incident
- Easter Rising
- Irish Government Bill 1886 (First Irish Home Rule Bill)
- Gladstone's Irish Home Rule speech (beseech in its favour)
- Irish Government Bill 1893 (Second Irish Home Rule Bill)
- Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898
- Parliament Act 1911
- Government of Ireland Act 1920 (Fourth Irish Home Rule Bill)
- History of the Republic of Ireland
- History of Ireland (1801–1922)
- Hennessey, Thomas: Dividing Ireland, World War 1 and Partition, (1998), ISBN 0-415-17420-1.
- Jackson, Alvin: HOME RULE, an Irish History 1800–2000, (2003), ISBN 0-7538-1767-5.
- Lewis, Geoffrey: Carson, the Man who divided Ireland (2005), ISBN 1-85285-454-5
- Lee, JJ: Ireland 1912–1985 (1989), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-37741-2
- Smith, Jeremy: Bluff, Bluster and Brinkmanship: Andrew Bonar Law and the Third Home Rule Bill
pages 161–74 from Historical Journal, Volume 36, Issue #1, 1993.
- Kee, Robert: The Green Flag: A History of Irish Nationalism (2000 edition, first published 1972), ISBN 0-14-029165-2.
- Rodner, W. S.: Leaguers, Covenanters, Moderates: British Support for Ulster, 1913–14 pages 68–85 from Éire—Ireland, Volume 17, Issue #3, 1982.
- Stewart, A.T.Q.: The Ulster Crisis, Resistance to Home Rule, 1912–14, (Faber and Faber, London, 1967, 1979), ISBN 0-571-08066-9
- Government of Ireland Act 1914, available from the House of Lords Record Office
- "Home Rule Finance" Arthur Samuels KC (1912) Text online at Archive.org
- Erskine Childers; The Framework of Home Rule. Text online at Gutenberg.org