Homework

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For other uses, see Homework (disambiguation).
Homework may include mathematical exercises

Homework, or homework assignment, refers to tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include a quantity or period of reading to be performed, writing or typing to be completed, problems to be solved, a school project to be built (such as a diorama or display), or other skills to be practiced.

Main objectives and reasons for homework

The basic objectives of assigning homework to students are the same as schooling in general: to increase the knowledge and improve the abilities and skills of the students.[1] However, opponents of homework cite homework as rote, or grind work, designed to take up children's time, without offering tangible benefit.[2] Homework may be designed to reinforce what students have already learned,[3] prepare them for upcoming (or complex or difficult) lessons, extend what they know by having them apply it to new situations, or to integrate their abilities by applying many different skills to a single task. Homework also provides an opportunity for parents to participate in their children's education.

Amount of homework required

A review by researchers at Duke University of more than 60 research studies on homework between 1987 and 2003 showed that, within limits, there is a positive interaction between the amount of homework which is done and student achievement. The research synthesis also indicated that too much homework could be counterproductive. The research supports the '10-minute rule',the widely accepted practice of assigning 10 minutes of homework per day per grade-level. For example, under this system, 1st graders would receive 10 minutes of homework per night, while 5th graders would get 50 minutes' worth, 9th graders 90 minutes of homework, etc.[4]

Harris Cooper,[5] a professor of psychology and chairman of the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke, said the research synthesis that he led showed the positive correlation was much stronger for secondary students --- those in grades seven through 12 --- than those in elementary school.[4]

Many schools exceed these recommendations or do not considered assigned reading in the time limit worthwhile.[6]

In the United Kingdom, recommendations on homework quantities were outlined by the then Department for Education in 1998. These ranged from 10 minutes daily reading for 5-year-olds, to up to 2.5 hours per day for the pupils in Year 11 aged 15 or 16.[7]

Homework resources

Internet homework resources

There are many homework-related resources available on the World Wide Web.[8] There are web-sites dedicated to communicating about homework, for teachers to post assignments on-line for students, and to keep parents informed. Many schools host their own homework posting services on their websites. There are non-profit organizations on-line that help students with their homework for free. There are also tutorials on most school subjects, especially math, which students can use if they don't understand their homework assignments.

Many libraries provide on-line resources which present subjects specifically for students who are looking for something to write about. And there are archives of ready-made homework assignments, including handouts, which teachers can use to provide homework to their students. Many other websites are used for research, especially search engines, such as Google, and encyclopedias.

Apart from above given resources there are hundreds of websites who are providing homework help at nominal rates. Such websites claim to help students understand concepts.

Some parents choose to monitor their students' usage of the internet, as some of the sites may be found deceptive or inappropriate by academic institutions.[8] Also, Internet resources offer students a wealth of opportunity for plagiarism.[9]

Tutoring

With an enhanced emphasis on homework, parents and students are turning to customized solutions. Private institutions, such as Sylvan Learning Centers and Kaplan, help students through individually tailored assignments. Other parents find help through their community where tutoring, study groups and other resources may be made available.[10] Many libraries provide tutors for helping students with their homework, both in-person and on-line.

If it is necessary to hire a tutor to assist with a child's homework, parents should also speak to the child's teacher about the amount and the appropriateness of the homework load.

Parental homework strategies

According to some studies, parental involvement in homework is beneficial for students. However, there is also a general consensus that too much parental involvement can prevent the positive effects of homework. According to the study, the benefit of homework is lost when the parent completes all or most of the assignment for the student.[11]

Setting a regular time to do homework[11] and designating a specific place for doing homework helps keep the student well-focused on his or her studies. A flat surface, good lighting, school supplies (pens, pencils, paper, scissors, glue, eraser, ruler, etc.) and a dictionary are often essential.

Teachers need to know what their students understand and can do independently, therefore they often advise parents not to do the children's homework assignments for them, nor correct their children's homework assignments and have them copy the corrections. Grades, and the teachers' other feedback, need to apply to the student's performance, not to the parents' performance, nor to student-parent co-performance.

On the other hand some teachers give assignments far beyond what students can do independently and expect parents to go over homework and have the student make corrections before it is turned in.[citation needed]

Independent learning is encouraged and improved by providing guidance (such as explaining how to look up information or find a word in a dictionary) rather than merely providing the answers to the child's homework-related questions.

Having one's child read out loud allows the parent to provide corrections and help the student learn how to read better.

When parents do "homework" of their own at the same time as their children, it sets a good example and helps to foster a good attitude toward learning.[8]

One key role for parents is to negotiate with teachers and schools should the homework burden be unmanageble or age-inappropriate for the students. This negotiation may take the form of speaking with the teacher individually, speaking to other school officials, or coordinating with other parents or with the PTA or school board to get the homework load for the entire class or school reduced.[12]

Teaching and homework effectiveness

Student learning improves when homework serves a clear purpose and is matched to both the skills of each individual student and to the current topics being taught in class. Feedback improves the effectiveness of homework, especially when given in a timely manner (within 24 hours). Effective feedback improves student learning by correcting misunderstanding, validating process, and highlighting errors in thinking. Embedded comments provide much better feedback than a mere grade at the top of the paper. Homework must be concentrated to be effective: mastering takes days or weeks of practice. Fifty-percent mastery may be achieved after 4 practice sessions, but it takes 28 practice sessions to achieve approximately the eighty-percent mastery level.[13]

Another way teachers can be more effective is by alerting parents to their students' homework, giving parents a chance to become familiar with the material and their child's progress. This also encourages parents to become involved in the homework process.[14] Messages tend to get lost in transit or even altered when using "pupil post" (passing verbal messages or written notes back and forth using the student as courier), and therefore direct communication is much more effective and prevents frustration all around. Methods available for directly reporting homework assignments (to both students and their parents) include the phone, email, and centralized web-pages.

Criticism

There is research supporting the idea that homework is of little educational value, and that for young children (i.e., 14 and under) it may have a negative effect on learning.[15][16]

History of homework

In the United States

Historically, homework was frowned upon in American culture. With few students interested in higher education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts. In 1901, the California legislature passed an act that effectively abolished homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade. But, in the 1950s, with increasing pressure on the United States to stay ahead in the Cold War, homework made a resurgence, and children were encouraged to keep up with their Russian counterparts. By the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, the consensus in American education was overwhelmingly in favor of issuing homework to students of all grade levels.[17]

In a study done at the University of Michigan in 2007, research concluded that the amount of homework given is increasing over time. In a sample taken of students between the ages of 6 and 9, it was shown that students spend more than two hours a week on homework, as opposed to 44 minutes in 1981.[18] Harris Cooper, nations top homework scholar, concluded after a comprehensive review that homework does not improve academic achievements for grade school students. Cooper analyzed dozens of students and found that kids who are assigned homework in middle and high school actually score "somewhat" better on standardized tests, but that kids who do 60 to 90 minutes of homework in middle school and more than 2 hours in high school actually score worse.[19]

See also

Further reading

  • Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There Isn't Too Much
  • The Case Against Homework: How Homework Is Hurting Our Children and What We Can Do About It by Sarah Bennett & Nancy Kalish (2006) Discusses in detail assessments of studies on homework and the authors' own research and assessment of the homework situation in the United States. Has specific recommendations and sample letters to be used in negotiating a reduced homework load for your child.
  • Closing the Book on Homework: Enhancing Public Education and Freeing Family Time by John Buell (2004)
  • The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents by Harris Cooper (2007)
  • The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing by Alfie Kohn (2006)
  • The End of Homework: How Homework Disrupts families, Overburdens Children, and Limits Learning by Etta Kralovec and John Buell (2000)

Notes and references

  1. ^ Synthesis of research on homework. H Cooper - Educational leadership, 1989 - addison.pausd.org
  2. ^ Haddock, Vicki (2006-10-09). "After years of teachers piling it on, there's a new movement to ... Abolish homework". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-12-09. Vigorous scrutiny of the research, they argue, fails to demonstrate tangible benefits of homework, particularly for elementary students. What it does instead, they contend, is rob children of childhood, play havoc with family life and asphyxiate their natural curiosity. Learning becomes a mind-numbing grind rather than an engaging adventure. 
  3. ^ Needlmen, Robert. "Homework: The Rules of the Game". 
  4. ^ a b "Duke Study: Homework Helps Students Succeed in School, As Long as There Isn't Too Much". Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  5. ^ http://fds.duke.edu/db/aas/Education/harris.cooper
  6. ^ See for example Toronto Student Trustees Ask School Board For Homework Overload Restrictions, Marta Cyperling - AHN News Writer, June 20, 2007.
  7. ^ "Homework cut for youngest pupils". BBC News website (BBC News). 1998-11-10. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  8. ^ a b c Clark, Pauline. "Online Homework Helpers". Information Today, Inc. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  9. ^ Plagiarism.org
  10. ^ Rothschild, Barbara. "Emphasis on homework". Courier Post. Retrieved 2007-03-25. [dead link]
  11. ^ a b "General Homework Tips For Parents" (– Scholar search). White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-25. [dead link]
  12. ^ Bennett, Sara; Kalish, Nancy (2006). The Case Against Homework: how homework is hurting our children and what we can do about it. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-307-34017-1. 
  13. ^ "Focus on effectiveness: Research-based Strategies; Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.". Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  14. ^ Wood, Chip. "Strategies to overcome the struggles and help all students succeed". Responsive Classroom. Archived from the original on January 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  15. ^ Kohn, Alfie (2006). The Homework Myth: why our kids get too much of a bad thing. Cambridg, MA.: Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-7382-1085-4. 
  16. ^ Bennett, Sara; Kalish, Nancy (2006). The Case Against Homework: how homework is hurting our children and what we can do about it. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-307-34017-1. 
  17. ^ "History of Homework". The San Francisco Chronicle. 1999-12-20. Retrieved 2007-03-24. [dead link]
  18. ^ Seligman, Katherine (1999-12-19). "Parents: Too much homework". Hearst Communications Inc. Retrieved 2013-06-03. 
  19. ^ Wallis, Claudia (August 29, 2006). "The Myth About Homework". Time Online. 

External links