Anatomically modern humans
|Homo sapiens sapiens|
|Adult H. s. sapiens male (left) and female (right) from Southeast Asia|
|Subspecies:||H. s. sapiens|
|Homo sapiens sapiens
|Range of H. s. sapiens (red and light red)|
The term anatomically modern humans (AMH) or anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS) refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.
Anatomically-modern humans evolved from archaic Homo sapiens in the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago. The emergence of anatomically-modern human marks the dawn of the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, i.e. the subspecies of Homo sapiens that includes all modern humans. The oldest fossil remains of anatomically-modern humans are the Omo remains, which date to 195,000 (±5,000) years ago and include two partial skulls as well as arm, leg, foot and pelvis bones.
Nomenclature and anatomy
The binomial name for the taxonomic species of the human population is Homo sapiens. The species is usually taken to have emerged out of a predecessor within the Homo genus around 200,000 years ago.
Anatomically modern humans are distinguished from their immediate ancestors, archaic Homo sapiens, by a number of anatomical features. Archaic Homo sapiens had robust skeletons indicating that they lived a physically demanding life; this can mean that anatomically-modern humans, with their gracile frames, had become dependent on technology rather than on raw physical power to meet the challenges of their environment.
Archaic Homo sapiens also had prominent brow ridges (protruding layers of bone above the eye socket). With the emergence of anatomically-modern humans, the brow ridges had reduced, and in modern humans they are, on average, barely visible. Another distinguishing feature of AMH is a prominent chin, something which is lacking in archaic Homo sapiens.
AMH commonly have a vertical forehead whereas their predecessors had foreheads that sloped backwards. According to Desmond Morris, the vertical forehead in humans not only houses larger brains, but the prominent forehead plays an important role in human communication through eyebrow movements and forehead skin wrinkling.
Time of the Hominans
|Skulls of the Hominans|
Human evolution is the evolutionary process leading up to the appearance of modern humans. While it began with the last common ancestor of all life, the topic usually covers only the evolutionary history of primates, in particular the genus Homo, and the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of hominids (or "great apes"). The study of human evolution involves many scientific disciplines, including physical anthropology, primatology, archaeology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology and genetics. With the arrival of Homo erectus in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled to 850 cm3. Homo erectus and Homo ergaster were the first of the hominina . It is believed that these species were the first to use fire and complex tools. Modern humans evolved from Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis or Homo antecessor and, some 50,000 to 100,000 years ago, took the place of local populations of Homo erectus, Homo denisova, Homo floresiensis and Homo neanderthalensis.
- Dates approximate, consult articles for details
- (From 2000000 BC till 2013 AD in (partial) exponential notation)
- See also: Java Man (-1.75e+06), Yuanmou Man (-1.75e+06 : -0.73e+06),
- Lantian Man (-1.7e+06), Nanjing Man (- 0.6e+06), Tautavel Man (- 0.5e+06),
- Peking Man (- 0.4e+06), Solo Man (- 0.4e+06), and Peştera cu Oase (- 0.378e+05)
Major origin models
|Major origin models|
As it is usually presented, there are two major competing models on this subject – recent African origin and multiregional evolution. The debate concerns both the relative amount of replacement or interbreeding that occurred in areas outside of Africa, when waves of humans (or human ancestors) left it to colonize other areas, and the relative importance of more recent waves as opposed to more ancient ones.
The mainstream view, known as the "Out of Africa" or "recent African origin" model, holds that all or nearly all modern human genetic diversity around the world can be traced back to the first anatomically-modern humans to leave Africa. This model is supported by multiple and independent lines of evidence, such as the fossil record and genetics. Usually, focusing on the diffusion of humanity by land [See mtDNA map.
Historically, critics of this view are often bracketed together as holding a "multiregional hypothesis", which was being studied in the early 1980s into the 2000s. Such critics argue that significant amounts of older non-African genetic lineages have survived in various parts of the world through inter-breeding with anatomically-modern humans. According to versions of the multiregional model the various human populations around the world today will have surviving genetic material that goes back as far as early humans such as Homo erectus. The human evolutionary genetics data set (Jobling, Hurles and Tyler-Smith, 2004) favor the "Out of Africa" model. Analyses of modern Europeans suggest that no mitochondrial DNA (direct maternal line) originating with Neanderthals has survived into modern times.
However the recent sequencing of the Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes shows some admixture. A draft sequence publication by the Neanderthal Genome Project in May 2010 indicates some form of hybridization between archaic humans and modern humans took place after modern humans emerged from Africa. An estimated 1 to 4 percent of the DNA in Europeans and Asians (i.e. French, Chinese and Papua probands) is non-modern, and shared with ancient Neanderthal DNA and not with Sub-Saharan Africans (i.e., Yoruba and San probands), while Melanesians have an additional 1–6% of Denisovan origin.
In practice, controversy is generally about specific periods and specific proposals for periods of such interbreeding. The existence and importance of gene flow out of Africa is generally accepted, while the possibility of isolated instances of inter-breeding between recent sub-Saharan arrivals and their less "modern" contemporaries at various stages of prehistory is not particularly controversial. Nonetheless, and according to recent genetic studies, modern humans seem to have mated with "at least two groups" of ancient humans: Neanderthals and Denisovans.
Early modern humans
The Omo, Herto, Skhul, and Jebel Qafzeh remains are sometimes referred to as "Early Modern Humans" because their skeletal remains exhibit a mix of archaic and modern traits. Skhul V, for example, has prominent brow ridges and a projecting face. However, the brain case of Skhul V is distinct from that of the Neanderthals and is similar to the brain case of modern humans. There are recognized subspecies, for example H. s. sapiens and H.s. idaltu. In Europe, the early modern humans are called by the name "Cro-Magnon".
Modern human behavior
|This section requires expansion. (August 2013)|
There is considerable debate regarding whether the earliest anatomically-modern humans behaved similarly to recent or existing humans. Modern human behaviors characteristic of recent humans includes a language, the capacity for abstract thought and the use of symbolism to express cultural creativity. There are two opposing hypotheses regarding the origins of modern behavior. Some scholars argue that humans achieved anatomical modernity first, around 200 000 years ago. Later, accordingly, did humans adopt modern behaviors around 50 000 years ago. This hypothesis is based on the record of fossils and biogenic substances from periods before 50 000 years ago and the human artifacts found after 50 000 years ago. Correspondingly, as stated by Paul Mellars, the view distinguishes anatomically-modern humans from behaviorally-modern humans.
The opposing view is that humans achieved anatomical and behavioral modernity simultaneously. For example, most views argue that humans had evolved a lightly built skeleton. During this transition to anatomical modernity, this could have occurred through increased human cooperation. Additionally, this could have occurred through the increased use of technology, traits characteristic of modern behavior.
- Fossil, List of fossil sites (fossils of primates, transitional fossils, and human evolution fossils), Paleontology
- Genetic evolution
- Haplogroups (Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam), Human evolution (Lamarckism, Modern evolutionary synthesis, and Epigenetics)
- Genetic history
- Africa, Europe, British Isles, Iberian Peninsula, Americas, Italy, North Africa, South Asia
- Early human migrations, Coastal migration, Human migration, Historical migration
- Paleodemography (Number of humans who have ever lived), Population reconstruction, World population estimates, Sorites paradox
- Evolutionary origin of religions, Creation myths, Theistic evolution
- Lists and charts
- List of countries and islands by first human settlement, Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures
- Charles Robert Darwin. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Murray, 1861. 538 pages.
- The Descent of Man: And Selection in Relation to Sex, Volume 1; Volume 2. By Charles Darwin
- The Natural Genesis. By Gerald Massey.
- A Series of Engravings: Representing the Bones of the Human Skeleton. By Edward Mitchell, John Barclay
- Modern Ideas of Evolution as Related to Revelation and Science. By Sir John William Dawson
- Contemporary publications
- Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton. Edited by M. Anne Katzenberg, Shelley R. Saunders. 680 pages
- The Origins of Modern Humans: Biology Reconsidered. By Fred H. Smith, James C. Ahern. 480 pages
- Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness. By Ian Tattersall.
- The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. By Richard Dawkins. 673 pages.
References and notes
- Matthew H. Nitecki, Doris V. Nitecki. Origins of Anatomically Modern Humans. Springer, Jan 31, 1994
- Major Events in the History of Life. Edited by J. William Schopf. Pg 168.
- Human Evolution: A Neuropsychological Perspective. By John L. Bradshaw. Pg 185
- See: Race (human classification) for more on H. s. sapiens
- "Fossil Reanalysis Pushes Back Origin of Homo sapiens". Scientific American. February 17, 2005.
- McDougall, Ian; Brown, Francis H.; Fleagle, John G. (17 February 2005). "Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia". Nature 433 (7027): 733–736. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..733M. doi:10.1038/nature03258. PMID 15716951.
- White, Tim D.; Asfaw, B.; DeGusta, D.; Gilbert, H.; Richards, G. D.; Suwa, G.; Howell, F. C. (2003), "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia", Nature 423 (6491): 742–747, Bibcode:2003Natur.423..742W, doi:10.1038/nature01669, PMID 12802332
- Trinkaus, E. (1993). "Femoral neck-shaft angles of the Qafzeh-Skhul early modern humans, and activity levels among immature near eastern Middle Paleolithic hominids". Journal of Human Evolution (INIST-CNRS) 25: 393–416. ISSN 0047-2484.
- There is no universal consensus on terminology. See Masters of the Planet: The Search for Our Human Origins. Ian Tattersall. Page 82 (cf. Unfortunately this consensus in principle hardly clarifies matters much in practice. For there is no agreement on what the 'qualities of a man' actually are," [...])
- Some scholars include humans of up to 600,000 years ago under the same species. See Handbook of Death and Dying, Volume 1. Clifton D. Bryant. 2003. Page 811. (cf. [...] "'Archaic' Homo sapiens cranium, dating to approximately 600,000 years ago, gives insight into early man's beliefs on death. The Bodo cranium" [...]
- "Encarta, Human Evolution". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.
- Desmond Morris (2007). "The Brow". The Naked Woman: A Study of the Female Body. ISBN 0-312-33853-8.
- Heng HH (May 2009). "The genome-centric concept: resynthesis of evolutionary theory". BioEssays 31 (5): 512–25. doi:10.1002/bies.200800182. PMID 19334004.
- Java Man, Curtis, Swisher and Lewin, ISBN 0-349-11473-0
- Stringer, C.B. (1994). "Evolution of Early Humans". In Steve Jones, Robert Martin, David Pilbeam. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-521-32370-3. Also ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5 (paperback)
- McHenry, H.M (2009). "Human Evolution". In Michael Ruse & Joseph Travis. Evolution: the first four billion years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-674-03175-3.
- See also: Most recent common ancestor
- Connections not shown: African H. erectus and Archaic Asians and between Asian H. erectus and Archaic Africans; Gene flow between geographic regions and within time.
- See also: Milford H. Wolpoff and Franz Weidenreich
- "Eve" is next to the jagged arrow pointing to "Outgroup", and her distance from any nonafrican groups indicates that living human mitochondrial lineages coalesce in Africa.
- Other views include maritime dispersal of humans. See, "Neanderthals were sailing the Mediterranean 100,000 years ago". 2/29/12 4:40pm. http://io9.com/5889484/neanderthals-were-sailing-the-mediterranean-100000-years-ago
- Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Edited by Scott Elias, Cary Mock. Pg 384.
- Our Species Mated With Other Human Species, Study Says. nationalgeographic.com. (news/2002) (cf. "Out of Africa" theory does not support the idea of interbreeding between archaic and modern humans.)
- Krings M, Stone A, Schmitz RW, Krainitzki H, Stoneking M, Pääbo S (July 1997). "Neandertal DNA sequences and the origin of modern humans". Cell 90 (1): 19–30. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80310-4. PMID 9230299.
- No Neandertals in the Gene Pool, Science (2004).
- Serre, D; Langaney, A; Chech, M; Teschler-Nicola, M; Paunovic, M; Mennecier, P; Hofreiter, M; Possnert, G et al. (2004). "No evidence of Neandertal mtDNA contribution to early modern humans". PLoS Biology 2 (3): 313–7. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020057. PMC 368159. PMID 15024415.
- Green, RE, Krause, J et al. (May 2010). "A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome". Science 328 (5979): 710–22. Bibcode:2010Sci...328..710G. doi:10.1126/science.1188021. PMID 20448178.
- Reich, D et al. (2011). "Denisova admixture and the first modern human dispersals into southeast Asia and oceania". Am J Hum Genet 89 (4): 516–28. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.09.005. PMID 21944045.
- See: Archaic human admixture with modern Homo sapiens.
- Mitchell, Alanna (January 30, 2012). "DNA Turning Human Story Into a Tell-All". New York Times. Retrieved January 31, 2012.
- Includes all contemporary humans alive today.
- Based on fossil evidence of about 160,000 years ago.
- Word by which a particular person or thing is called and known. ( http://www.dict.org/ )
- The Facts on File Dictionary of Evolutionary Biology. Edited by Elizabeth Owen, Eve Daintith. Pg 115
- The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. By Richard Dawkins. Pg 63
- The human condition: an introduction to philosophy of human nature. By Nina Rosenstand. Pg 42. (cf. [...] early form of Homo sapiens was discovered, now named Homo sapiens antecessor, [...]
- Sample, Ian (March 24, 2010), "New species of human ancestor found in Siberia", The Guardian
- Brown, David (March 25, 2010), "DNA from bone shows new human forerunner, and raises array of questions", Washington Post
- Krause, Johannes; Fu, Qiaomei; Good, Jeffrey M.; Viola, Bence; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoli P. & Pääbo, Svante (2010), "The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia", Nature 464 (7290): 894–897, Bibcode:2010Natur.464..894K, doi:10.1038/nature08976, PMID 20336068
- Companion encyclopedia of archaeology. Vol. 2. Page 763 (cf., ... "effectively limited to organic samples" [ed. organic compounds ] "or biogenic carbonates that date to less than 50 ka (50,000 years ago).")
- See: Radiocarbon dating.
- See: Later Stone Age and Upper Paleolithic.
- Mellars, Paul (2006). "Why did modern human populations disperse from Africa ca. 60,000 years ago?". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (25): 9381–6. Bibcode:2006PNAS..103.9381M. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510792103. PMC 1480416. PMID 16772383.
- Late Mousterian lithic technology: its implications for the pace of the emergence of behavioural modernity and the relationship between behavioural modernity and biological modernity
- D. Jeffrey Meldrum, Charles E. Hilton. From Biped to Strider: The Emergence of Modern Human Walking, Running and Resource Transport. Springer, Mar 31, 2004
- The Biology of Religious Behavior. Edited by Jay R. Feierman. Pg 220
- The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology. Edited by Jennifer Vonk, Todd K. Shackelford. Pg 429.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Homo_sapiens_sapiens|
- General information
- Early And Late “archaic“homo Sapiens And “anatomically : Modern” Homo Sapiens. hawaii.edu.
- Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa? actionbioscience.org
- homo erectus tool use and adaptation. public.wsu.edu.
- Early Human Evolution: Early Human Culture; Early Modern Homo sapiens. palomar.edu.
- Museums of Natural History
- Species; Human Family Tree. si.edu. The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program
- Meet our early human family. nhm.ac.uk.
- Homo sapiens. mnsu.edu