Homogeneous differential equation
The term "homogeneous" is used in more than one context in mathematics. Perhaps the most prominent are the following three distinct cases:
- Homogeneous functions
- Homogeneous type of first order differential equations
- Homogeneous differential equations (in contrast to "inhomogeneous" differential equations). This definition is used to define a property of certain linear differential equations—it is unrelated to the above two cases.
Each one of these cases will be briefly explained as follows.
Definition. A function is said to be homogeneous of degree if, by introducing a constant parameter , replacing the variable with we find:
This definition can be generalized to functions of more-than-one variables; for example, a function of two variables is said to be homogeneous of degree if we replace both variables and by and , we find:
Example. The function is a homogeneous function of degree 2 because:
This definition of homogeneous functions has been used to classify certain types of first order differential equations.
Homogeneous type of first-order differential equations
A first-order ordinary differential equation in the form:
is a homogeneous type if both functions M(x, y) and N(x, y) are homogeneous functions of the same degree n. That is, multiplying each variable by a parameter , we find:
In the quotient , we can let to simplify this quotient to a function of the single variable :
thus transforming the original differential equation into the separable form:
this form can now be integrated directly (see ordinary differential equation).
A first order differential equation of the form (a, b, c, e, f, g are all constants):
can be transformed into a homogeneous type by a linear transformation of both variables ( and are constants):
Homogeneous linear differential equations
Definition. A linear differential equation is called homogeneous if the following condition is satisfied: If is a solution, so is , where is an arbitrary (non-zero) constant. A linear differential equation that fails this condition is called inhomogeneous.
A linear differential equation can be represented as a linear operator acting on y(x) where x is usually the independent variable and y is the dependent variable. Therefore, the general form of a linear homogeneous differential equation is of the form:
where L is a differential operator, a sum of derivatives, each multiplied by a functions of x:
where may be constants, but not all may be zero.
For example, the following differential equation is homogeneous
whereas the following two are inhomogeneous:
- Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems (10th Edition), W.E. Boyce, R.C. Diprima, Wiley International, John Wiley & Sons, 2012, ISBN 978-0470458310. (This is a good introductory reference on differential equations.)
- Ordinary Differential Equations, Ince, E. L., available as paperback from Dover publication and also as a free download from Internet Archive http://archive.org/. (This is a classic reference on ODEs.)