Homophobic propaganda

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Homophobic propaganda (or anti-gay propaganda) is propaganda based on negative and homophobia towards homosexual and sometimes other non-heterosexual people. Such propaganda supports anti-gay prejudices and stereotypes, and promotes social stigmatization and/or discrimination. The term homophobic propaganda was used by the historian Stefan Micheler in his work Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-Sex-Desiring Men under National Socialism,[1] as well as other works treating the topic.[2]

In some countries, some forms of homophobic propaganda are considered hate speech and are prohibited by law. In Russia, such propaganda can also be treated as illegal, because laws in Russia explicitly prohibit hate speech against any social group (not explicitly mentioning sexual orientation), and LGBT can be considered as distinct social group.[3]

History of homophobic propaganda[edit]

Germany[edit]

Political attitudes towards homosexuals in Nazi Germany were based on the assumption that homosexuals were destroying the German nation as "sexual degenerates". Historian Erwin J. Haeberle, in his work Swastika, Pink Triangle and Yellow Star: The Destruction of Sexology and the Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany, dates the first appearance of this political attitude to 14 May 1928.[4]

Homophobic propaganda and law[edit]

Russia[edit]

In Russia, it is illegal to commit crimes against someone based on their sexual orientation. Responsibility for it is established item 136 and item 282 of the criminal code of the Russian Federation. However, on June 30, 2013, President Vladimir Putin signed into law a bill banning the "propaganda of nontraditional sexual relations" among minors, and prohibits the equation of same-sex and straight marital relationships.[5][6]

Norway[edit]

In 1981, Norway became the first country to establish a criminal penalty (a fine or imprisonment for up to two years) for public threats, defamations, expressions of hate, or agitation for discrimination towards the LGBT community.[7]

The Netherlands[edit]

On July 1, 1987 in the Netherlands joined the Dutch Penal code, which established punishment for public defamations on the basis of sexual orientation as fees or imprisonment for up to two years.[8]

Ireland[edit]

In 1989 in Ireland a resolution against anti-gay hate speech came into effect. It establishes penalty in the form of fees or imprisonment for up to two years for publication or distribution of materials which contain defamations, threats, hate speech or offenses for LGBT people. The law is occasionally taken into effect.[8]

Australia[edit]

On 2 March 1993 in New South Wales, Australia, an amendment to the antidiscrimination law came into effect which prohibits public hate speech, despisement or deridement of homosexuals. A legal exclusion is any information which is distributed for educational, religious, scientific or social purposes.[9]

On 10 December 1999 an analogous amendment was accepted by Tasmanian parliament, which permits no exclusion.[10]

South Africa[edit]

In February 2000 the South African Parliament enacted the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act, which prohibits hate speech based on any of the constitutionally prohibited grounds, including sexual orientation. The definition of hate speech includes speech which is intended to "promote or propagate hatred".[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Micheler, Stefan «Homophobic Propaganda and the Denunciation of Same-Sex-Desiring Men under National Socialism Pufdas» // Journal of the History of Sexuality—Volume 11, Number 1 and 2, January/April 2002, pp. 105—130
  2. ^ "Faultlines: homophobic innovation in Gay Rights, Special Rights - Special Issue: Fundamentalist Media" in Afterimage, Feb-March, 1995 by Ioannis Mookas
  3. ^ "The Constitution of Russian Federation". Az-libr.ru. 2009-04-11. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  4. ^ Haeberle, Erwin J. «Swastika, Pink Triangle and Yellow Star: The Destruction of Sexology and the Persecution of Homosexuals in Nazi Germany». Journal of Sex Research 17:3 (1981): 270-87.
  5. ^ The Guardian: Russia passes law banning gay 'propaganda'. June 11, 2013.
  6. ^ Российская Федерация. Федеральный закон №436-ФЗ от 24 декабря 2010 г. «О защите детей от информации, причиняющей вред их здоровью и развитию», в ред. Федерального закона №135-ФЗ от 29 июня 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 5 Федерального закона "О защите детей от информации, причиняющей вред их здоровью и развитию" и отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации в целях защиты детей от информации, пропагандирующей отрицание традиционных семейных ценностей». Вступил в силу с 1 сентября 2012 года. Опубликован: Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (www.pravo.gov.ru) от 30 June 2013 г. (№ 0001201306300001), 29 декабря 2010 г.. (The Russian Federation. Federal law #436-FZ of 24 December 2010 On the protection of children from information harmful to their health and development, as amended by the Federal law #135-FZ of 29 June 2013 On the introduction of amendments to Article 5 of the Federal law "On the protection of children from information harmful to their health and development" and divers legislative acts of the Russian Federation aimed at protecting children from information which propagandises the rejection of traditional family values. Effective as of 1 September 2012.).
  7. ^ "Norway General Civil Penal Code, §135 a". European Public Prosecutors. Archived from the original on 2005-05-29. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  8. ^ a b "Equality for lesbians and gay men.". ILGA-Europe. June 1998. Archived from the original on 2007-12-19. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  9. ^ "ANTI-DISCRIMINATION ACT 1977 - SECT 49ZT. Homosexual vilification unlawful". Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  10. ^ Rodney Croome (14 January 1999). "Tasmania - Changing Hearts and Laws". Sydney Star Observer. Archived from the original on 2005-03-12. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  11. ^ Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act 4 of 2000, section 10.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Plant, Richard. The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals. New York: Holt, 1986. ISBN 0-8050-0600-1
  • Grau, Gunter. The Hidden Holocaust?: Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933-45. Routledge, 1995. ISBN 1-884964-15-X
  • Heger, Heinz. The Men with the Pink Triangle: the True Life-and-Death Story of Homosexuals in the Nazi Death Camps. Alyson Publications Inc., U.S., 1995. ISBN 0-932870-06-6
  • Healy, Dan. How many victims of the antisodomy law. Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia. The University of Chicago Press, 2001. ISBN 0-226-32234-3