Homoptera

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Homoptera is a deprecated suborder of order Hemiptera;[1] recent morphological studies and DNA analysis strongly suggests that the order is paraphyletic.[2][3] It was therefore split into the suborders Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.[4][5]

However, there is currently debate over the monophyly of Auchenorrhyncha. See Heteroptera and Prosorrhyncha for more information on such points.

The Homoptera as recognized over the last century or so, include the aphids, scale insects, cicadas, and leafhoppers. They are all "true bugs" and they all have sucking mouthparts.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dudley R. (2002). The biomechanics of insect flight: Form, function, evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p 184. ISBN 0-691-09491-8.
  2. ^ von Dohlen CD, Moran NA. (1995). "Molecular phylogeny of the Homoptera: a paraphyletic taxon", Journal of Molecular Evolution 41(2): 211–223. doi:10.1007/BF00170675.
  3. ^ Gullan, PJ (1999). "Why the taxon Homoptera does not exist". Entomologica 33: 101–104. 
  4. ^ Schuh, Randall T., and Slater, James Alexander (1995). True bugs of the world (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): classification and natural history. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-8014-2066-5. 
  5. ^ Cobben, René Hubert (1978). Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, part 2: mouthpart-structures and feeding strategies. Verslagen van landbouwkundige onderzoekingen, number 707. Wageningen, Netherlands: H. Veenman for Centrum voor Landbouwpublikaties en Landbouwdocumentatie (Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation). p. 7. OCLC 852739989.