Homoscleromorpha

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Homoscleromorpha
Oscarella lobularis.jpg
Oscarella lobularis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Homoscleromorpha
Order: Homosclerophorida
Dendy, 1905[1]
Families

Homoscleromorpha is a class of marine sponges composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae.

Taxonomy[edit]

The Homoscleromorpha is phylogenetically well separated from the Demospongiae.[4] Therefore, they have recently been recognised as the fourth class of sponges.[5][6]

On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, the two families Plakinidae and Oscarellidae have been reinstated.[5]

There are 84 species in this group divided into 7 genera.[6]

The spiculate genera in this group are Corticium, Plakina, Plakortis, Plakinolopha and Plakinastrella .

The aspiculate species are the genera Oscarella and Pseudocorticium.

Description[edit]

These sponges are massive or encrusting in form and have a very simple structure with very little variation in spicule form (all spicules tend to be very small). Reproduction is viviparous and the larva is an oval form known as an amphiblastula. This form is usual in calcareous sponges but is less common in other sponges.

References[edit]

  1. ^ van Soest, R. (2014). "Homosclerophorida". In R. W. M. Van Soest, N. Boury-Esnault, J. N. A. Hooper, K. Rützler, N. J. de Voogd, B. Alvarez de Glasby, E. Hajdu, A. B. Pisera, R. Manconi, C. Schoenberg, D. Janussen, K. R. Tabachnick, M. Klautau, B. Picton, M. Kelly & J. Vacelet. World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  2. ^ van Soest, R. (2014). "Plakinidae Schulze, 1880". In R. W. M. Van Soest, N. Boury-Esnault, J. N. A. Hooper, K. Rützler, N. J. de Voogd, B. Alvarez de Glasby, E. Hajdu, A. B. Pisera, R. Manconi, C. Schoenberg, D. Janussen, K. R. Tabachnick, M. Klautau, B. Picton, M. Kelly & J. Vacelet. World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  3. ^ van Soest, R. (2014). "Oscarellidae Lendenfeld, 1887". In R. W. M. Van Soest, N. Boury-Esnault, J. N. A. Hooper, K. Rützler, N. J. de Voogd, B. Alvarez de Glasby, E. Hajdu, A. B. Pisera, R. Manconi, C. Schoenberg, D. Janussen, K. R. Tabachnick, M. Klautau, B. Picton, M. Kelly & J. Vacelet. World Porifera database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-05-22. 
  4. ^ Kober, K. M.; Nichols, S. A. (2007). "On the phylogenetic relationships of hadromerid and poecilosclerid sponges". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 87 (6). doi:10.1017/S0025315407058237.  edit
  5. ^ a b Gazave, Eve; Lapébie, Pascal; Renard, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Rocher, Caroline; Ereskovsky, Alexander V.; Lavrov, Dennis V.; Borchiellini, Carole (14 December 2010). "Molecular phylogeny restores the supra-generic subdivision of homoscleromorph sponges (porifera, homoscleromorpha)". PLOS ONE 5 (12): e14290. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014290. 
  6. ^ a b Gazave, Eve; Lapébie, Pascal; Ereskovsky, Alexander V.; Vacelet, Jean; Renard, Emmanuelle; Cárdenas, Paco; Borchiellini, Carole (May 2012). "No longer Demospongiae: Homoscleromorpha formal nomination as a fourth class of Porifera". Hydrobiologia 687 (1): 3–10. doi:10.1007/s10750-011-0842-x. 

External links[edit]