|Body and chassis|
|Class||Subcompact car (1973–2000)
Compact car (2001–present)
Honda Civic Hybrid
Honda Civic GX
Honda Civic Type R
Honda Civic Si
Honda Civic VTI
Rover 200 / 25
The Honda Civic is a line of subcompact and subsequently compact cars manufactured by Honda. The Civic, along with the Accord and Prelude, comprised Honda's vehicles sold in North America until the 1990s, when the model lineup was expanded. Having gone through several generational changes, the Civic has become larger and more upmarket, and it currently slots between the Fit and Accord.
It was introduced in July 1972 as a two-door model, followed by a three-door hatchback that September. With the transverse engine mounting of its 1169 cc engine and front-wheel drive like the British Mini, the car provided good interior space despite overall small dimensions. Early models of the Civic typically included a basic AM radio, heater, foam-cushioned plastic trim, two-speed wipers, and painted steel rims with a chromed wheel nut cap. As the years went by, it has become much more upscale with options such as air conditioning, power locks, power windows, leather upholstery, satellite-linked navigation, and a six-speed manual transmission. Initially gaining a reputation for being fuel-efficient, reliable, and environmentally friendly, later iterations have become known for performance and sportiness, especially the Civic Type-R, Civic VTi, Civic GTi and Civic SiR.
The Civic has been rebadged for international markets with such models as the Honda Ballade which became the British Leyland-produced Triumph Acclaim in Britain and Honda Domani/Acura EL. The Civic platform also served as the basis for the Honda CR-X, the Honda CR-X del Sol, the Honda Concerto, the first generation Honda Prelude, the Honda Civic Shuttle (later to become the Honda Orthia), and the Honda CR-V. Starting in 1985 until 2006, the Civic was dedicated to Japanese dealership Honda Primo, with Civic variants sold at Honda Clio, and Honda Verno locations.
As of 2006, a total of 16.5 million Civics had been sold worldwide, with 7.3 million of them in the United States. By 2012, Civic has been the top-selling car in Canada for 14 years. With high gas prices and a weak economy in June 2008, the Civic supplanted the Ford F-Series to become the top-selling vehicle in the United States for that month. The Civic is placed amongst the top-selling cars of California, verifiable as of the first half of 2013, where it achieved the top place.
In Japan, production of non-hybrid Civic for domestic market ended in August 2010 and production of Civic hybrid for home market ended in December 2010 when it no longer complied with Japanese Government dimension regulations in the width category. In recent years, customers shifted to minivans and compact cars like Honda Fit. Honda launched Fit hybrid in October in Japan. However, production of Civic and Civic hybrid for export markets will continue.
- 1 Background
- 2 First generation (1972–1979) SB1, SG, SE, VB
- 3 Second generation (1979–1983) SL, SS, SR, ST, VC, WD
- 4 Third generation (1983–1987) AG, AH, AJ, AK, AT, EC
- 5 Fourth generation (1988–1991) - EC, ED, EE, EF, SH
- 6 Fifth generation (1991–1995) - EG, EH, EJ1, EJ2
- 7 Sixth generation (1996–2000) - EK2, EK3, EK4, EK5, EK9, EJ6, EJ7, EJ8, EJ9, EM1
- 8 Seventh generation (2000–2005) - EM2, ES1, EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4, EV1
- 9 Eighth generation (2006–2011) - FD1 FD2, FD7, FA1, FG1, FG2, FA5, FK, FN, MK8
- 10 Ninth generation (2011–Present) FB4, FG3, FB2, FG4, FB6
- 11 International marketing and platform derivatives
- 12 Safety
- 13 Modifications and the enthusiast community
- 14 Awards
- 15 Racing
- 16 References and footnotes
- 17 External links
After a period of developing idiosyncratic automobiles such as the Honda 1300 that met a lukewarm response in Japan, Honda considered pulling out of automobile manufacturing altogether by the early 1970s. However, Honda released a more conventional automobile in 1972 called the Civic which immediately reversed their flagging fortunes due to its economy, reliability and low cost in an era of rising fuel prices. Honda's CVCC technology, helped Honda meet emission standards of the 1970s and early 1980s without an expensive catalytic converter helping to keep costs down.
First generation (1972–1979) SB1, SG, SE, VB
The first generation Honda Civic was introduced in 1972, but sold as a 1973 model. It was equipped with a 1,169 cc (71.3 cu in) four-cylinder water-cooled engine and featured front power disc brakes, reclining vinyl bucket seats, simulated wood trim on the dashboard, as well as optional air conditioning and an AM/FM radio. The Civic was available as a coupe, both a three- and a five-door hatchback, as well as a five-door station wagon. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, consumer demand for fuel efficient vehicles was high, and due to the engine being able to run on either leaded or unleaded fuel, it gave drivers fuel choice flexibility over other vehicles. The CVCC engine debuted in 1975 and had a head design that allowed for more efficient combustion, and as a benefit the CVCC system did not require a catalytic converter or unleaded fuel to meet 1975 Environmental Protection Agency emissions standards for hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The Civic was joined by a platform expansion of the three-door hatchback, called the Honda Accord in 1976.
Second generation (1979–1983) SL, SS, SR, ST, VC, WD
The second generation Honda Civic was introduced in 1979 as a 1980 model. It was larger, had a more angular shape, and came with increased engine power. All Civic engines now used the CVCC design, which added a 3rd valve per cylinder; this introduced lean burn swirl technology. The base 1335 cc ("1300") engine made 55 hp (41 kW; 56 PS), with an optional 1488 cc ("1500") engine producing 67 hp (50 kW; 68 PS). Three transmissions were offered: a four-speed manual (on base models), a five-speed manual, and a two-speed semi-automatic Honda had previously called the "Hondamatic". A four door version called the Ballade was built, under agreement, by Mercedes Benz South Africa.
Third generation (1983–1987) AG, AH, AJ, AK, AT, EC
The third generation was released in 1983 for the 1984 model year. The separate five-door hatchback and wagon models were merged into a four-door "shuttle wagon" or "wagovan" sometimes referred to colloquially as a "breadbox" due to its appearance, called the Honda Civic Shuttle. An additional two-seat coupe style—labeled CRX—was introduced, noted for its compact dimensions and light weight. The third generation Civic saw the introduction of the long running four-cylinder D series engine including a new 1.5 L (91.5 cu in) CVCC engine. 1984 also saw the release of a high-performance Si model for the Japanese market, featuring upgraded suspension and the 1.6 L (97.6 cu in) DOHC ZC engine which was rated at 130 PS (118 HP). Si models were offered in the US as a 3-door Civic Si hatchback and the CRX Si variant with a 91 horsepower (68 kW) fuel-injected SOHC 12-valve engine. A 4WD engine with different transmission mounts was introduced for the first time in 1984, and later upgraded in 1987. It delivered a fuel economy of around 28 mpg highway. The 4WD system was push-button operated until improved in 1987 when the rear wheels would engage automatically once the front wheels lost traction. This new system was called "Realtime" which used a "viscous coupler" connecting two propeller shafts between the front and rear axles. The manual transmission featured a synchronized 6th gear, called "SL", or "Super-Low", which was used for high torque at very low speeds. The "Realtime" idea is still utilized to this day but includes technological improvements since the first system. Starting with 1985, Japanese Civics were now exclusive to Honda Primo, with variants sold at Honda Verno and Honda Clio. A four door version called the Ballade was built, under agreement, by Mercedes Benz South Africa, models were 1300, 1500, 1500i, and 1600i DOHC 1.6 injection.
Fourth generation (1988–1991) - EC, ED, EE, EF, SH
In 1988, the Civic was redesigned with increased dimensions and a lower hood line. A wide range of models and trim levels were offered for various markets around the world. The most notable of which was the Japanese market SiR (featuring the B16A DOHC VTEC engine). All U.S. models featured electronic fuel injection, but carbureted models were still available elsewhere. The fourth generation saw the introduction of a fully independent rear suspension across the entire model range.[not in citation given] In addition, the Honda CRX continued to be part of the Civic family which included the HF, DX, and Si model in the U.S.A / four door version called the Ballade was built, under agreement, by Mercedes Benz South Africa / models were 1500 16v, 1600i 16v, and 1600i 16v DOHC.
Fifth generation (1991–1995) - EG, EH, EJ1, EJ2
Introduced in 1991, the redesigned Civic featured increased dimensions, as well as more aerodynamic styling. The wagon variant was now only available in the Japanese market where the previous generation wagon was carried over until 1995. The efficiency of the previous HF model was replaced by the VX hatchback which, with an EPA rating of 48/55 MPG, was Honda's most fuel efficient model sold at the time. In North America the Si featured a SOHC VTEC valve train, whereas the VX featured the VTEC-E. The Japanese Si featured a DOHC non-VTEC valve train D16A9. Continuing in the sporty tradition of the original Civic SiR, Honda sold several similarly equipped variants of the fifth generation car, still referred to as the Civic SiR, in Japan, Asia, and Europe. In South Africa, MBSA (Mercedes Benz of SA) built the Civic as the Ballade only in 4dr. A special model was the 180i with the B18B4, that was fitted to Ballade models. A new bodystyle was introduced with this generation called the Civic Coupe, based from the Civic Ferio sedan, and was sold in North America, Europe and Japan. The fifth generation remains popular among tuners and racers alike.
Sixth generation (1996–2000) - EK2, EK3, EK4, EK5, EK9, EJ6, EJ7, EJ8, EJ9, EM1
The sixth generation featured updated styling although less radical than previous redesigns. Suspension and engine options were available along with their first Natural Gas Powered Civic, the GX. From 1996–2000 the Civic was sold under the CX, DX, EX, EXR, HX, LX, and for Canada, SE, and Si trims; all base models were made with 1.6L engines. The EX-CX are all SOHC (Honda D engine). The CX, DX, and LX all have D16y7 non-VTEC engines; whereas the EX has a D16y8 VTEC, and the HX has D16y5 VTEC-E. The USDM Si and Canadian SiR came with a DOHC (B16A2 VTEC). The first Civic SI coupe EM1 was introduced in 1999 until 2000. Europe saw a DOHC 1.6 VTI hatch and sedan and a DOHC 1.8VTI engine was available for the Domani related five-door liftback and estate.
Seventh generation (2000–2005) - EM2, ES1, EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4, EV1
The seventh generation was released in September 2000. While the redesign retained the previous generation's exterior dimensions, interior space was improved in part by using a flat rear floor thus bumping up Civic to a compact car size segment. The front suspension was changed from that of a double wishbone to a MacPherson strut, in order to lower costs, as well as allow more engine bay room for the newly introduced Honda K-series engine. Power was also increased on some trim levels. The four main trim levels were DX, LX, EX, and HX. The Civic Coupe was no longer sold in Japan starting with this generation.
In North America, coupe and sedan body styles were available, except for the Si (SiR in Canada) which was offered only as a three-door hatchback. The rest of the world received three and five-door hatchbacks. The Type-R was redesigned as well this time using a more powerful i-VTEC motor and using the three-door hatchback body style. This generation saw Honda introduce their first Civic Hybrid, powered by a 1.3-litre engine.
Eighth generation (2006–2011) - FD1 FD2, FD7, FA1, FG1, FG2, FA5, FK, FN, MK8
For the eighth generation, Honda split the model into two different platforms, one for sedan and coupe, and one for a hatchback designed primarily for the European market using a simpler rear suspension from the Honda Fit and more aggressive styling. As of 2006, a total of 16.5 million Civics had been sold worldwide, with 7.3 million of them in the United States. Although the North American and the home market model differ externally, they are mechanically identical. The hatchback is available as a three and five-door. Both Si and Type-R trim levels continued although the Japanese and European Type-R, while sharing the same engine size, are mechanically different. In the US, an improved, sportier version of the Civic Si 4-door tuned by tuner Mugen was offered, featuring cosmetic alterations and changes to the suspension, wheels, slight exterior differences, and exhaust system. A Canadian only Acura model received a new nameplate, changing from the Acura EL to the Acura CSX. The end of this model generation also marked the end of the Civic Type-R in Japan. There is currently no Japanese Civic Type-R successor.
Ninth generation (2011–Present) FB4, FG3, FB2, FG4, FB6
North American market
On December 13, 2010, Honda unveiled a sketch of the new ninth-generation Civic which was described as "energetic, sleek and aerodynamic." Both coupe and sedan concepts were shown on January 10, 2011 at the 2011 North American International Auto Show.
The production version of the ninth-generation Civic based on the revealed concept went on sale in the U.S. on April 20, 2011.
Honda's Eco Assist technology is added to most models, and became the first gasoline-only powered Honda to employ such technology in North America. It is an information system to help the driver adopt a more fuel-efficient driving style, and is proven to improve fuel economy by about 10% for Honda's hybrid vehicle in Japan.
All models now come standard with ABS (Anti-Lock Brake Systems), VSA (Vehicle Stability Assistance) and EBD (Electronic Brake Distribution). Further improvements include a new multilink rear suspension to further reduce road feel on particularly battered roads and highways.
International marketing and platform derivatives
While the Civic is sold in largely the same form worldwide, differences in the name of the models exist between markets. In Japan, the hatchback Civic is just called "Civic" while the sedan model was called the (Japanese: Civic Ferio) during the fifth to seventh generations. The sixth-generation sedan was also sold as the Integra SJ. In Europe and the United States, "Civic" generically refers to any model, though in Europe the coupe is branded the "Civic Coupe". A four-door station wagon model called the Civic Shuttle (also Civic Pro in Japan) was available from 1984 until 1991 (this brand name would later be revived for the mid-1990s Honda Shuttle people carrier, known in some markets as the Honda Stream). In South Africa, the sedan (the only model sold there until the 1996 launch of the sixth generation sedan and hatch) was known as the Ballade.
Also, at various times, the Civic or Civic-derived models have been sold by marques other than Honda – for example, Rover sold the 200, 400 and 45, each of which were Civic-based at some point (first 200s were the second generation Ballade; from 1990 the 200 and 400 were based on the Concerto; the 400 was the 1995 Domani), as was their predecessor, the Triumph Acclaim, based on the first Honda Ballade. The Honda Domani, an upscale model based on the Civic, was sold as the Isuzu Gemini in Japan (1992–2000), and confusingly the 5-door Domani was sold as the Honda Civic (along with the "real" hatchback and sedan Civics) in Europe from 1995 to 2000. In Thailand, the sixth generation Civic was available as the four-door Isuzu Vertex. The sixth-generation station wagon was sold as the Honda Orthia, with the Partner as the downmarket commercial variant. The seventh generation minivan model is called the Honda Stream. In Canada, the sixth and seventh generation Civics were mildly redesigned to create the Acura EL until the advent of the eight generation Civic, which was used to create the Acura CSX, which was designed in Canada. Honda Japan adopted the CSX styling for the Civic in its home country.
The three-door hatchback body style has been somewhat unpopular in the United States, but has achieved wide acceptance in Canada, as well as popularity in Japan and European markets, helping cement Honda's reputation as a maker of sporty compact models. Starting in 2002, the Civic three-door hatchback has been built exclusively at Honda's manufacturing plant[dead link] in Swindon, England - previously the five-door "Civic"/Domani and the Civic Aerodeck (based on the Japanese Orthia) were built in this plant for sale in Europe along with the Japanese Civics. Accordingly, all instances of the current model (left or right hand drive, anywhere in the world) are British-made cars designed with Japanese engineering, except for the US-built two-door coupe and the sedan version built in Brazil for the Latin American market.
In North America, the Civic hatchback was dropped for 2006. The 2006 model year standard Civics for North America are manufactured in Alliston, Ontario, Canada (sedans, coupes and Si Coupes) and East Liberty, Ohio (sedans), while the Hybrid version is manufactured in Japan.
In Brazil, although being considered for local manufacturing since the early 1980s (it was illegal to import cars in Brazil from 1973 until 1990), the Civic wasn't available until 1992, via official importing. In 1997, production of the sixth generation Civic sedan started in the Sumaré (a city near Campinas, in the state of São Paulo) factory. The only differences between the Japanese model and the Brazilian model were a slightly higher ground clearance, due to the country's road conditions and adaptations to make the engine suitable to Brazilian commercial gasoline, which contains about 25% ethanol (E25). The seventh generation production started in 2001, displacing the Chevrolet Vectra from the top sales record for the mid-size sedan segment, however it lost that position to the Toyota Corolla the following year. In 2006, the eighth generation was released and regained the sales leadership. Identical to the North American version, it lacks options such a moonroof, and standard security equipment like VSA and side and curtain airbags were removed due to lack of car safety laws in the Mercosur. Furthermore, the Brazilian subsidiary began producing flex-fuel versions for the Civic and the Fit models, capable of running on any blend of gasoline (E20 to E25 blend in Brazil) and ethanol up to E100.
|Model year||Make||Model||Type||Curb weight (lb)||Frontal driver rating||Frontal passenger rating||Side driver passenger rating||Side rear passenger rating|
|2001–2005||Honda||Civic||4-DR w/+w/o SAB||2,522|
|2001–2005||Honda||Civic||2-DR w/o SAB||2,502|
|2002–2005||Honda||Civic||2-DR HBK w/o SAB||2,502|
The current eighth-generation Civic sedan's crash test performance has been rated highly by both the US government's NHTSA and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. The IIHS awarded the Civic sedan with a rating of "good" on both frontal and side impact crash tests and lists the Civic as the second-best 2007 small car in overall crashworthiness. The Civic coupe is rated "acceptable" in the side impact test.
In Australia, 1984–2005 Civics were assessed in the Used Car Safety Ratings 2006 on their level of occupant protection regardless of size or era.
- (1984–1987) - "significantly worse than average"
- (1988–1991) - "average"
- (1992–1995) - "average"
- (1996–2000) - "better than average"
- (2001–2005) - "average"
Modifications and the enthusiast community
Despite being an economy car, the Civic is popular as a platform for modification and customization by the enthusiast community. Starting with the fourth generation and continuing through the 2000 model year, Civics had front double wishbone suspension and rear semi-trailing arm suspension. Because of parts interchangeability, many Civics, which were originally equipped with lower power engines, can later be equipped with newer Honda engines (a process called engine swap) and many other upgrades. The most common engine swaps are the B16A (Civic SI), the B18C (Acura Integra GSR), and the new powerful K20 (02-11 Civic SI (except for the K20A3 from EP3 Si/ RSX base) and 02-06 RSX Type-S).
The more recent seventh and eighth generation Civics, now rated as compacts rather than subcompacts, are still competitive as tuner projects. However, they have succumbed to added weight (mostly due to U.S. government safety mandates, such as airbags and ABS) and higher centers of gravity, which have significantly reduced their appeal amongst passionate drivers. Particularly unwelcome among the tuner community was the replacement of the front double-wishbone suspension with MacPherson struts, which provide inferior handling and do not allow dynamic camber angle control.
Honda Civic EX was International Car of the Year in 2005. From 1972 to 1974, the Civic was awarded Car of the Year Japan. In 1973, the Civic ranked third in the European Car of the Year awards, the highest ranking for a Japanese vehicle at that time. It also was awarded the U.S. Road Test magazine's "1974 Car of the Year." The Civic was the Motor Trend Import Car of the Year for 1980 as well as its 2006 Car of the Year. In 2006, the Civic earned the 2007 "Semperit Irish Car of the Year" title. In 1996, Automobile Magazine honored the Civic as its Automobile of the Year. The Civic has been on Car and Driver magazine's yearly Ten Best list six times, in 1985, 1988–91, and 1996. The Civic Si was named "Best New Sport Car" and the sedan was named "Best New Economy Car" in the 2006 Canadian Car of the Year awards. The Civic also won the North American Car of the Year and the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) Car of the Year awards for 2006. In November 2006, the Civic received the prestigious "Car of The Year" award from Brazilian magazine Auto Esporte. The four-door Civic VXi sedan won the South African Car of the Year award for 2007.
Touring car racing
Civics have been used for racing ever since their introduction. In 1973, a Civic was entered, alongside cars of much larger engine sizes, in the Australian Bathurst 1000 endurance race.
In recent years the Civic has been used in a wide variety of racing series, particularly in Japan. It is also used in touring car races in Europe and the United States. The Civic has been used in the UK in endurance series by teams such as Barwell Motorsport and Cartek Motorsport.
In December 2005, on the date of the new 2006 Civic Si's launch in the USA, Honda's R&D Engineering Team completed 645 laps in an eighth generation Civic Si coupe (FG2) to place first in the E1 class of the famous '25 Hours of Thunderhill' marathon race. The drivers on Honda's team were Road & Track journalist Kim Wolfkill, Lee Niffenegger, Chad Gilsinger, Sage Marie, John Sherk, Rich Hays, Andrew Frame, Matt Staal and Car and Driver journalist Tony Swan.
In the UK, the Civic has been used in the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) for several years and is still highly competitive. The Civic made its debut in the 2002 season with the 'Works' team run by Arena Motorsport. Built to BTC-T specifications, it gained the team third in the manufacturers championship. In the same year Synchro Motorsport won the BTCC Production Teams Championship with a pair of Civic Type Rs.
The 2003 season saw the 'works' team Civics secure an impressive second in the manufacturers championship. The 2003 BTCC Production Teams Championship also went to the Civic again, this time in the hands of Barwell Motorsport.
Such was the competitiveness of the Civic in its first two season, 2004 saw five teams enter Civics, allowing the model to secure second in the manufacturers championship.
For the 2007 BTCC season, Team Halfords ran the new eighth generation Honda Civics, built to the latest S2000 regulations, for Matt Neal and Gordon Shedden with limited success and continued to use the Civic into the 2008 and 2009 season. In both 2007 and 2008, the Civic allowed the team to finish 3rd in the Teams championship, behind the two manufacturer backed teams.
Honda Racing Team will swap to the brand new ninth generation Honda Civic, built fully to NGTC rules, for the 2012 BTCC season. They are the first manufacturer backed team to announce their intention to run fully to the NGTC specification. The drivers continue to be Matt Neal and Gordon Shedden, who are the 2011 and 2012 BTCC driver champions respectively.
Honda announced to enter the 2012 World Touring Car Championship (WTCC) with a racer built on the 2012 Euro Civic five-door hatchback. The car is powered by a 1.6-liter turbocharged engine, developed by Honda R&D, and will race later in Japan, China and Macau before a two car team join the 2013 championship racing.
The car has also been used in the Japanese Touring Car Championship, and won the 2011 Asian Touring Car Series. It also competed in both the Touring and Super-production classes of the Russian Touring Car Championship.
In autocross, the low, wide, sub-2,000 pound 1988–1991 Civic Si hatchback (notably the 1989 model year) has been dominant in SCCA Solo ST (Street Touring, previously Street Touring Sedan) class for a number of years. For example, 1988–1991 Civics captured all of the top 20 positions at the 2009 national finals. In 10 Nationals since the ST became a national class in 2001, the Civic Si has taken nine out of 10 Men's titles and seven out of 10 Ladies' titles. Civics have also had success in SCCA RallyCross with the Modified 2WD National Championship being won in 2010 in a 2007 Si and 2011 won in a 1988 Hatchback.
References and footnotes
- "History of Civic First Generation". Honda.
- "The Honda Civic – A legend, a time capsule on wheels". Gaadi.
- "2006 Honda Civic Expert Review". Cars.com.
- "2006 Honda Civic Review". JB car pages. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
- Collier, Joe G. (2006-06-01). "Honda getting its groove back with Civic". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Duarte, Joe (2011-01-05). "Canada's most popular car 13 years running". Autonet.ca. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Krisher, Tom (2010-08-19). "Why Honda is growing as Detroit falls behind". SFGate. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- "Fuel-efficiency pays off for Honda". Washington Times. 2009-09-19. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- "Best Selling Car In Every State". Business Insider. Nov 21, 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-07.
- Takahashi, Yoshio (2010-11-16). "Honda to End Civic Sales in Japan". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- Wolfcale, James. "The Top Ten Hondas of All Time". DriveCult. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
- "Inside Line: News, Road Tests, Auto Shows, Car Photos and Videos". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 2010-10-24.[dead link]
- "2003 Honda Civic Review". JB car pages. Retrieved 2356-03-06.
- "2003 Honda Civic Hybrid Review". JB car pages. Retrieved 2009-03-06.
- Omar Rana (2011-04-05). "Honda targeting 12% increase in April sales despite vehicle shortages". egmCarTech.
- "Honda Civic Si Concept coupe and Civic Concept sedan debut at NAIAS; hybrid and natural gas variants". Green Car Congress. 2011-01-12.
- "Honda Study Finds Insight's Eco Assist System Results in Average 10% Improvement in Fuel Economy After 300 Drives, Up to 20% Max". Green Car Congress. 2010-02-12.
- "Honda Civic atinge 300 mil unidades produzidas" (in Portuguese). Honda Brazil. September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-07.[dead link]
- "NHTSA Crash Test Results For 1997 US NCAP". SafeCarGuide.com, Inc. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
- "Honda Civic Crash Test Ratings". NHTSA. Retrieved 2008-08-02.[dead link]
- "IIHS-HLDI: Honda Civic". IIHS. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
- "IIHS-HLDI: Small cars - Current". IIHS. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
- "IIHS-HLDI: Honda Civic 2-door". Iihs.org. 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-08-23.
- "Used Car Safety Ratings". Vic Roads. Retrieved 2006-11-05.
- "Honda Civic Customization". CustomCivics.com.
- "Has Honda Lost Its Way?". insideline.com.
- "How Car Suspensions Work". howstuffworks.com.
- "Suspension Design: Types of Suspensions". www.automotivearticles.com.
- "First Generation (1972)". Honda Worldwide. Retrieved 2006-11-05.
- "Second Generation (1972)". Honda Worldwide. Retrieved 2006-11-05.
- Waterman, Stuart (2005-12-06). "Honda Civic Si scores class win in 25 Hours of Thunderhill – Autoblog". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
- "Honda sticks to a winning team". btcc. 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2011-06-17.
- Andrei Tutu (Sep 2, 2011). "New Honda Civic 2012 BTCC Race Car Under Development". AutoEvolution.
- "All new Civic for 2012". British Touring Car Championship (TOCA). 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Mihnea Radu (Sep 16, 2011). "Honda Racing 2012 BTCC Drivers Confirmed". AutoEvolution.
- Noah Joseph (Oct 19, 2011). "att Neal takes the British Touring Car Championship for Honda". Autoblog.
- Steven Ewing (Feb 3, 2012). "Honda to enter World Touring Car Championship with new Civic. Honda won the 2013 WTCC Manufacturers’ Championship on their first full season in the series and still with six races to go.". Autoblog.
- "Honda to take on Toyota with GT300 hybrid". Racecar Engineering. Feb 4, 2012.
- National Solo Rules[not in citation given]
- "Results". SCCA. 2011-10-09. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
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