Hong Kong Jockey Club
Brian Stevenson, Chairman
Winfried Engelbrecht-Bresges, CEO
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The Hong Kong Jockey Club (HKJC, Chinese name: 香港賽馬會) is one of the oldest institutions in Hong Kong, founded in 1884 to promote horse racing. It was granted Royal Charter and renamed to "The Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club" (英皇御准香港賽馬會) in 1959. The name of the institution was reverted to its original name in 1996 due to the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997. Membership of the club is by nomination and election only.
It is a non-profit organisation providing horse racing, sporting and betting entertainment in Hong Kong. It holds a government-granted monopoly in providing pari-mutuel betting on horse racing, the Mark Six lottery, and fixed odds betting on overseas football events. The organisation is the largest taxpayer in Hong Kong, as well as the largest private donor of charity funds, contributing an average of over HK$1 billion (approximately US$130 million) annually over the past ten years. The Hong Kong Jockey Club also provides dining, social, sport and recreation facilities to its approximately 23,000 members.
Founded in 1884 as an amateur body to promote horse racing, it was an exclusive club whose membership was drawn from the upper class. During the 19th and early 20th century, there were few Chinese members[quantify]. Three of the top colonial clubs at the time, namely the Jockey Club, Victoria Recreation Club (1872) and the Amateur Dramatic Corps (1844) "had not a single Chinese member between them".
The Club evolved into a professional institution from 1971. The Club organised the annual races which took place around Chinese New Year, and was initially financed by commissions on bets which were placed through private clubs.
In July 2005, the decision was made to stage equestrian competitions of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Hong Kong. The Club's racing centre at Sha Tin was used as the foundation for the Olympic and Paralympic venues, with additional competition and training venues being incorporated into existing sports facilities at the Hong Kong Sports Institute, the Jockey Club Beas River Country Club and the adjacent golf course.
The HKJC conducts nearly 700 horse races per year at its two race tracks at Sha Tin 沙田 and Happy Valley 快活谷. During the 2001/02 racing season, the HKJC licensed 1,144 horse owners, 24 trainers and 35 jockeys and had 1,435 horses in training.
In 2002–2003, the betting turnover was HK$71 billion. After paying dividends of 58 billion and betting duty of 9.5 billion, its betting commission revenue was HK$3.9 billion. It contributes 11.7% of Hong Kong's tax revenue. Surpluses from its operation are allocated to the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.
Following the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong, the popularity of horse racing declined substantially, possibly due to economic conditions in the region.
On 16 March 2007, the HKJC appointed William (Bill) Nader, formerly with the New York Racing Association, as its executive director of racing from April 2007.
On 9 September 2007, Sha Tin Racecourse opened after its summer break with record 1-day crowd of about 60,000. Chief Secretary Henry Tang 唐英年 struck the ceremonial gong. The Hong Kong Jockey Club collected US$106 million in bets (highest since 2001). Children of horse owners were admitted amid protest of local anti-gambling groups. Sunny Power, booted by Howard Cheng got the trophy in the 1,200 metre dash.
The reform and other changes mentioned above, the HKJC revenue has steadily increased back to previous levels and above. The total racing revenue for the Racing Season 2011/2012 reached HK$86.1 billion, up 43.4% since the 2006 reform.
Betting and the law
The HKJC has a legal monopoly over betting on horse racing and football. In 1974, it opened 6 off-course branches where the members of the public could wager on horse race meets at the club's Happy Valley racecourse. There are now in excess of 100 betting branches throughout the territory which accepts bets on racing and on soccer and buy Mark Six lottery tickets.
The HKJC was instrumental in persuading the Hong Kong government to pass the Gambling (Amendment) Bill 2002 to combat unauthorised cross-border gambling and the related promotional activities in Hong Kong, making it a criminal offence for any person in Hong Kong to bet with an unauthorised bookmaker, even when the bets are received outside Hong Kong. The offence applies to all visitors as well as to residents of Hong Kong.
2006 Horse racing reforms
In 2006, after years of declining turnover, the Hong Kong Legislative Council passed the Betting Ordinance (Amendment) 2006. This amendment granted the Hong Kong Jockey Club more autonomy in how it ran its own operations.
Pool Name – Dividend Qualification
- Win (獨贏) – 1st in a race.
- Place (位置) – 1st, 2nd or 3rd in a race with 7 or more declared starters or 1st, 2nd in a race with 4, 5, 6 declared starters.
- Quinella (連贏) – 1st and 2nd in either order in the race.
- Quinella Place (位置Q) – Any two of the first three placed horses in any finishing order in the race.
- Trio (單T) – 1st, 2nd and 3rd in any order in the race.
- Tierce (三重彩) – 1st, 2nd and 3rd in correct order in the race.
- First Four (四連環) – 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th in any order in the race.
As of September 2006, all Win, Place, Quinella, and Quinella Place bets (including All Up bets) of a value of at least 10,000 Hong Kong Dollars are eligible for a 10% rebate if the bet or betline loses.
Pool Name – Dividend Qualification – Consolation [if any]
- Double (孖寶) – 1st in two nominated races – 1st in 1st leg and 2nd in 2nd leg.
- Treble (三寶) – 1st in three nominated races – 1st in first two legs and 2nd in third leg.
- Double Trio (孖T) – 1st, 2nd and 3rd in any order in both legs.
- Triple Trio (三T) – 1st, 2nd and 3rd in any order in three legs – 1st, 2nd and 3rd in the first two Triple Trio legs.
- Six Up (六環彩) – 1st or 2nd in each of the legs nominated to comprise the Six Up – 1st or 2nd in each of the legs nominated to comprise the Six Up.
Jockey Challenge (騎師王) – best performing jockey in a race meeting.
High Society Membership
Membership in this club is very strict, limited to the moneyed social elite. In the past, this club was reserved for only "old money" families; but currently there are increasing numbers of "newly rich" members.
Similar to other elite clubs, Jockey Club membership applicants often must wait for years if not decades to be accepted. What makes it especially difficult to join is that this club does not allow memberships to be bought and sold in the secondary market. The joining membership fee is HK$400,000, with HK$1,800 monthly subscriptions. In addition, every applicant needs the endorsement of two of the only 200 voting members and the support of three other members. 
In the 1950s, as Hong Kong struggled with post-war reconstruction and a massive immigration, there was a need for more charitable structures. HKJC enhanced its charitable role in 1955 by formally devoting its annual surplus to charity and community projects. In 1959, the Hong Kong Jockey Club (Charities) Ltd, was formed to administer donations. This company became the Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust in 1993.
The trust serves four principal areas of civic and social need: sports, recreation and culture, education and training, community services and medical and health.
The Hong Kong Jockey Club supports various social and education institutions. The Jockey Club Government Secondary School 賽馬會官立中學 in Kowloon Tong 九龍塘 and the Jockey Club Ti-I College 賽馬會體藝中學 in Sha Tin was funded by the then Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. Many swimming pools or public sport facilities[which?] in Hong Kong are supported or founded by the funding of The Hong Kong Jockey Club.
- Phineas Ryrie, 1884–92
- Sir Catchick Paul Chater, 1892–26
- H. P. White, 1926–29
- C. Gordon Mackie, 1929–35
- M. T. Johnson, 1935–39
- Thomas Ernest Pearce, 1940–41
- Douglas Clague
- Sir Gordon MacWhinnie
- Peter Gordon Williams
- Michael Graham Ruddock Sandberg
- Sir Oswald Victor Cheung
- Sir John Joseph Swaine
- Sir William Purves
- Alan Li
- Ronald Arculli
- Wong Chung Hin
- John Chan (陳祖澤)
- Thomas Brian Stevenson
- "Big shoes to fill for new club boss". The Standard. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- Eric Cavaliero, "Hong Kong Club members succumbed to redevelpment offer, The Standard, 13 February 1997
- ChannelNewsAsia.com, HK's Sha Tin race course opens to huge crowds
- Hong Kong Jockey Club, "2011/12 Season End Results, retrieved 15 Aug 2013
- Betting Services for the 21st Century, HKJC. Retrieved 24 July 2007
- Ip, Kelly (11 January 2013). "Join the club". The Standard.
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