Hong Kong by-election, 2010

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hong Kong by-election election, 2010
Hong Kong
2008 ←
16 May 2010
→ 2012

5 Geographical Constituencies
in the Legislative Council
Leader Audrey Eu N/A
Alliance Referendum Movement Tertiary 2012
Popular vote 464,561 36,226
Percentage 82.96% 6.47%

Members before election

Referendum Movement (resigned)

Elected Members

Referendum Movement

The 2010 Hong Kong by-election is an election held on 16 May 2010 in Hong Kong, triggered by the resignation of five pan-democrat Legislative Councillors in January of the same year.[1]

Discussions among the pan-democrats commenced in July 2009 for five legislators to resign to force a territory-wide by-election.[2] The plan, which they dubbed the Five Constituencies Referendum (五區公投/五區總辭), involved one pan-democratic legislator resigning from each of the five geographical constituencies, thereby triggering a by-election in which all Hong Kong citizens could participate.[2] Although the Basic Law of Hong Kong does not provide for official referenda, the pan-democrats hope that by returning the resignees to the Legislative Council, on their manifesto of real political reform in Hong Kong and the abolition of functional constituencies,[2] the election can be seen as a de facto referendum and an endorsement of these issues.[3] The five LegCo members resigned their seats on 21 January 2010 with the by-election taking place on 16 May 2010. The vote count was finalised by 2 am on 17 May 2010. Following a boycott by the pro-government parties, the five who resigned were successfully returned to the Legislative Council by voters.[4] The by-election has been criticised as a waste of taxpayers' money.[5][6]

Background[edit]

According to Annex II of the Basic Law of Hong Kong, the Chief Executive of Hong Kong is elected by an 800-person election committee, consisting of appointees from four different sectors. The Legislative Council (LegCo) consists of 60 seats, 30 of which are geographical constituencies, subject to popular mandate; the remaining 30 seats are returned by functional Constituencies, which are elected by a much smaller pool of voters consisting of corporate bodies and workers in the various sectors. The 800 Election Committee members are appointees. The existing electoral arrangement, which allows a person belonging to a stipulated sector to control more than one vote, has been denounced by Human Rights Monitor as "highly corrupt".[7]

Articles 45 and 68 of the Basic Law state that the Chief Executive and all members of LegCo shall eventually be elected by universal suffrage, while changes in election methods shall be in accordance with the principle of "gradual and orderly progress". According to Annex I and II of the Basic Law, the election method of the Chief Executive and the LegCo may be amended after 2007.

On 29 December 2007, the NPCSC resolved that the Chief Executive and LegCo could be elected via universal suffrage in 2017 and 2020 respectively.[8] The pan-democracy camp has become increasingly frustrated at the slow pace of reform. After the failure to achieve universal suffrage in 2007, the target of the pan-democrats has shifted to 2012; pro-Beijing camp stated its preference for 2017.

On 18 November 2009, based on the NPCSC decision, the Hong Kong Government published the Consultation Document on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the LegCo in 2012, which the Government said showed its determination to advance Hong Kong’s democratic development in 2012, and to pave way for universal suffrage elections of the Chief Executive and the Legislature as resolved by the NPCSC. The document said that in line with the principle of "gradual and orderly progress", the scope of political participation would be broadened and the democratic elements in the 2012 elections substantially increased; the administration proposed to enlarge the Election Committee for electing the Chief Executive, add ten new LegCo seats, of which five indirectly elected. The administration also proposed to give elected District Council members more seats on the Election Committee.[9] Following the unveiling of the consultation document, Pan-democrats attacked the lack of genuine progress, saying that the proposals were but a rehash of, and in some respects worse than, the 2005 proposals which they vetoed. Anson Chan commented on the lack of substance in the proposals: "The Hong Kong public is now left like someone pedalling a bicycle with no chain: the pedals spin round, but no forward progress is made."[10]

Five Constituencies Referendum[edit]

LSD stance[edit]

The League of Social Democrats (LSD) proposed resignations by pan-democrats from LegCo in late July 2009. Wong Yuk-man said that it would "give people the chance to say they don't want any undemocratic reform proposals short of full universal suffrage by 2012." They proposed that members from the pan-democracy camp resign according to the size of their caucus in LegCo: two members from Democratic Party, one member from each the Civic Party and the LSD, and one member from the four independent democrats, chosen by drawing lots, thereby creating a 'referendum effect'. They suggested the timing of the resignations coincide with final reform proposal, after a public consultation exercise in late 2009; they also said that all three LSD legislators would resign if necessary.[11]

Democratic Party stance[edit]

Further to that, Szeto Wah revealed that a meeting was held to discuss the plan in or around September 2009 between Anson Chan, Martin Lee, Allen Lee, and Szeto, brokered by Jimmy Lai, during which he voiced opposition to the "unworkable" plan; the others who attended the meeting appeared to have softened their stance subsequently.[12]

In November 2009, Albert Ho declared his opposition to the referendum plan, as his party was "elected to fight for the public." He added that the proposal would be voted on by party members on 13 December.[13] Szeto Wah said the Democratic Party would not join in the resignations itself, but would support pan-democrats who stood for re-election. Martin Lee called on the other democrats to rethink their participation in the plan.[14]

In December, the Democratic Party membership voted 229 voted against, 54 in favour and one abstention not to join the resignation plan after a four-hour debate; Martin Lee expressed his disappointment.[15]

Civic Party stance[edit]

The Civic Party was initially lukewarm to the idea; it later responded with their "3-Stage Fight Plan for Universal Suffrage", which involves firstly negotiation with the government for a firm roadmap and timetable, Five Constituencies Resignation, and if that is not successful, mass resignation of all 23 democrats in Legco.[16] Party co-founder Ronny Tong opposed the plan, fearing the loss of veto if their numbers dwindled in the by-election. Tong was not confident of the pan-democratic camp being able to mobilise sufficient voters to render meaningful effect in the so-called de facto referendum. He also feared that failing to get Beijing to agree to its demand after the first phase of protest would lead to mass pan-democratic resignations from LegCo, which would be likely to further the split the pan-democratic camp.[17] Around November 2009 there were disputes within the pan-democracy camp as to who would resign or not.[14] Tong said he would not resign his seat in Legco if there was to be a mass resignation, but would instead leave the party he helped found.[18]

Pro-Beijing parties' stance[edit]

In November the Liberal Party chairman James Tien and Chan Yuen-han of the Federation of Trade Unions were looking to contest the by-elections.[13]

Challenges[edit]

Constitution and legal[edit]

On 15 January 2010, the State Council's Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office of China's State Council said any "so-called referendum" would be inconsistent with Hong Kong's legal status and a "blatant challenge" to the Basic Law and the central government's authority.[2] National People's Congress vice chairman and secretary general Li Jianguo reiterated that view at the annual meeting of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Zhuhai.[19] The same day, both the central government and Hong Kong's Constitutional Affairs minister Stephen Lam said a referendum on Hong Kong's electoral reform would be inconsistent with the Basic Law.[2] Audrey Eu, Civic Party lawmaker who is also a barrister, denied that the resignation scheme challenged the Basic Law and Beijing's authority, and insisted the scheme was legal. A government spokesman said they were obliged, by the Basic Law, to hold by-elections to fill vacant seats, but that any kind of referendum has no legal basis.[20]

A number of local legal scholars have since expressed their opinion that a referendum would not be illegal nor inconsistent with the Basic Law: Albert Chen, professor of law of the University of Hong Kong, said that the referendum was contrary to the spirit of the Basic Law, but it was not illegal and the pan-democrats could not be prosecuted for it; an assistant professor of law at HKU, rejected claims that a non-binding referendum would contravene the Basic Law.[21][22] An editorial in the SCMP said that while the Basic Law did not expressly rule out or permit referenda, Beijing's statement that the elections are unconstitutional has "dignified the ill-conceived resignation plan by treating it as a matter of constitutional significance."[23]

Some have called for laws to be made to bar lawmakers from resigning without sound reasons in future: Barrister Alan Hoo urged the government to amend the law as soon as possible to prohibit legislators resigning unless they are "incapacitated."[24] Priscilla Leung said she planned to introduce a private member's bill into the Legislative Council soon, to limit the ability of members to resign,[20] which Ronny Tong said would contravene the Basic Law, and infringe upon the right to stand for elections protected under Article 26; he stated that it would be inconsistent with Article 74 for an individual legislator to table bills relating to the political structure.[25] On 10 February, the constitutional affairs panel of LegCo passed a non-binding motion calling on the government to amend election bylaws, barring anyone who has resigned from standing for re-election.[26] Basic Law Committee member Lau Nai-keung said that the government-friendly camp should not contest the by-elections to lend credibility to the campaign. He urged Legco president not to accept the resignations by the five lawmakers, not hold any by-elections to fill the vacancies, and "declare those lawmakers are no longer qualified for office if they are absent from meetings for three consecutive months without valid reasons."[19]

Funding[edit]

The Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau has estimated that the by-elections would cost HK$150 million (US$19.3 million).[2] The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB) and the Liberal Party have not decided whether to approve the LegCo budget for the election.[2] However, instead of making a separate appropriation request for the by-elections, the government provided for HK$159 million in its budget proposal, making it difficult for lawmakers to veto the funding.[26]

Wong Kwok-hing of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions moved the amendment to scrap the HK$147 million funding for the by-election, criticising the two parties for their "farce." The amendment was defeated by a 14-to-37 vote. It was supported by three HKFTU members, the DAB legislators, together with Paul Tse and Priscilla Leung, but voted down in both the functional and geographical constituencies.[27] Albert Ho said it was merely a political expression testing public opinion, and challenged those loyal to Beijing, saying that they should support "upgrad[ing] it to a real referendum."[27]

Resignation[edit]

Five resigning democrats at a rally on 27 January.

On 21 January 2010, it was announced that Albert Chan (NT West), Alan Leong (Kowloon East), Tanya Chan (Hong Kong Island), "Longhair" Leung Kwok-hung (NT East) and Wong Yuk-man (Kowloon West), would resign their LegCo seats.[28] The five resignations were submitted on 26 January 2010, with effect of 29 January 2010.[20]

The five resigned pan-democrats had hoped to give a valedictory speech in the Legislative Council, but were prevented from doing so by a walk-out by pro-Beijing lawmakers, who denounced them as "those pushing for 'Hong Kong Independence'". Only 21 pan-democrat lawmakers and four government allies remained in the chamber following the walk-out – short of the 30 required for quorum.[29]

Post resignation[edit]

Actions and comments of the pro-democracy camp[edit]

Campaign slogan and advertisement by LSD and Civic party calling for "uprising of the people" (全民起義),[28][30] attracted media attention and the ire of Beijing. Reception of the slogan was particularly negative by the pro-Beijing camp. Rita Fan attacked the term saying it would set a dangerous precedent by misleading the public over the purpose of the by-elections. She said anyone who has studied Chinese history would know that the word "uprising" convey an image of revolution, blood, and violence and that it would make people think of social turmoil, hardship and chaos.[30][31] Maria Tam said an uprising usually refers to overthrowing the government through violence, and Former Secretary for Justice Elsie Leung warned of anarchy.[32] Ip Kwok-him, Deputy Chairman of the DAB, said the slogan was seditious;[33] but Audrey Eu said it was an attempt to intimidate the Hong Kong people.[34] Eu said that the 4 Chinese characters do not refer to a violent revolution and that the resignation is not a ploy to seek independence of Hong Kong;[20] Wong Yuk-man emphasised it as a "peaceful uprising".[35] Gordon Wu said the Civic Party and the LSD were destabilising Hong Kong by resigning, and likened the call for people to rise up to action taken by red guards during the Cultural Revolution. Wu said: "Uprising is something very thrilling - although we have not reached the stage of armed struggle." Organisers for the resigners dismissed the criticism as tactics aimed at dampening turnout for the by-elections.[36]

Some controversial manhua have also been made by artists inspired by the referendum.[37]

A pan-democracy gathering held in Central on 27 January 2010 was attended by approximately 4,000 people, according to organisers; police gave the number at 1,900.[38] The group also used a song from cantopop group Beyond to sing about freedom.[38] At one point they chanted repeatedly "Uprising, uprising, uprising...", while Albert Chan shouted to the crowd loudly "Liberate Hong Kong" (解放香港).[38]

Civic Party's Alan Leong, celebrating his birthday on a street election campaign, said he was disappointed by several public remarks by Stephen Lam regarding the by-elections. Leong said Lam's remarks were a clear indication that the government had lost its supposedly neutral stance.[39] In March, the LSD published an open letter condemning Ronny Tong for betraying his fellow pan-democrats (and not supporting the referendum plan), and bitterly attacked him personally. The Standard said the LSD was "doing its very best to rile Tong to create an imagery of confrontation between referendum advocates and pan-democratic moderates" in order to rekindle media interest.[40]

Democratic Party elders Szeto Wah, Albert Ho and Martin Lee urged their supporters to vote in the by election; Lee said a blank vote it was preferable to no vote.[41]

Student actions[edit]

A democracy protest organised by the Hong Kong Federation of Students supported by 200 people took place on 28 March 2010 from University of Hong Kong campus to the government offices in Central. The protesters called for abolition of functional constituencies, blaming them for social inequalities. They also want real universal suffrage by 2012. There was also a minor confrontation between some protesters and police; one protester was arrested.[42]

Students from the different HK universities formed a group called Tertiary 2012 (T12), and declared their aim to raise HK$250,000 to field one candidate for each vacant seat.[43] The group, which have no formal alliance with other political parties, raised the necessary deposit from Internet donations and submitted their nomination papers on 1 April. The candidates all endorsed the cause of the Civic Party and the League of Social Democrats, but their platform consists of continuing to press for universal suffrage in both the chief executive and Legislative Council elections in 2012.[44]

Response from Hong Kong Government officials[edit]

Chief Executive, Donald Tsang, said he might not vote and called the by-elections a "drama" during an interview with South China Morning Post.

I have been exercising my right to vote all my life, but on this occasion, I have to think hard on what I need to do...I have not made up my mind yet...This (by-election)is deliberately engineered through resignation and re-election of the same people in order to introduce what they call a so-called referendum...It is a completely different texture altogether...We must understand this very carefully, so I have to think very hard about my position. ... My duty is to the people.[45]

Audrey Eu said that Tsang's remarks were inappropriate, and that judging from the Beijing's heavy-handed reactions, the de facto referendum would be a success.[46] Wong Yuk-man, of the League of Social Democrats said any Tsang boycott may spark a bigger turnout at the polls.[47] Ronny Tong asked whether Tsang had broken the law by declaring he might not vote.[26]

Secretary for Home Affairs, Tsang Tak-sing refused to make open his intention to vote or not, citing his reason as not knowing who would be the candidates, but admitted he would make a decision on whether to vote according to the government's political stance, branding the by-election a grave political incident and saying that government officials must have team spirit and act consistently.[48]

Posters and banners for the by-election were a dull brown and pink, as a contrast to the orange and red of 2007, and lacked the incitement to vote. Stephen Lam said the government was fulfilling its duty to remind the 3.3 million voters to vote, but added: "We have already said the by-elections are unnecessary and the public has strong views about the HK$150 million cost."[49]

Professor Lau Siu-kai, the head of the Central Policy Unit and the government's chief adviser, said the unit had conducted three surveys since the resignation, all of which consistently showed that more than half the 1,000 respondents polled opposed the 'referendum' campaign. Campaign organisers rejected Lau's claim, saying he famously underestimated attendance at the on 1 July 2003 protest march at 30,000.[50]

Response from Chinese officials[edit]

CPC Hong Kong liaison office head Peng Qinghua responded to the referendum by saying, "There are political groups that have launched the so-called 'five constituencies referendum campaign,' even proposing sensational and extreme slogans like 'civic uprising' and 'liberating Hong Kong. This is a total violation of mainstream public opinion that wants stability, harmony and development."[51]

A Taipei Times editorial said it was inappropriate to use "stability, harmony, development" to justify the lack of democracy in the already stable, harmonious and developed Hong Kong.[52] It was further said that it was even more ironic that Beijing claimed to know "mainstream public opinion" before a referendum has even been held.[52]

Boycott[edit]

In late January Miriam Lau (Liberal Party) said her party would work closely with DAB to field candidates in the by-elections. James Tien and his brother Michael indicated their interest, but DAB vice-chairman Ip Kwok-him said there were divergent views within his party and that they would only take part in the by-elections if they are not seen as a referendum.[20] Placed in a dilemma by the resignations and the subsequent statements from central government politicians, pro-government politicians could not contest the polls for fear of being seen by Beijing to condone the "unconstitutional act",[23] they thus all planned to boycott it. Tam Yiu-chung, Chairman of the DAB, criticised the by-election as "a farce...It's a waste of taxpayers' money...It promotes social conflict..."[53]

Chief Executive Donald Tsang announced, two days before polling day and after weeks of speculation, that he and his ministers would not vote in the by-elections. He said: "In view of the unique nature of this by-election and after careful consideration, I have decided not to vote in this by-election. All members of my political team share this view and, of their own accord, have also decided not to vote."[54] He also said the government would seek to amend the election law to prevent such abuse in future.[55][56][57]

Also breaking with tradition, Electoral Affairs Commission chairman Mr Justice Barnabas Fung refused to appeal to the electorate to vote, as a further sign that the government was trying actively to dampen the election atmosphere.[58]

Candidates[edit]

The following people have entered for the by-election.

Geographical Constituency Candidate Group/Affiliation Remark
New Territories East Leung Kwok-hung League of Social Democrats[59][60] Resigned LegCo member
Crystal Chow (周澄) Tertiary 2012[59][60] CUHK student
James Chan (陳國強) Independent[59][60] Not to be confused with a former LegCo member with the same Chinese name (陳國強)
Wu Sai-chuen (胡世全)[61] Independent Ex-DAB member
New Territories West Albert Chan League of Social Democrats Resigned LegCo member
Steven Kwok (郭永健) Tertiary 2012[59][60] HKU student
Chow Ping-tim (鄒秉恬) Independent Councillor, Tsuen Wan District[62]
Candidate in the same constituency in 1998, 2004 & 2008
Raymond Li (李世鴻) Independent Ex-LSD membeer[61]
Li Kwai-fong (李桂芳) Independent Ex-DP member
Councillor, Tuen Mun District
Kowloon East Alan Leong Civic Party Resigned LegCo councillor
Luke Lai (黎敬輝) Tertiary 2012[59][60] CUHK student
Du Sen (杜森) Independent Candidate in Hong Kong Chief Executive election, 1996
Kowloon West Wong Yuk-man[61] League of Social Democrats Resigned LegCo member
Napoleon Wong (黃永志) Tertiary 2012[59][60] CUHK student
Ringo Chiang (蔣世昌) Independent Ex-LP member
Ex-councillor, Kowloon City District[62]
Candidate in the same constituency in 1998
Pamela Peck Independent
Wilson Shea (佘繼泉) Independent Kowloon West New Dynamic;[61]
Vice-chairman, Hong Kong Small and Medium Enterprises Association[63]
Kwok Shiu-ming (郭兆明)[61] Independent
Kenneth Cheung (張錦雄) Independent Ex-LSD member[61]
Lam Yi-lai (林依麗) Independent Candidate in the same constituency in 2008
Hong Kong Island Tanya Chan (陳淑莊) Civic Party Resigned LegCo member
David Lee (李振雄) Independent[59]
Leung Wing-ho (梁永浩) Tertiary 2012[59][60] HKPolyU student
Roger "Bus Uncle" Chan (陳乙東) Independent[64]
Wong Hing (黃興)[61] Independent
Spencer Tai (戴卓賢) Independent[61] Kuomintang sympathiser[63]
Ex-councillor, Central and Western District

Pre-election events[edit]

On 2 May, about 3,000 people participated in a March for universal suffrage starting from Victoria Park; Tanya Chan publicly said that she would not marry until HK gets universal suffrage.[65] At a radio forum Commercial Radio held on 13 May about Sunday's by-election, candidate Lam Yi-lai accused Paul Tse of indecently assaulting her; she filed a complaint to the police.[66]

Two days before polling day, 700 people attended a rally in Centenary Garden, Tsim Sha Tsui organised by the LSD and the Civic Party to urge people to vote. They said a higher turnout would place greater pressure on the government and Beijing to allow Hong Kong full democracy.[54]

Results[edit]

HONG KONG ISLAND (1 seat)
Candidate Number Candidate Votes Received   Result
1 Spencer Tai 3,144 2.8  
2 Leung Wing-ho 2,715 2.4  
3 Tanya Chan 103,564 92.7 Elected
4 Wong Hing 799 0.7  
5 David Lee 1,542 1.4  
  111,764 100.0  
Kowloon West (九龍西) (1 seat)
Candidate Number Candidate Votes Received  % Result
1 Lam Yi-lai 1,069 1.2  
2 Kenneth Cheung 1,869 2.1  
3 Napoleon Wong 3,429 3.8  
4 Pamela Peck 16,640 18.7  
5 Kwok Shiu-ming 91 0.1  
6 Wilson Shea 2,517 2.8  
7 Ringo Chiang 3,109 3.5  
8 Wong Yuk-man 60,395 67.8 Elected
  89,119 100.0  
Kowloon East (九龍東) (1 seat)
Candidate Number Candidate Votes Received   Result
1 Luke Lai 6,630 7.5  
2 Alan Leong 82,066 92.5 Elected
    88,696 100.0  
New Territories West (新界西) (1 seat)
Candidate Number Candidate Votes Received   Result
1 Chow Ping-tim 3,276 2.4  
2 Steven Kwok 6,192 4.6  
3 Raymond Li 2,475 1.8  
4 Albert Chan 109,609 81.7 Elected
5 Li Kwai-fong 12,555 9.4  
  134,107 100.0  
New Territories East (新界東) (1 seat)
Candidate Number Candidate Votes Received   Result
1 Leung Kwok-hung 108,927 73.2 Elected
2 Crystal Chow 17,260 11.6  
3 James Chan 7,310 4.9  
4 Wu Sai-chuen 2,783 1.9  
5 Li Kwai-fong 12,555 8.4  
  148,835 100.0  
source: Hong Kong Government

The 17% of HK's registered voter's votes, is considered to be a low turn up rate when compared to the previous record of 45.2% of registered voter's votes during the 2008 legco election.[67] The total number of votes is 572,521. Albert Chan, who made the "Liberate Hong Kong" (解放香港) comment, walked off with the most vote.

A professor of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology stated that the fact that 24% of the voters are under 30 years old when official static data the 20 to 29 age group is 14% of the whole population, showed that the young generation is keen to participate in Hong Kong politic. The under 30 age group had been active as volunteers in all the polling stations, as they are highly skilful in using cutting age internet tools such as mobile phone messages, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, and Hong Kong public radio to encourage others to vote.[68][69]

Plugging the loophole[edit]

In mid-May 2011, the government, which considered the resignations leading to de facto referendum 'abusive' and a waste of resources,[70] revealed its plan to do away with by-elections entirely. Unveiling the proposal, Secretary for Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Stephen Lam cited the practice elsewhere: "In some countries where the proportional representation (PR) system is adopted, by-elections are not used to fill vacant seats arising mid-term." According to the plan, a Legislative Council seat in any geographical constituency or one of the five newly created district council 'superconstituencies' vacated by the resignation or death of a legislator would be filled by a 'leapfrog' mechanism by the next best placed candidate at the previous election.[71] The plan attracted criticism from Pan-Democrats; even pro-government figures in the legislature expressed reservations about the workability of the plan.[72] A researcher in Britain's Electoral Reform Society said it was indeed common for vacancies to be filled by a candidate who was next-in-line, but one who was on the specific list of the outgoing. He said that the proposal meant that a seat held by a small party (without a list) would automatically go to another party if its representative resigned or died, thereby entirely losing representation.[73] The Bar Association issued four strongly worded public warnings within two weeks of the first announcement of the plan, expressing concern over the constitutionality of the proposals, particularly the reasonableness on restrictions on the right to participation.[74] Academics echoed the sentiments, and also brought to light the possibility, albeit slim, that the new mechanism may abet assassinations.[75]

The government tabled a bill to amend current legislation for by-elections for 13 July.[76] However, by late June, the bill's future looked in doubt when the Central Government Liaison Office suggested a re-think. On 28 June, the government revised its proposal stipulating replacement by an unsuccessful candidate on the same election ticket.[76] Whilst pro-government legislators declared support for the revised plan in principle, Regina Ip stated that consultation would still be desirable.[77] The government bowed to pressure and announced one week later that it would suspend reading of the bill for two months, pending consultations on the revised proposals.[78]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Associated Press (11 March 2010), "Hong Kong, China debate legality of referendum", Asian Correspondent. Retrieved on 5 April 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Fung, Fanny (19 January 2010), "Referendum bid is against Basic Law, minister says", South China Morning Post, Retrieved on 20 January 2010.
  3. ^ Leong, Alan (8 February 2010)"Quantifying Hong Kong's Democratic Desires" Wall Street Journal Retrieved on 21 January 2011.
  4. ^ "立法會補選五名辭職議員全部當選重返議會". Yahoo! Hong Kong. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  5. ^ "Hong Kong 'democracy' by-election held". BBC News. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010. 
  6. ^ Cheng, Jonathan (16 May 2010). "Hong Kong Vote Was Test of Democracy". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 August 2010. 
  7. ^ "Corporate Voting is Highly Corrupt". Hong Kong Human Rights Monitor. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  8. ^ Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on issues relating to the methods for selecting the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and for forming the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in 2012 and on issues relating to universal suffrage (adopted by the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People's Congress at its 31st session on 29 December 2007), Hong Kong Legal Information Institute
  9. ^ Public Consultation on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the Legislative Council in 2012, Government of Hong Kong, 18 November 2009
  10. ^ Lau, Nickkita (19 November 2009) Unimpressed democrats vent their frustration, The Standard
  11. ^ Leung, Ambrose (1 August 2009), "League unveils by-election ploy to create 'referendum on universal suffrage'", South China Morning Post
  12. ^ Chiang, Scarlett (25 November 2009), Lai led 'gang of four'
  13. ^ a b Chiang, Scarlett & Siu, Beatrice (23 November 2009), Don't call it quits, The Standard
  14. ^ a b Chiang, Scarlett & Siu, Beatrice (26 November 2009), "Resignations pressure - shifts to Civic Party", The Standard, Retrieved on 26 November 2009.
  15. ^ Chiang, Scarlett (14 December 2009), Democrats say `no' to resign plan, The Standard
  16. ^ Lee, Diana (10 September 2009), Stealing a march on road to reform, The Standard
  17. ^ 'Mary Ma' (25 November 2009) "Cool heads in resignation bet", The Standard
  18. ^ Lee, Diana (2 October 2009), Tong quit threat over resign move, The Standard
  19. ^ a b Fung, Fanny; Cheung, Gary & Leung, Ambrose. "State leader mounts new assault on 'referendum'." South China Morning Post, Retrieved on 20 January 2010.
  20. ^ a b c d e Scarlett Chiang (22 January 2010). "Eu denies polls independence ploy". The Standard. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  21. ^ "公社黨公投違《基本法》精神" [The referendum triggered by the resignations of Civic Party & League of Social Democrats legislators violated Basic Law]. Sing Tao Daily (in Chinese). 17 January 2010. 
  22. ^ "余若薇否認「公投」搞港獨" [Audrey Eu denies that the referendum promotes Hong Kong independence]. Ming Pao (in Chinese). 21 January 2010. 
  23. ^ a b "Beijing's stance on referendum unhelpful.", South China Morning Post, Retrieved on 18 January 2010.
  24. ^ Scarlett Chiang (29 January 2010). "`Red Guards' fear as loyalists mass". The Standard. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  25. ^ "湯家驊質疑梁美芬提案違《基本法》". Sing Tao. Retrieved 21 August 2010. 
  26. ^ a b c Lee, Diana (11 February 2010), "Death threats place DAB on `chop' alert",The Standard, Retrieved on 10 February 2010.
  27. ^ a b Lee, Diana (23 April 2010). Lam fumes as funding passes, The Standard.
  28. ^ a b "五區公投號召全民起義", Sina News, 22 January 2010, Retrieved on 24 January 2010.
  29. ^ Wong, Albert & Leung, Ambrose (28 January 2010), "Quitters denied a parting shot by walkout", South China Morning Post, Retrieved on 27 January 2010.
  30. ^ a b ""Liberals to shun by-elections in anger at 'uprising' adverts.", South China Morning Post, Retrieved on 24 January 2010.
  31. ^ Yahoo.com. ""范太指「起義」令人聯想流血衝突" Retrieved on 20 January 2010.
  32. ^ "Elsie Leung floats by-election curbs", South China Morning Post, Retrieved on 23 January 2010.
  33. ^ Diana Lee (1 February 2010). "Tsang warns of deepening conflicts". The Standard. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  34. ^ "ŠúłřˇsťDşôˇsťDŻSżč" (in Chinese). Specials.mingpao.com. Retrieved 21 August 2010. 
  35. ^ "兩黨今宣布辭職名單 「全民起義」作口號", Yahoo.com, Retrieved on 24 January 2010.
  36. ^ Leung, Ambrose (29 January 2010). "Tycoon likens 'uprising' call to red guards", South China Morning Post
  37. ^ "黑客侵網誌宣「公投」 裘錦秋中學擬報警", Wenweipo, Retrieved on 3 April 2010.
  38. ^ a b c "晚會繼續高呼「起義」", Hkdailynews.com. Retrieved on 24 January 2010.
  39. ^ "五區公投聯合委員會(九龍東) 2.22傑哥首次街頭生日派對". Civic Party. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010. 
  40. ^ 'Mary Ma' (23 March 2010), Desperate for the limelight, The Standard
  41. ^ Chiang, Scarlett (7 April 2010), March reignites `referendum' row, The Standard
  42. ^ Lee, Diana(29 March 2010) ""Student leader arrested on march for democracy", The Standard, Retrieved on 29 March 2010.
  43. ^ Moy, Patsy & Chiang, Scarlett (26 March 2010), Curiouser and curiouser, The Standard
  44. ^ Wong, Albert (2 April 2010), "Five from youth group join Legco by-elections", South China Morning Post
  45. ^ "Hong Kong leader says he might not vote in 'democracy referendum'". The Earth Times. 8 February 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  46. ^ "余若薇:從未試過咁大壓力 「中央打壓證明公投有效」". Next Media. 2010-02-18. Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  47. ^ Diana Lee (9 February 2010). "Loyalists stage show of strength on polls". The Standard. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  48. ^ "香港可能是首个呼吁人民抵制选举的政府". RFI. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  49. ^ Central Station (27 April 2010). Omission speaks louder than words The Standard,
  50. ^ Fung, Fanny & Leung, Ambrose (28 April 2010),"'Referendum' push has failed, top adviser says", South China Morning Post
  51. ^ "China warns again against Hong Kong democracy push." wtop.com, Retrieved on 8 March 2010.
  52. ^ a b ""Is HK democracy to be feared?", Taipei Times, Retrieved on 8 March 2010.
  53. ^ Lee, Min (2 March 2010). "Pro-Beijing party to boycott Hong Kong elections". DailyFinance. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  54. ^ a b Staff Reporters (15 May 2010). "Tsang and team confirm they won't vote", South China Morning Post
  55. ^ 曾蔭權跟所有政治委任官員決定,不會在明日立法會補選中投票
  56. ^ "龜縮特首宣佈不投票!帶頭下跪「一國兩制」成國際笑話!". followlsd.com. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2010. 
  57. ^ "曾蔭權:這次補選不投票". Hong Kong government. Retrieved 16 May 2010. [dead link]
  58. ^ Fung, Fanny; Yau, Elaine & Ng, Joyce (17 May 2010). "A break with tradition as the voters are forced to go out of their way", South China Morning Post
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h ""再8人參選", Ming Pao, Retrieved on 3 April 2010.
  60. ^ a b c d e f g Wong, Albert (2 April 2010), Five from youth group join Legco by-elections, South China Morning Post
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h Chiang, Scarlett (8 April 2010), Five join hunt to keep `Mad Dog' out of Legco, The Standard
  62. ^ a b "Long Hair' registers for NT East by-election", South China Morning Post, Retrieved on 3 April 2010.
  63. ^ a b Fung, Fanny & Wong, Albert (7 April 2010), "More runners emerge as elections deadline looms", South China Morning Post
  64. ^ "「肥媽」不參加五區補選" ['Fat Mama' declined to participle by-election]. Wen Wei Po (in Chinese). 22 March 2010. 
  65. ^ Mingpao.com. ""陳淑莊無普選唔嫁" Retrieved on 11 May 2010.
  66. ^ Lee, Diana (14 May 2010). ""Get your &#!@ hands off me!".The Standard, Retrieved on 16 May 2010.
  67. ^ Sina.com. "Sina.com." 投票率17.1%破底. Retrieved on 16 May 2010.
  68. ^ "自發做義工 拉票最狂熱80後帶起新民主運動". hkreporter.com. 17 May 2010. 
  69. ^ "无惧打压 58万港人投票 公投五子重返立会". www.epochtimes.com. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  70. ^ Lee, Diana (5 January 2011). "Sparks fly over right to quit by election victors" The Standard.
  71. ^ Cheung, Gary (18 May 2011). "By-elections given a no-vote". South China Morning Post
  72. ^ Fung, Wai-yee Fanny (19 May 2011). "Plan to scrap by-elections criticised". South China Morning Post
  73. ^ Cheung, Gary (20 May 2011). "Legco vacancy scheme questioned". South China Morning Post
  74. ^ Chong, Tanna (29 June 2011). "Government still not in clear over by-elections axe". South China Morning Post
  75. ^ Cheung, Gary (7 June 2011). "Academic says proposal could abet assassinations". South China Morning Post
  76. ^ a b Fung, Wai-yee Fanny (1 July 2011). "Majority oppose polls-axe bid". South China Morning Post
  77. ^ TV news broadcasts.
  78. ^ Lee, Colleen; Wong, Natalie (5 July 2011). "U-turn". The Standard (Hong Kong)

External links[edit]