Hong Kong legislative election, 2008

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Hong Kong legislative election, 2008
Hong Kong
2004 ←
members
7 September 2008 → 2012
members

All 60 seats to the Legislative Council
  First party Second party Third party
  Tam Yau Chung.jpg Albert Ho Chun Yan.jpg James Tien.jpg
Leader Tam Yiu-chung Albert Ho James Tien
Party DAB Democratic Liberal
Alliance Pro-Beijing Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing
Leader's seat New Territories West New Territories West New Territories East
(lost seat)
Last election 10 seats, 22.73% 9 seats, 25.19% 10 seats, 6.72%
Seats before 9 9 10
Seats won 10[n 1]
(7 GCs + 3 FCs)
8
(7 GCs + 1 FC)
7
(0 GC + 7 FCs)
Seat change Increase1 Decrease1 Decrease3
Popular vote 347,373 312,692 65,622
Percentage 22.92% 20.63% 4.33%
Swing Increase0.19% Decrease4.56% Decrease2.39%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Audrey Eu Yuet Mee 2010.jpg FTU Raymond Wong Yuk Man.jpg
Leader Audrey Eu Cheng Yiu-tong Wong Yuk-man
Party Civic FTU LSD
Alliance Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing Pro-democracy
Leader's seat Hong Kong Island N/A Kowloon West
Last election new 3 seats, 2.97% new
Seats before 6 3 2
Seats won 5
(4 GCs + 1 FC)
4[n 1]
(2 GCs + 2 FCs)
3
(3 GCs + 0 FC)
Seat change Decrease1 Increase1 Increase1
Popular vote 206,980 86,311 153,390
Percentage 13.66% 5.70% 10.1%
Swing Increase4.04% Increase2.73% N/A

LegCoElection2008.svg

Elected candidates by each Geographical Constituency

President before election

Rita Fan
Independent

Elected President

Tsang Yok-sing
DAB

The 2008 Hong Kong Legislative Council Election (Chinese: 香港特別行政區第四屆立法會選舉) was held on 7 September 2008[1] for the 4th Legislative Council since the establishment of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. There are 60 seats in the 4th Council, with 30 Members elected by geographical constituencies through direct elections, and 30 Members by functional constituencies.[2] Candidates for 14 functional constituency seats were unopposed.

Pre-election issues[edit]

The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress vote in December 2007 to allow universal suffrage by 2017, and full Legislative Council elections by 2020, tempered the debate on universal suffrage. Wary of political parties, the government sought to defer discussion on other highly sensitive issues until October 2008, in the hopes that the election will be void of focus. The election was therefore fought over issues regarding the minimum wage, health care reform, Old Age Allowance, and the future of RTHK. Also, the case surrounding former Housing Director Leung Chin-man served to highlight the issue of systematic checks and balances, and the lack of political scrutiny of government actions.[3]

Commentators, such as Albert Cheng, noted that the fighting between pro-democracy parties was heating up, but forecast few changes in the overall party standings of the new Council. He cited proportional representation as a mechanism, which built in protection for a multi-party system.[4]

There were some concerns that those seeking the right of abode in Hong Kong felt pressured by lobbyists supporting the DAB. Two advocacy groups echoed abode-seekers' in being bombarded with telephone calls and other pressures to vote for the DAB, or for Regina Ip.[4]

Deputy ministers appointment controversy[edit]

Further information: Political Appointments System

Inflation relief measures[edit]

Leung Chin-man appointment controversy[edit]

Candidates[edit]

A total of 142 candidates on 53 lists entered the election via the geographical constituencies,[5] making it the most contested election since the handover of Hong Kong.[6] The candidates of both the pan-democracy and pro-Beijing coalitions stated that they would not allocate the votes within each camp, leading to infighting inside the caucuses.[7] Martin Lee and Anson Chan announced that they would not stand, and would endorse other candidates. In addition, some incumbent legislators such as Audrey Eu of the Civic Party and Yeung Sum of the Democratic Party were placed second on their lists in an attempt to get less experienced members of their parties elected.[8]

Beijing's involvement in the elections was an open secret: its strategy was to elect a new batch of "independent" aspirants with profession backgrounds and without a strong pro-Beijing image, such as Scarlet Pong, and eventual winners Regina Ip and Priscilla Leung. It had hoped they would appeal to the middle class voters and steal votes from the pan-democratic parties.[9]

The functional constituencies were less competitive: 14 out of the 30 seats were uncontested. The Accounting and Architectural, Surveying and Planning functional constituencies were the most contested, with 5 candidates competing in each constituency.[10][11] 45 candidates in total ran for the 16 contested seats.[12]

Retiring incumbents[edit]

Ten incumbents chose not to run for re-election.

Constituency Departing incumbents Party
Hong Kong Island Martin Lee Chu-ming Democratic
Rita Fan Hsu Lai-tai Independent
Anson Chan Fang On-sang Independent
Kowloon East Albert Cheng Jing-han Independent
New Territories East Li Kwok-ying DAB
Insurance Bernard Charnwut Chan Alliance
Labour Kwong Chi-kin FTU
Tourism Howard Young How-wah Liberal
Industrial (Second) Lui Ming-wah Alliance
Information Technology Sin Chung-kai Democratic

Incumbents defeated[edit]

Ten incumbents lost re-election

Party Name Constituency Remarks
Civic Fernando Cheung Chiu-hung New Territories West running for Social Welfare constituency in the last election
Mandy Tam Heung-man Accountancy
CTU Lau Chin-shek Kowloon West
Democratic Yeung Sum Hong Kong Island placed second of the list
FTU Chan Yuen-han Kowloon East placed second of the list
Liberal Selina Chow Liang Suk-yee New Territories West
James Tien Pei-chun New Territories East
Independent Kwok Ka-ki Medical
Lam Wai-keung District Council running for Heung Yee Kuk in the last election

General outcome[edit]

Results of the election: the party with the plurality of votes by each polling station.

A record number of 3.37 million people registered to vote in the election. The turnout rate was low, at 45% with 1.51 million voters casting ballots.[13]

Commentator Chris Yeung believed that the Liaison Office operated behind the scenes to co-ordinate votes for the pro-Beijing camp. These independents managed to secure seats, but apparently not at the expense of support for the pan-democrats.[9]

The Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong remained the largest single party in Council, with 13 seats.[14] The share of the pan-democratic parties' vote among voters dropped from 60% in 2004 to 57%, which translated into a net loss of 2 seats. The pan-democrats were elected to a total of 23 seats, 19 seats in the directly elected geographical constituencies, and four seats from the functional constituencies. By virtue of having in excess of 13 of the seats in LegCo, their ability to veto constitutional changes remained intact. The pan-democrats' veto power were crucial for the electoral arrangements for the 2012 elections, which will take place during this Council.[9]

In the backdrop of a deteriorating economy and rising inflation, voters shifted their preferences towards more radical and grass-roots politicians; the electorate's suspicions of collusion between government and big business dealt a blow to the Liberal Party.[15] The Liberal Party suffered double defeat when Selina Chow and chairman James Tien lost their seats in the New Territories West and New Territories East geographical constituencies respectively. Their bid to secure seats in other constituencies also failed. Tien resigned as the Liberal Party's chairman after his defeat, and Chow resigned both her vice-chairmanship and her seat on the Executive Council of Hong Kong.[16] The election of three members of the League of Social Democrats and four trade-unionists to Legco is set to pose a challenge to the government on welfare and livelihood issues.[17]

Share of votes of the parties by polling stations:

Democratic Party Civic Party League of Social Democrats
Democratic Party Civic Party League of Social Democrats
DAB FTU
DAB FTU

Before election:

26 34
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing

Change in composition:

23 37
Pro-democracy Pro-Beijing


e • d Summary of the 7 September 2008 Legislative Council of Hong Kong election results
Parties and allegiances Geographical constituencies Functional
constituencies
Seats gained
Total seats gained +/−
Popular vote % +/− Seats gained
Democratic Party 312,692 20.63 −4.56 7 1 8 −1
Civic Party 207,000 13.66 N/A 4 1 5 −1
League of Social Democrats 153,390 10.1 N/A 3 0 3 +1
Neighbourhood and Worker's Service Centre 42,441 2.8 −0.53 1 0 1 ±0
Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions 42,366 2.8 −1.15 1 0 1 ±0
Hong Kong Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood 42,211 2.79 −1.43 1 0 1 ±0
The Frontier 33,205 2.19 −4.7 1 0 1 ±0
Civic Act-up 30,887 2.04 −0.05 1 0 1 +1
Pro-democracy individuals and others 37,515 2.48 0 2 2
Total for pan-democrats 901,707 59.50 −2.43 19
(63.33%)
4
(13.33%)
23
(38.33%)
−2
Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong 347,373 22.92 +0.19 7 3 10 +1
Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions 86,311 5.70 +2.73 2 2 4 +1
Liberal Party 65,622 4.33 −2.39 0 7 7[18][19] −3
Pro-Beijing individuals and others 103,162 6.81 2 14 16
Total for pro-Beijing camp 602,468 39.75 +2.46 11
(36.67%)
26
(86.67%)
37
(61.67%)
+2
Councillors without formal affiliation with any political party 11,304 0.75 0 0 0 ±0
Total (turnout 45.20%) 1,515,479 100.0 ±0 30 30 60 ±0
Source: Hong Kong government

Note: Candidates in 14 functional constituencies were elected uncontested to the Legislative Council. The number of seats for the Federation of Trade Unions in the geographical constituencies exclude Wong Kwok-hing, Wong Kwok-kin and Pan Pey Chyou, who are also DAB members; figures in parentheses in the pro-democracy and pro-Beijing total percentage exclude all votes of other individuals.


Votes summary[edit]

Ring charts of the election results showing popular vote against seats won, coloured in green (Pro-democracy camp) and red (Pro-Beijing camp) on the left and the party colours on the right. Seats won in the election (outer ring) against number of votes (inner ring).
Popular vote
DAB
  
22.92%
Democratic Party
  
20.63%
Civic Party
  
13.66%
LSD
  
10.1%
HKFTU
  
5.70%
Liberal Party
  
4.33%
NWSC
  
2.8%
HKCTU
  
2.8%
HKADPL
  
2.79%
The Frontier
  
2.19%
Civic Act-up
  
2.19%
Others
  
10.03%

Candidates lists and results[edit]

Geographical Constituencies (30 seats)[edit]

Voting system: Party-list proportional representation with largest remainder method and Hare quota.

Results of the Geographical Constituencies
Hong Kong Island (香港島)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Liberal Lam Chui-lin
Wong Kam-chuen
Ngan Choi-chik
2,166 0.7
2 Civic Act-up Cyd Ho Sau-lan 30,887 9.9 1
3 Democratic Kam Nai-wai
Yeung Sum
Tsui Yuen-wa
39,808 12.7 1
4 LSD Tsang Kin-shing 10,202 3.3
5 DAB Jasper Tsang Yok-sing
Choy So-yuk
Christopher Chung Shu-kun
Cheung Kwok-kwan
Chan Hok-fung
Kwok Wai-keun
60,417 19.3 1
6 Independent Myra Sophia Siu Man-wa 1,798 0.6
7 Independent Lo Wing-lok 20,523 6.5
8 Civic Tanya Chan Suk-chong
Audrey Eu Yuet-mee
Amy Yung Wing-sheung
82,600 26.4 2
9 Independent Regina Ip Lau Suk-yee
Louis Shih Tai-cho
Wong Kin-hing
Ronald Chan Ngok-pang
61,073 19.5 1
10 Independent Joseph Lai Chi-keong 3,955 1.3
TOTAL (Quota: 52,238 votes, 16.67%) 313,429 100.0 6
Kowloon West (九龍西)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Independent Francis Chong Wing-charn 1,076 0.5
2 DAB Starry Lee Wai-king
Chung Kong-mo
Chan Wai-ming
Vincent Cheng Wing-shun
39,013 18.9 1
3 SDA James Lung Wai-man
Bantawa Sukra
591 0.3
4 Democratic James To Kun-sun
Lam Ho-yeung
29,690 14.4 1
5 Civic Claudia Mo Man-ching
Ng Yuet-lan
Tang Chi-ying
17,259 8.4
6 Independent Lam Yi-lai 590 0.3
7 Independent Priscilla Leung Mei-fun
Edward Leung Wai-kuen
Aaron Lam Ka-fai
19,914 9.6 1
8 LSD Raymond Wong Yuk-man
Lee Wai-yee
37,553 18.2 1
9 Liberal Michael Tien Puk-sun
Ho Hin-ming
13,011 6.3
10 ADPL Frederick Fung Kin-kee
Rosanda Mok Ka-han
Tsung Po-shan
Wong Chi Yung
Yeung Chun-yu
35,440 17.2 1
11 Independent Lau Chin-shek 10,553 5.1
12 Independent Lau Yuk-shing
Nandeed Cheung Kit-fung
David Tsui
290 0.1
13 Independent Tam Hoi-pong 1,603 0.8
TOTAL(Quota: 41,317 votes, 20.00%) 206,583 100.0 5
Kowloon East (九龍東)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Democratic Wu Chi-wai 16,365 6.9
2 LSD Andrew To Kwan-hang 28,690 12.1
3 DAB Chan Kam-lam
Joe Lai Wing-ho
Maggie Chan Man-ki
Hung Kam-in
53,472 22.6 1
4 Civic Alan Leong Kah-kit
Yu Kwun-wai
Wong Hok-ming
39,274 16.6 1
5 Democratic Fred Li Wah-ming
Kai Ming-wah
Wong Kai-ming
Wong Wai-tag
48,124 20.4 1
6 FTU Wong Kwok-kin
Chan Yuen-han
Peter Wong Kit-hin
Kan Ming-tung
50,320 21.3 1
TOTAL (Quota: 59,061 votes, 25.00%) 236,245 100.0 4
New Territories West (新界西)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Civic Fernando Cheung Chiu-hung
Sumly Chan Yuen-sum
Wong Ka-wa
27,910 7.0
2 CTU Lee Cheuk-yan
Tam Chun-yin
42,366 10.6 1
3 DAB Tam Yiu-chung
Cheung Hok-ming
Leung Che-cheung
Chan Han-pan
Lung Shui-hing
Leung Kar-ming
Andy Lo Kwong-shing
Lui Kin
92,037 23.1 2
4 Democratic Albert Ho Chun-yan
Hui Chi-fung
Lo Man-hon
36,764 9.2 1
5 ADPL Tandon Lal Chaing
Yeung Chi-hang
6,771 1.7
6 Independent Yuen Wai-chung 1,338 0.3
7 LSD Albert Chan Wai-yip 32,182 8.1 1
8 Independent Chow Ping-tim 1,720 0.4
9 FTU/DAB Wong Kwok-hing
Alice Mak Mei-kuen
Marina Tsang Tze-kwan
Tsui Fan
Dennis Leung Tsz-wing
Tang Ka-piu
Yiu Kwok-wai
Manwell Chan
35,991 9.0 1
10 Democratic Cheung Yin-tung
Kwong Chun-yu
10,069 2.5
11 Independent Leung Suet-fong
Thapa Komal
1,366 0.3
12 Liberal Selina Chow Liang Shuk-yee
Chow Wing-kan
21,570 5.4
13 NWSC Leung Yiu-chung
Wong Yun-tat
42,441 10.7 1
14 Democratic Lee Wing-tat
Wong Suet-ying
Lam Siu-fai
Cheung Wai-mei
Lam Lap-chi
45,767 11.5 1
TOTAL (Quota: 49,787 votes, 12.50%) 398,292 100.0 8
New Territories East (新界東)
List № Party/Allegiance Candidate(s) Votes Votes % Seat(s) won
1 Liberal James Tien Pei-chun
Terry Kan Wing-fai
Christine Fong Kwok-shan
28,875 8.0
2 Party for Civil Rights and Livelihood Siu See-kong
David Yung Chiu-wing
1,129 0.3
3 Frontier Emily Lau Wai-hing
Ricky Or Yiu-lam
33,205 9.2 1
4 Democratic Nelson Wong Sing-chi
Mok Siu-lun
44,174 12.2 1
5 LSD Leung Kwok-hung 44,763 12.4 1
6 Independent Alvin Lee Chi-wing 4,007 1.1
7 Democratic Andrew Cheng Kar-Foo
Yam Kai-bong
Shirley Ho Suk-ping
Leung Li
Kwan Wing-yip
Michael Yung Ming-chau
Frankie Lam Siu-chung
41,931 11.6 1
8 Civic Ronny Tong Ka-wah
Tsang Kwok-fung
Tsang Kin-chiu
39,957 11.1 1
9 Independent Scarlett Pong Oi-lan 20,455 5.7
10 DAB Lau Kong-wah
Gary Chan Hak-kan
Mok Kam-kwai
Wong Pik-kiu
Chan Kwok-kai
Lau Kwok-fan
Calvin Lin Chor-keung
102,434 28.4 2
TOTAL (Quota: 51,561 votes, 14.29%) 360,930 100.0 7

Functional Constituencies (30 seats)[edit]

Voting systems: Different voting systems apply to different functional constituencies, namely for the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance and Transport, the preferential elimination system of voting; and for the remaining 24 FCs used the first-past-the-post voting system.[20]

Results of the Functional Constituencies
Constituency Incumbent Result Candidate(s)
Heung Yee Kuk Lam Wai-keung Incumbent ran for District Council FC
Liberal gain
Lau Wong-fat (Liberal)
uncontested
Agriculture and Fisheries Wong Yung-kan
(DAB)
Incumbent hold Wong Yung-kan (DAB)
uncontested
Insurance Bernard Charnwut Chan
(Alliance)
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Chan Kin-por 45.61%
Choi Chung-fu 36.84%
Chun Chi-yuk 17.55%
Transport Miriam Lau Kin-yee
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Miriam Lau Kin-yee (Liberal) 94.23%
Tam Chi-wah 5.77%
Education Cheung Man-kwong
(PTU/Democratic)
Incumbent re-elected Cheung Man-kwong (PTU/Democratic)) 71.26%
Ho Hon-kuen 23.20%
Yu Yee-wah 5.19%
Legal Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee
(Civic)
Incumbent re-elected "Margaret Ng Ngoi-yee (Civic) 53.30%
Junius Ho Kwan-yiu (Independent) 46.70%
Accountancy Tam Heung-man
(Civic)
Incumbent lost re-election
Independent gain
Paul Chan Mo-po (Independent) 41.67%
Tam Heung-man (Civic) 30.31%
Elve Kung Yiu-fai (Independent) 22.95%
Wong Wang-tai 4.24%
Yim Ting-wai 0.82%
Medical Kwok Ka-ki Incumbent lost re-election
Nonpartisan gain
Leung Ka-lau 32.58%
Ho Pak-leung 31.42%
Kwok Ka-ki 27.47%
Health Services Joseph Lee Kok-long Incumbent re-elected Joseph Lee Kok-long 66.99%
Wan Tak-choi (Independent) 33.01%
Engineering Raymond Ho Chung-tai
(Alliance)
Incumbent re-elected Raymond Ho Chung-tai 50.03%
Albert Lai Kwong-tak (Civic) 46.47%
Raymond Man 3.50%
Architectural, Surveying and Planning Patrick Lau Sau-shing
(Alliance)
Incumbent re-elected Patrick Lau Sau-shing 37.27%
Yu Kam-hung 32.37%
Stanley Ng Wing-fai (Democratic) 18.57%
Chan Yiu-fai 9.99%
Chan Chan-fai (Independent) 1.80%
Labour (3 seats) Li Fung-ying (FLU) Incumbent re-elected Li Fung-ying
uncontested
Kwong Chi-kin (FTU) Incumbent retired
FTU hold
Ip Wai-ming (FTU)
uncontested
Wong Kwok-hing (FTU/DAB) Incumbent ran for NTW GC
FTU hold
Pan Pey-chyou (FTU)
uncontested
Social Welfare Fernando Cheung Chiu-hung
(Civic)
Incumbent ran for NTW GC
SWGU gain
Cheung Kwok-che (SWGU/Labour) 66.04%
Tik Chi-yuen (Democratic) 33.96%
Real Estate and Construction "Abraham Razack" Shek Lai-him
(Alliance)
Incumbent hold "Abraham Razack" Shek Lai-him (Independent)
uncontested
Tourism Howard Young
(Liberal)
Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Paul Tse Wai-chun (Independent) 36.69%
Tung Yiu-chung 35.67%
Freddy Yip Hing-ning (Independent) 18.46%
Paulus Johannes Zimmerman (Civic)9.17%
Commercial (First) Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Jeffrey Lam Kin-fung (Liberal) 70.24%
Markus Joytak Shaw (Independent) 29.76%
Commercial (Second) Philip Wong Yu-hong Incumbent hold Philip Wong Yu-hong
uncontested
Industrial (First) Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen
(Liberal)
Incumbent hold Andrew Leung Kwan-yuen (Liberal)
uncontested
Industrial (Second) Lui Ming-wah
(Alliance)
Incumbent retired
Nonpartisan gain
Lam Tai-fai
uncontested
Finance David Li Kwok-po Incumbent hold David Li Kwok-po
uncontested
Financial Services Chim Pui-chung Incumbent hold Chim Pui-chung
uncontested
Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication Timothy Fok Tsun-ting Incumbent hold Timothy Fok Tsun-ting
uncontested
Import and Export Wong Ting-kwong
(DAB)
Incumbent hold Wong Ting-kwong (DAB)
uncontested
Textiles and Garment Sophie Leung Lau Yau-fun
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Sophie Leung Lau Yau-fun (Liberal) 63.84%
Chung Kwok-pan 36.16%
Wholesale and Retail Vincent Fang Kang
(Liberal)
Incumbent re-elected Vincent Fang Kang (Liberal) 64.73%
Chiu Chun-kwok 35.27%
Information Technology Sin Chung-kai
(Democratic)
Incumbent retired
Independent gain
Tam Wai-ho (Independent) 50.44%
Charles Peter Mok 49.56%
Catering Tommy Cheung Yu-yan
(Liberal)
Incumbent hold Tommy Cheung Yu-yan (Liberal)
uncontested
District Council Lau Wong-fat
(Liberal)
Incumbent ran for Heung Yee Kuk FC
DAB gain
Ip Kwok-him (DAB) 65.40%
Lam Wai-keung 34.60%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Note: The three candidates represented both DAB and FTU are counted as FTU candidates in this article.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Electoral Calendar-international elections world elections
  2. ^ Electoral Calendar- world elections,US elections,presidential election,world parties
  3. ^ Chris Yeung (20 August 2008). "Lack of policy leaves a battle of personalities". South China Morning Post: op–ed. 
  4. ^ a b Albert Cheng (30 August 2008). "Seats of power". South China Morning Post: op–ed. 
  5. ^ Press release: 3.37 million electors urged to vote today in Legislative Council Election, Electoral Affairs Commission, 7 September 2008
  6. ^ "Introducing the candidates". Hong Kong Election Committee. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  7. ^ 互爭票源勢危 陳偉業李卓人嘆腹背受敵. Ming Pao (in Chinese). 4 September 2008. 
  8. ^ "Hong Kong Island candidates" (in Chinese). Hong Kong Election Committee. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  9. ^ a b c Chris Yeung, "Beijing's hand in polls is more of a ham fist", South China Morning Post, Page A14 (17 September 2008)
  10. ^ "Accounting functional constituency" (in Chinese). Hong Kong Election Committee. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  11. ^ "Architecture, Surveying and City Planning functional constituency" (in Chinese). Hong Kong Election Committee. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  12. ^ Hong Kong people go to polls for 4th term Legislative Council, People's Daily, 7 September 2008
  13. ^ 香港第四届立法会选举结果揭晓(名单)_资讯_凤凰网
  14. ^ Although Wong Kwok Hing ran under the FTU banner in the elections, he is also a member of the DAB.
  15. ^ Christine Loh, "New voices", Insight, South China Morning Post, Page A13, 11 September 2008
  16. ^ Ambrose Leung, "Liberals' defeat raises doubt over trade-based seats stance", South China Morning Post, Page A3, 9 September 2008
  17. ^ Gary Cheng, "Radicals and unionists to make life tricky for government", South China Morning Post, Page A6, 9 September 2008
  18. ^ Ambrose Leung (12 September 2008). "Heung Yee Kuk chairman quits Liberal Party". South China Morning Post. 
  19. ^ Ambrose Leung (9 October 2008). "And then there were three: Legco Liberals quit over leadership fight". South China Morning Post. 
  20. ^ "2008 LegCo Election- Facts about the Election". Elections.gov.hk. 

External links[edit]