Hong Kong people
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Hong Kongers or Hong Kong people (Chinese: 香港人) are people who live in or come from Hong Kong. These terms (and the similar but less commonly used term Hong Kongese) have no legal definition; more precise terms such as Hong Kong permanent resident (香港永久性居民) and Hong Kong resident (香港居民) are used in legal contexts. Besides being used to refer to a Hong Kong resident, Hong Konger might also be used more loosely to refer to someone who may not have legal residence status in Hong Kong, but has spent an extensive period of time in the city or has a strong cultural connection with Hong Kong.
The term Hong Konger does not make reference to the ethnicity of a person, and is also independent of Chinese citizenship or residency status. Over 90% of Hong Kongers are of Chinese descent (and most have ancestral roots in the province of Guangdong), but there are also Hong Kongers of, e.g., Indian, Filipino, Indonesian, Pakistani or Vietnamese descent, and expatriates from many other countries live and work in the city.
Hong Kong experienced an exodus of people in the years leading up to the handover of sovereignty from the U.K. to China in 1997, as a result of which there are now many ethnic Chinese in other parts of the world who regard themselves as Hong Kongers. However, some who emigrated during that period have since returned. Migration from mainland China in recent years has brought more Chinese people to Hong Kong.
Due to the one country two systems policy, Hong Kong has a different political system than that of China, including a different passport, flag and official language.
- Hong Konger/Hongkonger is used more often, but Hong Kong people, a more direct translation of the term Hèung Góng Yàhn, is very frequently used by Chinese native speakers in Hong Kong when writing or speaking in English.
- People from Hong Kong in Western countries are sometimes referred to colloquially as Hongkies (singular: Hongkie), though this term is not always well received.
The above terms embody a civic identity as opposed to one based upon race or ethnicity.
- Hong Kong Chinese was often used when Hong Kong was a British colony and the British residing in Hong Kong made up a higher percentage of the population than they do now. (It was common to refer to an individual as Hong Kong Chinese in order to differentiate that person from a Hong Kong Briton.) The term is still used today to refer to Hong Kongers of Chinese ancestry rather than all Hong Kongers.
Legal definition of Hong Kong residents
The Hong Kong Basic Law gives a precise legal definition of a Hong Kong resident. Under Article 24 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong residents can be further classified as non-permanent or permanent residents. Non-permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Identity Card but have no right of abode in Hong Kong. Permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card and the right of abode in Hong Kong.
Article 24 of the Basic Law provides that:
|“||Residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ("Hong Kong residents") shall include permanent residents and non-permanent residents.
The permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be:
The above-mentioned residents shall have the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall be qualified to obtain, in accordance with the laws of the Region, permanent identity cards which state their right of abode.
The non-permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be persons who are qualified to obtain Hong Kong identity cards in accordance with the laws of the Region but have no right of abode.
Ethnic groups in Hong Kong
In 2011 92.6% of Hong Kongers were Chinese. Many migrants and refugees came to Hong Kong from the Canton (Guangzhou) area and other parts of Guangdong province in the 20th century; a substantial number arrived in the mid to late 1940s before the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, and many more in the decade that followed. Such immigrants from Guangdong and their descendants have long constituted the majority of Hong Kong Chinese. But there are a large number of Chinese Hong Kongers with ancestral roots in more distant parts of the country, such as Shanghai and Shandong, and there are also Cantonese people who originate from Hakka-speaking villages in the New Territories.
More immigrants from mainland China have come to Hong Kong in recent years. In 2011, 31.2% of Hong Kong's residents were born in mainland China, Taiwan, or Macau. There is now a daily quota of 150 for those wishing to reside in Hong Kong.
Cantonese people are the largest group in Hong Kong. As a result, Hong Kong culture is highly Cantonese-influenced. Cantonese is the most commonly used language in both everyday and formal conversation, as well as in the media and education. Members of other Han Chinese groups in Hong Kong (such as the Hakka People, the Hoklo (Hokkien), the Shanghainese, and the Teochew) who are Hong Kong born or raised often assimilate into the mainstream Cantonese identity of Hong Kong. For example, the children of immigrants whose mother tongue is not Cantonese will typically adopt Cantonese as their first language.
Hong Kong has a number of minority ethnic and national groups. The South Asian (Indian and Pakistani) and Nepali communities are long-established, and comprise both descendants of 19th and early 20th-century migrants as well as more recent short-term expatriates. Numerically, the largest groups are the Filipinos and the Indonesians. Other groups include Americans, Britons, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, Japanese, Koreans, Russians, Vietnamese and Thais.
Unlike many countries, Hong Kong does not require applicants for naturalisation to take a citizenship or language test to become citizens. However, Hong Kong migrants and residents are assumed to understand their obligation under Article 42 of the Hong Kong Basic Law to abide by the laws of Hong Kong.
- British Hong Kong
- Chinese Britons
- Code-switching in Hong Kong ("Hong Kong English")
- Culture of Hong Kong
- Demographics of Hong Kong
- Hong Kong drifter
- Hong Kong Kids phenomenon
- Hong Kong people in Shanghai
- Hong Kong people in the United Kingdom
- List of Hong Kong people
- Waves of mass migrations from Hong Kong
- Melvin Ember, Carol R. Ember, Ian Skoggard, ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of diasporas: immigrant and refugee cultures around the world. Diaspora communities 2. Springer. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-0-306-48321-9.
- (PDF) 2011 Population Census – Summary Results (Report). Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. p. 37. http://www.census2011.gov.hk/pdf/summary-results.pdf. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
- "Immigration Autonomy". Immigration Department Annual Report 2009-2010. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Ng Sek Hong (2010). Labour Law in Hong Kong. Kluwer Law International. p. 19. ISBN 978-90-411-3307-6.
- "Place of Birth of Overall Population - 2011". Census and Statistics Department. February 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Odine de Guzman (October 2003). "Overseas Filipino Workers, Labor Circulation in Southeast Asia, and the (Mis)management of Overseas Migration Programs". Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia (4). Retrieved 18 March 2007.
- Lai Tung-kwok (2013-05-22). "Application for naturalisation as a Chinese national". Legislative Council of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2013-12-07; quote: "However, it has to be pointed out that the knowledge of the Chinese language is only one of the factors to be considered. This does not imply that applicants who do not know Chinese will be refused, nor will those who know Chinese necessarily be eligible for naturalisation as Chinese nationals. ... At this stage, we have no plan to institute examinations similar to those used by some foreign countries in handling naturalisation applications."
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