Hong Kong people
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Hong Kong people (Chinese: 香港人) refer to the people who are from Hong Kong. The term (and its Chinese equivalent) has no legal definition in Hong Kong. Rather, terms such as Hong Kong permanent resident (香港永久性居民) and Hong Kong resident (香港居民) are used. Besides being used by Hong Kong residents, the term Hong Konger may be used by people who for one reason or another do not have legal residence status, but have spent an extensive period of time in Hong Kong or otherwise have a strong cultural connection with Hong Kong. Thus the term is largely open to personal interpretation. None of the terms make reference to the ethnicity of a person and are independent of Chinese citizenship or residency statuses. The term basically refers to a person who is from Hong Kong. Currently most Hong Kongers are of Chinese descent, with minorities including those of Indian, Filipino, Indonesian, Pakistani or Vietnamese descent. Due to the one country two systems policy, Hong Kong has a different political system than that of China, including a different passport, flag and official language.
The vast majority of Hong Kong Chinese have ancestral roots from Guangdong in Mainland China. After all, the territory had experienced a great exodus of people in the years leading up to the handover, and yet migration from Mainland China in recent years have brought about migrants who would prefer to refer themselves as Chinese. Many locals however simply refer themselves as Hong Kong people (Hèung Góng Yàhn).
The terms Hong Kongese/Hongkongese or Hong Konger/Hongkonger are translated into the Cantonese term of Hèung Góng Yàhn (Chinese: 香港人; Cantonese Yale: Hèung Góng Yàhn). As a result, the above terms are different only as far as English language usage is concerned. People from Hong Kong in Western countries are also referred to colloquially as Hong Kongers or Hongkies (singular: Hongkie), however these latter terms are not always well received. The terms embodies a civic identity as opposed to one based upon race or ethnicity.
- Hongkongese is coined by the North American press, likely using the same suffix as the word Chinese does.
- Hong Konger/Hongkonger was used more often, while Hong Kong People, a more direct translation of the term Hèung Góng Yàhn, is used to a greater extent by Chinese native speakers in Hong Kong when writing or speaking in English.
- Hong Kong Chinese was used more often in the 19th to early 20th century in Hong Kong, where the British population residing in Hong Kong made up a higher percentage than what it comprises now. One used to refer to an individual as Hong Kong Chinese in order to differentiate the person from a Hong Kong Briton.
Legal definition of Hong Kong residents 
The Hong Kong Basic Law legally gives precise definition of Hong Kong residents. Under Article 24 of the Basic Law, Hong Kong residents can be further classified as non-permanent or permanent residents. Non-permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Identity Card but have no right of abode. On the contrary, permanent residents are those who have the right to hold a Hong Kong Permanent Identity Card and the right of abode in Hong Kong.
Article 24 of the Basic Law provides:
|“||Residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region ("Hong Kong residents") shall include permanent residents and non-permanent residents.
The permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be:
The above-mentioned residents shall have the right of abode in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and shall be qualified to obtain, in accordance with the laws of the Region, permanent identity cards which state their right of abode.
The non-permanent residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall be persons who are qualified to obtain Hong Kong identity cards in accordance with the laws of the Region but have no right of abode.
Ethnic groups in Hong Kong 
The migrations from China to Hong Kong have been varied from time to time. Chinese make up the majority of Hong Kongers, most being from Guangdong from the 1930s to the 1980s, ranging from migrants to refugees. Aside from the Canton area, many Chinese from inner China have also moved to Hong Kong, such as Shanghai and Shangdong, especially around the forming of New China. Many of these immigrants will keep their mother tongue upon arrival to Hong Kong, but their children will adopt Cantonese as their first language. There are also the indigenous inhabitants of the New Territories.
The majority of the new addition to the population are people from the mainland China. Ever since Hong Kong was a British colony, many mainland Chinese have immigrated to Hong Kong, and there is now a daily quota of 150 for those wishing to reside in Hong Kong.
Cantonese people represent the largest group in Hong Kong. Beside the Cantonese, people of other Han Chinese groups also reside in Hong Kong. However, the Cantonese remains the largest group even amongst other Han Chinese groups in Hong Kong. As such, Hong Kong culture is highly Cantonese-influenced. Together with the fact that Cantonese is most commonly used as the language of both everyday and formal conversations, as well as its use in the media and education, other Han Chinese groups in Hong Kong, such as the Hakka, the Hoklo (Hokkien), the Shanghainese, or the Teochew, in particular those who are Hong Kong born or raised, often assimilate into the mainstream Cantonese identity of Hong Kong.
Ethnic minorities 
Hong Kong has a number of minority ethnic and national groups. The South Asian community (Indians, Pakistanis)and Nepalis is long-established, and comprises both descendants of 19th and early 20th-century migrants, as well as more recent short term expatriates. Numerically, the largest groups are Filipinos and Indonesians. Other groups include Americans, Britons, Canadians, Australians, New Zealanders, Japanese, Koreans, Russians, Vietnamese and Thais.
Unlike many countries, Hong Kong does not require migrants to take citizenship test towards becoming citizens. Jus soli allows Chinese descendants to acquire right of abode by birth, however, people with parents of other origins have different requirements. Others can acquired rights for residency under certain classifications desired.
However Hong Kong migrants and residents are assumed to understand their obligations as residence under the Hong Kong Basic Law Article 42 to abided to the laws of Hong Kong.
See also 
- List of Hong Kong people
- Chinese Britons
- Hong Kong people in Shanghai
- Hong Kong people in the United Kingdom
- British Hong Kong
- Culture of Hong Kong
- Demographics of Hong Kong
- Waves of mass migrations from Hong Kong
- Code-switching in Hong Kong ("Hong Kong English")
- "Hong Kong Handover". University of Michigan University Library Journal of the International Institution. 1997 fall. hdl:2027/spo.4750978.0005.107.
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