|The Hongwu Emperor|
|Emperor of the Ming Dynasty|
|Reign||23 January 1368 – 24 June 1398|
|Emperor of China|
|Reign||14 September 1368 – 24 June 1398|
|Predecessor||Emperor Huizong of Yuan|
|Spouse||Empress Xiao Ci Gao
Noble Consort Cheng Mu, concubine
Consort Li, concubine
Consort Ning, concubine
Consort Hui, concubine
Consort Zhuang Jing An Rong Hui, concubine
Consort Jiang, concubine
Consort Zhao, concubine
Consort Zhao Jing Chong, concubine
Consort An, concubine
Consort Ding, concubine
Consort Shun, concubine
Consort Shun, concubine
Consort Xian, concubine
Consort Hui, concubine
Consort Li, concubine
Consort Kung, concubine
Consort Han, concubine
Consort Yu, concubine
Consort Yang, concubine
Consort Zhou, concubine
Li Jiehao, concubine
Beauty Lady Choi, concubine
Beauty Lady Zhang, concubine
Lady Gao, concubine
|Issue||Zhu Biao, Crown Prince Yiwen
Zhu Shuang, Prince Min of Qin
Zhu Gang, Prince Gong of Jin
Zhu Di, Yongle Emperor
Zhu Su, Prince Ding of Zhou
Zhu Zhen, Prince Zhao of Chu
Zhu Fu, Prince of Qi
Zhu Zi, Prince of Dan
Zhu Qi, Prince of Zhao
Zhu Tan, Prince Huang of Lu
Zhu Chun, Prince Xian of Shu
Zhu Bai, Prince Xian of Xiang
Zhu Gui, Prince Jian of Dai
Zhu Ying, Prince Zhuang of Su
Zhu Zhi, Prince Jian of Liao
Zhu Zhan, Prince Jing of Qing
Zhu Quan, Prince Xian of Ning
Zhu Pian, Prince Zhuang of Min
Zhu Hui, Prince of Gu
Prince Xian of Han
Zhu Mo, Prince Jian of Shen
Zhu Ying, Prince Hui of An
Zhu Jing, Prince Ding of Tang
Zhu Dong, Prince Jing of Ying
Zhu Yi, Prince Li of Yi
Princess Huaiqing, Marchioness of Yongchun
Princess Daming, Marchioness of Luancheng
Princess Zhenyi of Yongjia
21 October 1328|
Fengyang, Anhui, Yuan Empire
|Died||24 June 1398
Nanjing, Jiangsu, Ming Empire
|Burial||30 June 1398
Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Nanjing
The Hongwu Emperor (Chinese: 洪武帝; pinyin: Hóngwǔdì; 21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), also known by his given name Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋) and his temple name Ming Taizu (明太祖, lit. "Great Ancestor of the Ming"), was the founder and first emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China. His era name Hongwu means "vastly martial."
In the middle of the 14th century, with famine, plagues, and peasant revolts sweeping across China, Zhu rose to command the force that conquered China and ended the Yuan Dynasty, forcing the Mongols to retreat to the central Asian steppe. Following his seizure of the Yuan capital Khanbaliq (modern Beijing), Zhu claimed the Mandate of Heaven and established the Ming Dynasty in 1368. Trusting only in his family, he made his many sons powerful feudal princes along the northern marshes and the Yangtze valley. Having outlived his first successor, the Hongwu Emperor enthroned his grandson via a series of instructions; this ended in failure when the Jianwen Emperor's attempt to unseat his uncles led to the Yongle Emperor's successful rebellion.
Most of the historical sites related to Zhu Yuanzhang are located in Nanjing, the original capital of his dynasty.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Establishing a dynasty
- 3 Reign
- 4 Death
- 5 Assessment
- 6 Family
- 7 Depiction in popular culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
Zhu Yuanzhang was a born into a poor peasant family in a village in Zhongli, present day Fengyang, Anhui Province. His father was Zhu Shizhen (朱世珍, original name Zhu Wusi 朱五四) and his mother was Chen Erniang. He had seven older siblings, several of whom were "given away" by his parents, as they did not have enough food to support the family. When he was 16, the Yangtze River broke its banks and flooded the lands where his family lived. Subsequently, a plague killed his entire family, except one of his brothers. He then buried them by wrapping them in white clothes.
Destitute, Zhu Yuanzhang accepted a suggestion to take up a pledge made by his late father and became a novice monk at the Huangjue Temple, a local Buddhist monastery. He did not remain there for long as the monastery ran short of funds and he was forced to leave.
For the next few years, Zhu Yuanzhang led the life of a wandering beggar and personally experienced and saw the hardships of the common people. After about three years, he returned to the monastery and stayed there until he was around 24 years old. He learned to read and write during the time he spent with the Buddhist monks.
Establishing a dynasty
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (October 2013)|
The monastery where Zhu Yuanzhang lived was eventually destroyed by an army that was suppressing a local rebellion. In 1352, Zhu joined one of the many insurgent forces that had risen in rebellion against the Mongol-ruled Yuan Dynasty. Zhu rose rapidly through the ranks and became a commander. His rebel force later joined the Red Turbans, a millenarian sect related to the White Lotus Society, and one that followed cultural and religious traditions of Buddhism, Zoroastrianism and other religions. Widely seen as a defender of Confucianism and neo-Confucianism among the predominant Han Chinese population in China, Zhu emerged as a leader of the rebels that were struggling to overthrow the Yuan Dynasty. The Red Turbans and Zhu both conquered the whole of China trying to reunite it like it was before the Mongols attacked.
In 1356, Zhu Yuanzhang's army conquered Nanjing, which became his base of operations and the official capital of the Ming Dynasty during his reign. Zhu's government in Nanjing became famous for good governance and the city attracted vast numbers of people fleeing from other more lawless regions. It is estimated that Nanjing's population increased by 10 times over the next 10 years. In the meantime, the Yuan government had been weakened by internal factions fighting for control and it made little effort to retake the Yangtze River valley. By 1358, central and southern China had fallen into the hands of different rebel groups. During that time, the Red Turbans also split up. Zhu became the leader of a smaller faction (called "Ming" around 1360) while the larger faction, under Chen Youliang, controlled the center of the Yangtze River valley.
Zhu was able to attract many talents into his service. One of them was Zhu Sheng (朱升), who advised Zhu: "Build high walls, stock up rations, and don't be too quick to call yourself a king." Another, Jiao Yu, was an artillery officer who later compiled a military treatise outlining the various types of gunpowder weapons. Another one, Liu Ji, became one of Zhu's key advisors, and edited the military-technology treatise titled Huolongjing in later years.
Starting from 1360, Zhu and Chen Youliang fought a protracted war for supremacy over the former Red Turban territory. The pivotal moment in the war was the Battle of Lake Poyang in 1363, one of the largest naval battles in history. The battle lasted three days and ended with the defeat and retreat of Chen's larger sized navy. Chen died a month later in battle. Zhu did not participate personally in any battles after that and remained in Nanjing, where he directed his generals to go on campaigns.
In 1367, Zhu's forces defeated Zhang Shicheng's Kingdom of Dazhou, which was centered in Suzhou and had previously included most of the Yangtze River Delta and the Song Dynasty's capital city of Hangzhou. This victory granted Zhu's Ming government authority over the lands north and south of the Yangtze River. The other major warlords surrendered to Zhu and on 20 January 1368, Zhu proclaimed himself Emperor of the Ming Dynasty in Nanjing and adopted "Hongwu" as his era. His dynasty's mission was to drive away the Mongols and restore Han Chinese rule in China.
In 1368, Ming armies headed north to attack territories that were still under the Yuan Dynasty's rule. The Mongols gave up their capital city of Khanbaliq (Dadu, present-day Beijing) and the rest of northern China in September 1368 and retreated to Mongolia. On 15 October 1371 Hongwu's son Zhu Shuang was married to Köke Temür's sister. The Ming army captured the last Yuan-controlled province of Yunnan in 1381 and China was unified under the Ming Dynasty's rule.
Under the Hongwu Emperor's rule, the Mongol bureaucrats who dominated the government in the Yuan Dynasty's time were replaced by Han Chinese officials. The Hongwu Emperor revamped the traditional Confucian examination system, from which potential state officials were selected from, based on merit and their knowledge of literature and philosophy. Candidates for positions in the civil service and the officers corps of the military were required to pass the imperial examination, as required by the Classics. The Confucian scholar-bureaucrats, previously marginalized during the Yuan Dynasty, were reinstated to their predominant roles in the government.
Mongol related things, including garments and names, were discontinued from use and boycotted. There were also attacks on palaces and administrative buildings previously used by the Yuan rulers.
As the Hongwu Emperor came from a peasant family, he was aware of how peasants used to suffer under the oppression of the scholar-bureaucrats and the wealthy. Many of the latter, relying on their connections with government officials, encroached unscrupulously on peasants' lands and bribed the officials to transfer the burden of taxation to the poor. To prevent such abuse, the Hongwu Emperor instituted two systems: Yellow Records and Fish Scale Records. These systems served both to secure the government's income from land taxes and to affirm that peasants would not lose their lands.
However, the reforms did not eliminate the threat of the bureaucrats to peasants. Instead, the expansion of the bureaucrats and their growing prestige translated into more wealth and tax exemption for those in the government service. The bureaucrats gained new privileges and some became illegal money-lenders and managers of gambling rings. Using their power, the bureaucrats expanded their estates at the expense of peasants' lands through outright purchase of those lands and foreclosure on their mortgages whenever they wanted the lands. The peasants often became either tenants or workers, or sought employment elsewhere.
Since the beginning of the Ming government in 1357, great care was taken by the Hongwu Emperor to distribute land to peasants. One way was through forced migration to less dense areas. Some of those people were tied to a pagoda tree in Hongdong (洪洞大槐樹) and moved. Public works projects, such as the construction of irrigation systems and dikes, were undertaken in an attempt to help farmers. In addition, the Hongwu Emperor also reduced the demands for forced labour on the peasantry. In 1370, the Hongwu Emperor ordered that some lands in Hunan and Anhui should be given to young farmers who had reached adulthood. The order was intended to prevent landlords from seizing the land, as it also decreed that the titles to the lands were not transferable. During the middle part of his reign, the Hongwu Emperor passed an edict, stating that those who brought fallow land under cultivation could keep it as their property without being taxed. The policy was well received by the people and in 1393, cultivated land rose to 8,804,623 ching and 68 mou, something not achieved during any other Chinese dynasty.
The Hongwu Emperor instigated the planting of 50 million trees in the vicinity of Nanjing, reconstructing canals, irrigation, and transporting southern people to the north for repopulation. He successfully managed to increase the population from 60 to 100 million.
The Hongwu Emperor realized that the Mongols still posed a threat to China, even though they had been driven away after the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty. He decided to reassess the orthodox Confucian view that the military was an inferior class to the scholar bureaucracy. The Hongwu Emperor kept a powerful army which in 1384 he re-organized using a model known as the Wèisuǒ system (simplified Chinese: 卫所制; traditional Chinese: 衛所制; literally: "guard battalion"). Each military unit consisted of 5,600 men divided into five battalions and ten companies. By 1393 the total number of Wèisuǒ troops had reached 1,200,000. Soldiers were also assigned land on which to grow crops whilst their positions were made hereditary. This type of system can be traced back to the Fǔbīng System (Chinese: 府兵制) of the Sui and Tang Dynasties. While the Ming army was initially very effective, it lost its capacity for offensive operations after the death of the Yongle Emperor, and was defeated by the Mongols in 1449 during the Tumu Crisis.
Training was conducted within local military districts. In times of war, troops were mobilized from all over the empire on the orders of the War Ministry, and commanders were appointed to lead them to battle. After the war, the army was disbanded into smaller groups and sent back to their respective districts, and the commanders had to return their authority to the state. This system helped to prevent military leaders from having too much power. However, one disadvantage was that the military was under the control of a civilian official for large campaigns, instead of a military general.
The Hongwu Emperor expected everyone to obey his rule and was infamous for killing many people during his purges. His tortures included flaying and slow slicing. One of his generals, Chang Yuchun, carried out massacres in some places in Shandong and Hunan provinces to avenge resistance against his army. As time went on, the Hongwu Emperor became increasingly fearful of rebellions and coups, even going so far as to order the execution of those of his advisers who dared criticize him. He was also said to have ordered the massacre of several thousand people living in Nanjing after having heard one talked about him without respect. In 1380, after much killing, a lightning bolt struck his palace and he stopped the massacres for some time as he was afraid divine forces would punish him.
The Hongwu Emperor also noted the destructive role of court eunuchs under the previous dynasties. He drastically reduced their numbers, forbidding them to handle documents, insisting that they remain illiterate, and executing those who commented on state affairs. The Hongwu Emperor had a strong aversion to the eunuchs, epitomized by a tablet in his palace stipulating: "Eunuchs must have nothing to do with the administration." This aversion to eunuchs did not long continue among his successors, as the Hongwu and Jianwen Emperors' harsh treatment of eunuchs allowed the Yongle Emperor to employ them as a power base during his coup. In addition to the Hongwu Emperor's aversion to eunuchs, he never consented to any of his marital relatives becoming court officials. This policy was fairly well-maintained by later emperors, and no serious trouble was caused by the empresses or their relatives.
The Hongwu Emperor attempted, and largely succeeded in, the consolidation of control over all aspects of government, so that no other group could gain enough power to overthrow him. He also buttressed the country's defenses against the Mongols. He increasingly concentrated power in his own hands. He abolished the chancellor's post, which had been head of the main central administrative body under past dynasties, by suppressing a plot for which he had blamed his chief minister. Many argue that the Hongwu Emperor, because of his wish to concentrate absolute authority in his own hands, removed the only insurance against incompetent emperors.
However the Hongwu Emperor could not govern the sprawling Ming Empire all by himself and had to create the new institution of the "Grand Secretary". This cabinet-like organisation progressively took on the powers of the abolished prime minister, becoming just as powerful in time. Ray Huang argued that Grand-Secretaries, outwardly powerless, could exercise considerable positive influence from behind the throne. Because of their prestige and the public trust which they enjoyed, they could act as intermediaries between the emperor and the ministerial officials, and thus provide a stabilising force in the court. He executed tens of thousand officials and their relatives over sedition, treason, corruption and other charges.
In the Hongwu Emperor's elimination of the traditional offices of grand councilor, the primary impetus was Hu Weiyong's alleged attempt to usurp the throne. Hu was the Senior Grand Councilor and a capable administrator; however over the years, the magnitude of his powers as well as involvement in several political scandals eroded the paranoid emperor's trust in him. Finally, in 1380 the Hongwu Emperor had Hu and his entire family arrested and executed on charges of treason. Using this as an opportunity to purge his government, the Hongwu Emperor also ordered the execution of countless other officials, as well as their families, for associating with Hu. The purge lasted over a decade and resutled in more than 30,000 executions. In 1390, even Li Shanchang, one of the closest old friends of the Emperor who was rewarded as the biggest contributor to the founding of the Ming Empire, was executed along with over 70 members of his extended family. A year after his death, a deputy in the Board of Works made a submission to the Emperor appealing Li's innocence, arguing that since Li was already at the apex of honour, wealth and power, the accusation that he wanted to help someone else usurp the throne was clearly ridiculous. The Hongwu Emperor was unable to refute the accusations and finally ended the purge shortly afterwards.
Through the repeated purges and the elimination of the historical posts, the Hongwu Emperor fundamentally altered the centuries-old government structure of China, greatly increasing the emperor's absolutism.
He was extremely authoritarian, a virtual dictator, and governed directly over all affairs. The Hongwu Emperor personally wrote essays posted in every village throughout China warning the people to behave and of the horrifying consequences if they disobeyed.
The legal code drawn up in the time of the Hongwu Emperor was considered one of the great achievements of the era. The History of Ming mentioned that as early as 1364, the monarchy had started to draft a code of laws. This code was known as Code of the Great Ming or Laws of the Great Ming (大明律). The emperor devoted much time to the project and instructed his ministers that the code should be comprehensive and intelligible, so as not to allow any official to exploit loopholes in the code by deliberately misinterpreting it. The Ming code laid much emphasis on family relations. The code was a great improvement on the code of the earlier Tang Dynasty in regards to the treatment of slaves. Under the Tang code, slaves were treated as a species of domestic animal; if they were killed by a free citizen, the law imposed no sanction on the killer. Under the Ming Dynasty, the law protected both slaves and free citizens.
Supported by the scholar-bureaucrats, the Hongwu Emperor accepted the Confucian viewpoint that merchants were solely parasitic. He felt that agriculture should be the country's source of wealth and that trade was ignoble. As a result, the Ming economic system emphasized agriculture, unlike the economic system of the Song Dynasty, which had preceded the Mongols and had relied on traders and merchant for revenues. The Hongwu Emperor also supported the creation of self-supporting agricultural communities.
However, his prejudice against merchants did not diminish the numbers of traders. On the contrary, commerce increased significantly during the Hongwu Era due to the growth of industry throughout the empire. This growth in trade was due in part to poor soil conditions and the overpopulation of certain areas, which forced many people to leave their homes and seek their fortunes in trade. A book titled Tu Pien Hsin Shu, written during the Ming Dynasty, gave a detailed description about the activities of merchants at that time.
Relations with Muslims
The Hongwu Emperor ordered the construction of several mosques in Nanjing, Yunnan, Guangdong and Fujian, and had inscriptions praising the prophet Muhammed placed in mosques. He rebuilt the Jinjue Mosque (literally meaning: Pure Enlightenment Mosque) in Nanjing and large numbers of Hui people moved to the city during his rule.
Chinese sources claim that Hongwu had close relations with Muslims, and had around ten Muslim generals in his military, including, Lan Yu, Ding Dexing, Mu Ying, Feng Sheng and Hu Dahai, and that that "His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities], and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong." He also personally wrote a 100 word praise (baizizan) on Islam, Allah and the Prophet Muhammad.
Around 1384, during the Ming Dynasty, Hongwu Emperor ordered the Chinese translation and compilation of Islamic astronomical tables, a task that was carried out by the scholars Mashayihei, a Muslim astronomer, and Wu Bozong, a Chinese scholar-official. These tables came to be known as the Huihui Lifa (Muslim System of Calendrical Astronomy), which was published in China a number of times until the early 18th century,
The Hongwu Emperor was a non interventionist, refusing to intervene in a Vietnamese invasion of Champa to help the Chams, only rebuking the Vietnamese for their invasion, being opposed to military action abroad. He specifically warned future Emperors only to defend against foreign barbarians, and not engage in military campaigns for glory and conquest. In his 1395 Ancestral injunctions, Hongwu specifically wrote that China should not attack the following countries - Champa, Cambodia, and Annam (Vietnam). He was advised to concentrate on defending against the Rong and Di "Barbarians", rather than attacking.
However, the Hongwu Emperor had harsh words for those who tried to threaten China. He sent a message to the Japanese that his army would "capture and exterminate your bandits, head straight for your country, and put your king in bonds", due to consistent raiding by Japanese Wokou pirates.
Development of the Ming Dynasty
Although the Hongwu Era saw the introduction of paper currency, its development was stifled from the beginning. Not understanding inflation, the Hongwu Emperor gave out so much paper money as rewards that by 1425, the state was forced to reintroduce copper coins because the paper currency had sunk to only 1/70 of its original value.
During the Hongwu Era, the early Ming Dynasty was characterized by rapid and dramatic population growth, largely due to the increased food supply from the emperor's agricultural reforms. By the end of the dynasty, the population had risen by as much as 50%. This was stimulated by major improvements in agricultural technology, promoted by the pro-agrarian state which came to power in the midst of a pro-Confucian peasant's rebellion. During his reign, living standards also greatly improved.
The Hongwu Emperor died on June 24, 1398 after reigning for 30 years at the age of 69. After his death, his physicians were penalized. He was buried at Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum on the Purple Mountain, east of Nanjing.
Historians consider the Hongwu Emperor to have been one of the most significant emperors of China. As historian Ebrey puts it, "Seldom has the course of Chinese history been influenced by a single personality as much as it was by the founder of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang." His rise to power was fast despite his having a poor and humble origin. In 11 years, he went from being a penniless monk to the most powerful warlord in China. Five years later, he became emperor of China. Simon Leys described him this way:
'an adventurer from peasant stock, poorly educated, a man of action, a bold and shrewd tactician, a visionary mind, in many respects a creative genius; naturally coarse, cynical, and ruthless, he eventually showed symptoms of paranoia, bordering on psychopathy.'
The folk song Fengyang Flower Drum (鳳陽花鼓 / 凤阳花鼓) condemned him.
Parents and ancestors
- Zhu Zhongba (朱仲八)
- Zhu Bailiu (朱百六), posthumously honored as Emperor Xuan (玄皇帝) with the temple name of Dezu (德祖)
- Lady Hu (胡氏), posthumously honored as Empress Xuan (玄皇后)
- Zhu Sijiu (朱四九), posthumously honored as Emperor Heng (恆皇帝) with the temple name of Yizu (懿祖)
- Lady Hou (侯氏), posthumously honored as Empress Heng (恆皇后)
- Zhu Chuyi (朱初一), posthumously honored as Emperor Yu (裕皇帝) with the temple name of Xizu (熙祖)
- Lady Wang (王氏), posthumously honored as Empress Yu (裕皇后)
- Zhu Shizhen (朱世珍, original name Zhu Wusi 朱五四) (1283–1344), posthumously honored as Emperor Chun (淳皇帝) with the temple name of Renzu (仁祖)
- Chen Erniang, posthumously honored as Empress Chun (淳皇后)
Zhu's parents, grandparents, great-grandparents and great-great-grandparents were given posthumous Imperial titles.
The great-great-grandfather of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Xuan and the temple name of Dezu, and the great-great-grandmother was given the title of Empress Xuan. The great-grandfather was given the posthumous name of Emperor Heng and the temple name of Yizu, and the great-grandmother was given the title of Empress Heng. The grandfather of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Yu and the temple name of Xizu, and the grandmother was given the title of Empress Yu. The father of the Emperor was given the posthumous name of Emperor Chun and the temple name of Renzu, and the mother of the Emperor, whose maiden name was Chen, was given the title of Empress Chun.
|Formal Title||Maiden Name||Birth||Death||Father||Mother||Issue||Notes|
|Empress Xiao Ci Gao
|Zhu Biao, Crown Prince Yiwen
Zhu Shuang, Prince Min of Qin
Zhu Gang, Prince Gong of Jin
Zhu Di, Yongle Emperor
Zhu Su, Prince Ding of Zhou
|There are claims that she was childless and these children were adopted|
|Noble Consort Cheng Mu
|–||Zhu Tan, Prince Huang of Lu
Zhu Chun, Prince Xian of Shu
Zhu Gui, Prince Jian of Dai
Zhu Hui, Prince of Gu
Princess Zhenyi of Yongjia
|Consort Zhuang Jing An Rong Hui
|–||–||–||–||Zhu Mo, Prince Jian of Shen|
|Consort Zhao Jing Chong
|–||–||–||–||Zhu Fu, Prince of Qi
Zhu Zi, Prince of Dan
|–||–||–||–||Zhu Bai, Prince Xian of Xiang|
|–||–||–||–||Zhu Jing, Prince Ding of Tang|
|–||–||–||–||Zhu Dong, Prince Jing of Ying|
|Goryeo||-||-||-||-||Was given to the Hongwu Emperor as tribute from Goryeo;
speculated by some to be the biological mother of the Yongle Emperor
|Goryeo||-||-||-||Zhu Zhi, Prince Jian of Liao
|-||-||-||-||Zhu Quan, Prince Xian of Ning|
|-||-||-||-||Zhu Pian, Prince Zhuang of Min
Zhu Song, Prince Xian of Han
|Beauty Lady Cui
|Beauty Lady Zhang
|-||-||-||-||Zhu Ying, Prince Zhuang of Su||Was not given a formal consort name|
The Hongwu Emperor treated his ladies-in-waiting badly, forcing them to live in the palaces for life without freedom and behind cemented walls.[unreliable source?] He massacred thousands of them.[unreliable source?] He restricted the freedom of many concubines and killed several[who?].[unreliable source?] He also forced many of them[who?] to commit suicide and ordered that they will be buried with him after his death.[unreliable source?] He had several Korean concubines, including Lady Han, who bore him a son, and Lady Gong.
|Crown Prince Yiwen
|10 October 1355||17 May 1392||Empress Xiao Ci Gao||Lady Chang
|Zhu Xiongying, Prince Huai of Yu
Zhu Yunwen, Jianwen Emperor
Zhu Yuntong, Prince of Wu
Zhu Yunjian, Prince of Heng
Zhu Yunhuo, Prince Jian of Xu
|Prince Min of Qin
|3 December 1356||9 April 1395||Empress Xiao Ci Gao||Lady Wang
|Zhu Shangbing, Prince Huai of Qin
Zhu Shanglie, Prince Yijian of Yongxing
Zhu Shangyu, Prince Daoxi of Bao'an
Zhu Shangzhou, Prince Gongjing of Xingping
Zhu Shanghong, Prince Huaijian of Yongshou
Zhu Shangkai, Prince of Anding
|Prince Gong of Jin
|18 December 1358||22 April 1398||Empress Xiao Ci Gao||Lady Xie||Zhu Jixi, Prince Ding of Jin
Zhu Jiye, Prince of Gaoping
Zhu Jihuang, Prince of Jin
Zhu Jixuan, Prince of Qingcheng
Zhu Jihuan, Prince of Ninghua
Zhu Jilang, Prince of Yonghe
Zhu Jihe, Prince of Guangchang
two unnamed daughters
|Prince of Yan
Later the Yongle Emperor
|2 May 1360||12 August 1424||Empress Xiao Ci Gao
|Xu Yihua, Empress Ren Xiao Wen
|Zhu Gaochi, Hongzhi Emperor
Zhu Gaoxu, Prince of Han
Zhu Gaosui, Prince Jian of Zhao
|Prince Ding of Zhou
|8 October 1361||2 September 1425||Empress Xiao Ci Gao||–||26 children|
|Prince Zhao of Chu
|5 April 1364||22 March 1424||Consort Chong||–||10 sons|
|Prince of Qi
|1364||1428||Consort Ding||–||Zhu Xianting
Zhu Xianhuo, Prince Daoyin of Le'an
Zhu Xian𤊥, Prince of Changshan
Zhu Xian'an, Prince of Pingyuan
|Prince of Dan
|–||1390||Consort Ding||Lady Yu
(daughter of Yu Xian (于顯))
|Prince of Zhao
|October 1369||16 January 1371||unknown||none||none|
|Prince Huang of Lu
|15 March 1370||1389||Consort Hui||Lady Tang
(daughter of Tang He (湯和))
|Zhu Zhaohui, Prince Jing of Lu|
|Prince Xian of Shu
|1371||1423||Consort Hui||Lady Lan
(daughter of Lan Yu)
|Prince Xian of Xiang
|1371||1399||Consort Shun||Lady Wu
(niece of Wu Gao (吳高)
|Prince Jian of Dai
|25 August 1374||29 December 1446||Consort Hui||Lady Xu|
|Prince Zhuang of Su
|1376||1419||Lady Gao||–||Zhu Shanyan, Prince Kang of Su|
|Prince Jian of Liao
|–||1424||Consort Han||–||20 sons|
|Prince Jing of Qing
|6 February 1378||23 August 1438||Consort Yu||Lady Sun
(daughter of Sun Da (孫達))
|Prince Xian of Ning
|1378||1448||Consort Yang||–||16 children|
|Prince Zhuang of Min
|10 April 1379||10 May 1450||Consort Zhou||–||Zhu Huiyi
Zhu Huirou, Prince Gong of Min
Zhu Huimei, Prince Gonghui of Jiangchuan
Zhu Huiye, Prince of Guangtong
Zhu Huixi, Prince of Yangzong
|Prince of Gu
|30 April 1379||1428||Consort Hui||Lady Zhou
(daughter of Zhou Duo (週鐸))
|Prince Xian of Han
|26 June 1380||19 November 1407||Consort Zhou||Lady Feng||4 sons|
|Prince Jian of Shen
|1 September 1380||1431||Consort Zhao||Lady Guo
(daughter of Guo Ying (郭英))
|Prince Hui of An
|18 October 1383||9 October 1417||–||Lady Xu
(youngest daughter of Xu Da)
|Prince Ding of Tang
|11 October 1386||8 September 1415||Consort Xian||–||Zhu Qiongjing, Prince Jing of Tang
Zhu Qiongda, Prince Xian of Tang
Zhu Qiongwei, Prince Daohuai of Xinye
|Prince Jing of Ying
|21 June 1388||14 November 1414||Consort Hui||Lady Guo
(daughter of Guo Ying, Marquess of Wuding)
|Prince Li of Yi
|9 July 1388||8 October 1414||Consort Li||Lady Liu||Zhu Yonggui, Prince Jian of Yi|
|none||4 January 1394||1394||–||none||none||Died about one month after his birth.|
|1360||17 August 1421||1376||Li Qi
(son of Li Shanchang, Duke of Han)
|1364||7 September 1434||1378||Mei Yin
(second son of Mei Sizu, Marquess of Runan)
|–||Empress Xiao Ci Gao|
|–||–||21 December 1384||Niu Cheng
|–||–||23 December 1381||Ouyang Lun
|–||Empress Xiao Ci Gao|
|–||–||11 June 1382||Lu Xian
(son of Lu Zhongheng, Marquess of Ji'an)
|–||15 July 1425||11 September 1382||Wang Ning, Marquess of Yongchun
|Noble Consort Cheng Mu|
|1368||30 March 1426||2 September 1382||Li Jian, Marquess of Luancheng
(son of Li Ying (李英))
|–||28 February 1417||26 April 1385||Zhang Lin
(son of Zhang Long, Marquess of Fengxiang)
|1370||1 August 1388||9 April 1386||Fu Zhong
(son of Fu Youde, Duke of Ying)
|1373||15 November 1438||1387||Hu Guan
(third son of Hu Hai, Marquess of Dongchuan)
|12||Princess Zhenyi of Yongjia
|1376||12 October 1455||23 November 1389||Guo Zhen
(son of Guo Ying, Marquess of Wuding)
|1381||18 October 1462||11 September 1394||Yin Qing
|–||–||23 August 1394||Xie Da
|–||Beauty Lady Zhang|
Depiction in popular culture
- Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum
- Tibet during the Ming Dynasty
- Huang Ming Zu Xun, the "Ancestral Instructions" written by the Hongwu Emperor to guide his descendants
- Rags to riches
- This article incorporates text from China and the Roman Orient: researches into their ancient and mediæval relations as represented in old Chinese records, by Friedrich Hirth, a publication from 1885 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from Cathay and the way thither: being a collection of medieval notices of China, by COLONEL SIR HENRY YULE, a publication from 1913 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from Institutes of ecclesiastical history: ancient and modern ..., by Johann Lorenz Mosheim, James Murdock, a publication from 1832 now in the public domain in the United States.
- The Hongwu Emperor was already in control of Nanjing since 1356 and was conferred the title of "Duke of Wu" (吳國公) by the rebel leader Han Lin'er (韓林兒) in 1361. He started autonomous rule as the self-proclaimed "Prince of Wu" (吳王) on 4 February 1364. He was proclaimed emperor on 23 January 1368 and established the Ming Dynasty on that same day.
- Different from the above
- Name given by his parents at birth and used only inside the family. This birth name, which means "double eight", was allegedly given to him because the combined age of his parents when he was born was 88 years.
- He was known as "Zhu Xingzong" when he reached adulthood and renamed himself "Zhu Yuanzhang" in 1352 when he started to become famous among the rebel leaders.
- Upon his successful usurpation in 1402, the Yongle Emperor voided the Jianwen Era of his predecessor and continued the Hongwu Era posthumously until the next New Year festival when his own new era was declared. This dating continued for a few of his successors until the Jianwen Era was reëstablished in the late 16th century.
- Chan Hok-lam. "Legitimating Usurpation: Historical Revisions under the Ming Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424)". The Legitimation of New Orders: Case Studies in World History. Chinese University Press, 2007. ISBN 962996239X, 9789629962395. Accessed 12 Oct 2012.
- Dreyer, 22–23.
- History of Ming, vol. 1
- Mote, J.F. Imperial China 900–1800 Harvard University Press (5 December 2003) ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7 pp.543–545 Google Books Search
- Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 191
- Edward L. Farmer, Zhu Yuanzhang and Early Ming Legislation: The Reordering of Chinese Society Following the Era of Mongol Rule. BRILL, 1995. ISBN 90-04-10391-0, ISBN 978-90-04-10391-7. On Google Books. P 23.
- Linda Cooke Johnson, Cities of Jiangnan in Late Imperial China. SUNY Press, 1993. ISBN 0-7914-1423-X, 9780791414231 On Google Books, pp. 26–27.
- Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K., eds. (1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Contributors Denis Twitchett, John K. Fairbank (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 128. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Papers on Far Eastern History, Volumes 37-38. Contributor Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History. Department of Far Eastern History, Australian National University. 1988. p. 17. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (2001). Perpetual happiness: the Ming emperor Yongle. University of Washington Press. p. 23. ISBN 0295800224. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 508.
- Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 511.
- Marshall Cavendish Corporation, Steven Maddocks, Dale Anderson, Jane Bingham, Peter Chrisp, Christopher Gavett (2006). Exploring the Middle Ages. Marshall Cavendish. p. 519. ISBN 0-7614-7613-X. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- (In Chinese) She Yiyuan (佘一元), Shanhaiguan Chronicle (山海关志)
- "略論明太祖的教化性敕撰書". Rwxy.tsinghua.edu.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "朱元璋的滥杀心理及其影响初探". Studa.net. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- 劉辰. 國初事迹
- 李默. 孤樹裒談
- 楊一凡(1988). 明大誥研究. Jiangsu Renmin Press.
- (2009-10-26 13:02:47) (26 October 2009). "《中国史上的屠城与杀降》（4）". Blog.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "洪武移民传说". Jijiever.bokee.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "鞍山老人万里寻祖20年探出"小云南"". News.eastday.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "洪武屠刀举，血洗绝人烟-朱元璋制造的湖南大屠杀". Bbs.tiexue.net. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- 元末明初的士人活動 - 歷史學科中心
- "有趣的南京地名". People.com.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- 馬生龍. 鳳凰台紀事
- 徐禎卿. 剪勝野聞
- History of Ming, vol.139
- 吳晗, 胡惟庸黨案考
- 錢謙益, 初學集 vol.104
- "朱元璋多疑殺人數萬？ 明初空印案之謎". Stnn.cc:82. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- 南北榜，科场案制造20多个冤鬼[dead link]
- Tan Ta Sen, Dasheng Chen (2000). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 291. ISBN 981-230-837-7. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Shoujiang Mi, Jia You (2004). Islam in China. 五洲传播出版社. p. 205. ISBN 7-5085-0533-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- China China archaeology and art digest, Volume 3, Issue 4. Art Text (HK) Ltd. 2000. p. 29. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- ()Maria Jaschok, Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-7007-1302-6. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
For instance, in the early years of the Hongwu Emperor's reign in the Ming Dynasty, His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities] and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues. The Ming Emperor Xuanzong once issued imperial orders to build a mosque in Nanjing in response to Zheng He's request (Liu Zhi, 1984 reprint: 358–374). Mosques built by imperial decree raised the social position of Islam, and assistance from upper-class Muslims helped to sustain religious sites in certain areas.
- Yunli Shi (January 2003), "The Korean Adaptation of the Chinese-Islamic Astronomical Tables", Archive for History of Exact Sciences (Springer) 57 (1): 25–60 , doi:10.1007/s00407-002-0060-z, ISSN 1432-0657
- Edward L. Dreyer (1982). Early Ming China: a political history, 1355–1435. Stanford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-8047-1105-4. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Kenneth Warren Chase (2003). Firearms: a global history to 1700. Cambridge University Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-521-82274-2. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis; Fairbank, John K., eds. (1988). The Cambridge History of China: Volume 7, The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644. Contributors Denis Twitchett, John K. Fairbank (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 229. ISBN 0521243327. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Alastair Iain Johnston (1998). Cultural realism: strategic culture and grand strategy in Chinese history. Princeton University Press. p. 223. ISBN 0-691-00239-8. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- David Chan-oong Kang (2007). China rising: peace, power, and order in East Asia. Columbia University Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-231-14188-2. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
- Stearns, Peter N., et al. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc., 2006. 366.
- Ebrey, "Cambridge Illustrated History of China", pg. 190
- Simon Leys, 'Ravished by Oranges' in New York Review of Books 20 December 2007 p.8
- 凤阳花鼓歌词中‘凤阳’的范围及其背景分析 (in Chinese). Space.taobao.com. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- from the History of Ming s:zh:明史/卷51 Zh.wikisource
- "―故宫过客". Qzwb.com. 31 October 2006. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- 陳夢雷. 古今圖書集成·宮闈典·宫女部雜錄
- 呂瑟. 明朝小史, vol.1
- "明太祖《紀非錄》書後：秦周齊潭魯代靖江諸王罪行敘錄" (PDF). Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- 陈学霖(2001). 史林漫识. China Friendship Publishing Company.
- 史夢蘭. 全史宮詞
- "街巷轶事". App.hzxc.gov.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- 查繼佐. 罪惟錄, vol.3
- "朱元璋陪葬妃子怎么死的?专家:上吊或灌水银——华夏文明——中国经济网". Cathay.ce.cn. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- Association Denis Crispin Twitchett, John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge history of China, Volume 2; Volume 8. Cambridge University Press. p. 292. ISBN 0-521-24333-5. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- His mother was an unnamed concubine of Zhu Yi.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hongwu Emperor.|
- Brook, Timothy. (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22154-0 (Paperback).
- Dreyer, Edward. (1982). Early Ming China: A Political History. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1105-4.
- Stearns, Peter N., et al. (2006). World Civilizations: The Global Experience. AP Edition DBQ Update. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.
Hongwu EmperorBorn: 21 October 1328 Died: 24 June 1398
|Emperor of the Ming Dynasty
Huizong Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
|Emperor of China
|Unknown||Prince of Wu
|Merge in the Crown|