Hongxi Emperor

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Hongxi Emperor
明仁宗.jpg
4th Ming Emperor
Reign 7 September 1424 – 29 May 1425
Predecessor Yongle
Successor Xuande
Spouse Empress Chengxiaozhao
Issue Xuande
Zhanxun, Prince Jing of Zheng
Zhanyong, Prince Jing of Yue
Zhanyin, Prince Xian of Qi
Zhanshan, Prince Xian of Xiang
Zhangang, Prince Xian of Jing
Zhanyu, Prince Jing of Huai
Zhankai, Prince Huai of Teng
Zhanji, Prince Zhuang of Liang
Zhanyan, Prince Gong of Wei
Princess Jiaxing
Yuantong, Princess Qingdou
Princess Qinghe
Princess De'an
Princess Yanping
Princess Deqing
Princess Zhending
Full name
Zhu Gaochi (朱高熾)
Era name and dates
Hongxi (洪熙): 20 January 1425 – 7 February 1426
Posthumous name
Emperor Jingtian Tidao Chuncheng Zhide Hongwen Qinwu Zhangsheng Daxiao Zhao
敬天體道純誠至德弘文欽武章聖達孝昭皇帝
Temple name
Ming Renzong
明仁宗
House House of Zhu
Father Yongle
Mother Empress Renxiaowen
Born (1378-08-16)16 August 1378
Died 29 May 1425(1425-05-29) (aged 46)
Burial Xianling, Ming Dynasty Tombs, Beijing

The Hongxi Emperor (洪熙 [xʊ̌ŋɕí]; 16 August 1378 – 29 May 1425), personal name Zhu Gaochi (朱高熾), was the fourth emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China. He succeeded his father, the Yongle Emperor, in 1424. His era name means "Vastly bright".

Biography[edit]

Hongxi was born on 16 August 1378 and was educated by prominent Confucian tutors. He often acted as regent in Nanjing or Beijing during his father's northern military campaigns.

Already in May 1421, during the reign of the Yongle Emperor, an order was issued for the suspension of Zheng He's maritime expeditions, apparently on account of their cost (although the order apparently did not affect the 6th voyage of Zheng He, staged around that time).[1] Zhu Gaochi, as soon as he became the Hongxi Emperor in September 1424, canceled Zheng He's maritime expeditions permanently, burned down the fleet, and abolished frontier trade of tea for horses as well as missions for gold and pearls to Yunnan and Vietnam.[2] He restored disgraced Confucian officials, such as Yongle's minister of revenue Xia Yanji (imprisoned since 1421),[2] and reorganized the administration to give high ranks to his close advisors. Hanlin academicians became grand secretaries, and they dismantled his father's unpopular militaristic policies to restore civil government. Hongxi improved finances by canceling requisitions for lumber, gold, and silver. Taxes were remitted so that vagrant farmers could return home, especially in the overburdened Yangtze River Delta. Hongxi appointed a commission to investigate taxes. He overruled his secretaries by ordering that grain should be sent immediately to relieve disaster areas.

Emperor Hongxi ordered that the capital be moved back to Nanjing from Beijing (which had been made the capital by the Yongle Emperor in 1421). However he died, probably of a heart attack, a month later in May 1425. His son had been declared heir apparent and became the Xuande Emperor at age 26. Although Hongxi had a short reign, he is credited with reforms that made lasting improvements, and his liberal policies were continued by his son.

Personal information[edit]

Consorts[edit]

Formal Title Maiden Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes
Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao
誠孝昭皇后
Family name: Zhang (張) Yongcheng, Henan 1442 Zhang Qi
張麒
Zhu Zhanji, Xuande Emperor
Zhu Zhanyong, Prince Jing of Yue
Zhu Zhanshan, Prince Xian of Xiang
Princess Jiaxing
Was Empress Dowager during the reign of her son, the Xuande Emperor, and Grand Empress Dowager during the first reign of her grandson, the Zhengtong Emperor
Noble Consort Gong Su
恭肅貴妃
Family name: Guo (郭) 1425 Zhu Zhankai, Prince Huai of Teng
Zhu Zhanji, Prince Zhuang of Liang
Zhu Zhanyan, Prince Gong of Wei
Was buried with Hongxi after his death
Consort Zhen Hui Su
貞惠淑妃
Family name: Wang (王) 1425 Was buried with Hongxi after his death
Consort Hui An Li
惠安麗妃
Family name: Wang (王) 1425 Was buried with Hongxi after his death
Consort Gong Xi Shun
恭僖順妃
Family name: Tan (譚) 1425 Was buried with Hongxi after his death
Consort Gong Jing Chong
恭靖充妃
Family name: Huang (黃) 1425 Was buried with Hongxi after his death
Consort Zhen Jing Jing
貞靜敬妃
Family name: Zhang (張) Zhang Fu, Duke of Ying
英國公張輔
Her father's younger sister was Noble Consort Zhao Yi, one of the Yongle Emperor's concubines
Consort Dao Xi Li
悼僖麗妃
Family name: Li (李)
Consort Zhen Jing Shun
貞靜順妃
Family name: Zhang (張)
Consort Xian
賢妃
Family name: Li (李) Zhu Zhanxun, Prince Jing of Zheng
Zhu Zhanyin, Prince Xian of Qi
Zhu Zhanyu, Prince Jing of Huai
Princess Zhending
Consort Shun
順妃
Family name: Zhang (張) Zhu Zhangang, Prince Xian of Jing
Consort Hui
惠妃
Family name: Zhao (趙) Zhu Yuantong, Princess Qingdou

Sons[edit]

Number Name Formal Title Born Died Mother Spouse Issue Notes
1 Zhu Zhanji
朱瞻基
The Xuande Emperor 16 March 1399
Beijing
31 January 1435 Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao Hu Shanxiang, Empress Gong Rang Zhang
Lady Sun, Empress Xiao Gong Zhang
fourteen concubines
Zhu Qizhen, Zhengtong Emperor
Zhu Qiyu, Jingtai Emperor
Princess Shunde
Princess Yongqing
Princess Changde
2 Zhu Zhanxun
朱瞻埈
Prince Jing of Zheng
鄭靖王
27 March 1404 8 June 1466 Consort Xian Zhu Qiying, Prince Jian of Zheng Was created Prince of Zheng on 1 November 1424
3 Zhu Zhanyong
朱瞻墉
Prince Jing of Yue
越靖王
9 February 1405 5 August 1439 Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao Lady Wu
(daughter of Wu Sheng (吳昇))
none Was created Prince of Yue 1 November 1424
4 Zhu Zhanyin
朱瞻垠
Prince Xian of Qi
蘄獻王
1406 7 November 1421 Consort Xian none none Was posthumously created Prince of Qi on 10 October 1422
5 Zhu Zhanshan
朱瞻墡
Prince Xian of Xiang
襄憲王
4 April 1406 18 February 1478 Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao Zhu Qiyong, Prince Ding of Xiang Was created Prince of Xiang in 1424
6 Zhu Zhangang
朱瞻堈
Prince Xian of Jing
荊憲王
1453 Consort Shun Zhu Qihao, Prince Jing of Jing
Zhu Qijian, Prince Huijing of Duchang
Was created Prince of Jing in 1424
7 Zhu Zhanyu
朱瞻墺
Prince Jing of Huai
淮靖王
28 January 1409 30 November 1446 Consort Xian Lady Xiao
(daughter of Nancheng military commander Xiao Zhong (南城兵馬指揮肖忠))
Zhu Qiquan, Prince Kang of Huai
Zhu Qibin, Prince Xi of Poyang
Zhu Qiyue, Prince Gonghe of Yongfeng
three daughters
Was created Prince of Huai on 1 November 1424
8 Zhu Zhankai
朱瞻塏
Prince Huai of Teng
滕懷王
November 1409 26 August 1425 Noble Consort Gong Su none none Was created Prince of Teng on 1 November 1424
9 Zhu Zhanji
朱瞻垍
Prince Zhuang of Liang
梁莊王
7 July 1411 3 February 1441 Noble Consort Gong Su Lady Ji
(daughter of Ji Zhan (紀詹))
Consort Wei, concubine
(daughter of Wei Heng (魏亨))
none Was created Prince of Liang 1 November 1424
10 Zhu Zhanyan
朱瞻埏
Prince Gong of Wei
衛恭王
9 January 1417 3 January 1439 Noble Consort Gong Su Was created Prince of Wei in 1424

Daughters[edit]

Number Title Name Born Died Date Married Spouse Issue Mother Notes
1 Princess Jiaxing
嘉興公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
(personal name unknown)
1409 9 March 1439 1428 Jing Yuan
井源
Empress Cheng Xiao Zhao Created Princess Jiaxing in 1425;
Her husband died in 1449 during the Tumu Crisis.
2 Princess Qingdou
慶都公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
Given name: Yuantong (圓通)
9 October 1409 12 June 1440 8 December 1428 Jiao Jing
焦敬
Consort Hui Created Princess Qingdou on 24 April 1425
3 Princess Qinghe
清河公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
(personal name unknown)
1433 1429 Li Ming
李銘
4 Princess De'an
德安公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
(personal name unknown)
Died at the age of eight months
5 Princess Yanping
延平公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
(personal name unknown)
Died unmarried
6 Princess Deqing
德慶公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
(personal name unknown)
Died unmarried
7 Princess Zhending
真定公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
(personal name unknown)
1450 1429 Wang Yi
王誼
Wang Ying
王瑛
Consort Xian

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dreyer 2006, p. 90.
  2. ^ a b Dreyer 2006, p. 137.

References[edit]

Hongxi Emperor
Born: August 16 1378 Died: May 29 1425
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Yongle Emperor
Emperor of China
1424–1425
Succeeded by
The Xuande Emperor