Hongzhi Emperor

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Hongzhi Emperor
Hongzhi.jpg
Emperor of China
Reign 22 September 1487 – 8 June 1505
Predecessor Chenghua Emperor
Successor Zhengde Emperor
Spouse Empress Xiao Cheng Jing
Issue Zhu Houzhao, Zhengde Emperor
Zhu Houwei, Prince Dao of Wei
Zhu Xiurong, Princess Taikang
Full name
Family name: Zhu (朱)
Given name: Youcheng (祐樘)
Era name and dates
Hongzhi (弘治): 14 January 1488 – 23 January 1506
Posthumous name
Emperor Datian Mingdao Chuncheng Zhongzheng Shengwen Shenwu Zhiren Dade Jing
達天明道純誠中正聖文神武至仁大德敬皇帝
Temple name
Ming Xiaozong
明孝宗
House Ming Dynasty
Father Chenghua Emperor
Mother Empress Xiao Mu
Born (1470-07-30)30 July 1470
Died 8 June 1505(1505-06-08) (aged 34)
Burial Tailing, Ming Dynasty Tombs, Beijing

The Hongzhi Emperor (Chinese: 弘治; pinyin: Hóngzhì) (30 July 1470 – 8 June 1505) was emperor of the Ming dynasty in China between 1487 and 1505. Born Zhu Youcheng (often mispronounced as "Zhu Youtang" since 樘 has two pronunciations, and according to records[citation needed] it is pronounced as "cheng", meaning "foundation"), he was the son of the Chenghua Emperor and his reign as emperor of China is called the Hongzhi Silver Age. His era name means "Great government." A peace-loving emperor, Hongzhi also had only one empress and no concubines, granting him the distinction of being the sole perpetually-monogamous emperor in Chinese history. He was an emperor during the mid-Ming times.[1]

Early years[edit]

Hongzhi was born in an era where Lady Wan and her associates were on the lookout to eliminate any child born to the emperor Chenghua. It was through a stroke of luck that young Hongzhi was hidden away by the former empress of Chenghua that Hongzhi escaped the fate of death. Hongzhi was only then reunited with his father at the age of 5, in 1475 and was created crown prince. Hongzhi had been a brilliant child early on and he received the best education offered at that time. Hongzhi was immersed in Confucian schooling and he excelled in his studies.

Reign as emperor[edit]

A stele with the Hongzhi Emperor's inscription regarding the repair of the Temple of Confucius, Qufu. Year 17 of Hongzhi era (1504)

After Hongzhi ascended the throne in 1487, his administration was modelled after Confucian ideology and he became a hardworking and diligent emperor. He closely supervised all affairs of state, lowered taxes, reduced government spending and made wise decisions when employing ministers to government post. Individuals such as Liu Jian, Xie Qian and Wang Shu worked hand in hand with Hongzhi thus creating a seldom-witnessed atmosphere of cooperation within the government. In addition, Emperor Hongzhi also encouraged his ministers to be up front about all issues, even acknowledging criticisms directed towards the Emperor himself. This created a more transparent government and introduced fresh energy into the Ming dynasty. As a result the populace once again prospered under his rule. It was said that individual eunuchs' power was curtailed and palace intrigues, prevalent in previous reigns, was absent during his reign. Hongzhi has been compared to his predecessors Emperor Hongwu and Emperor Yongle as one of the most brilliant emperors of the Ming dynasty.

In the spring of 1488, the shipwrecked Korean crew of the Jeju-do official Choe Bu (1454–1504) were traveling up the Grand Canal of China while escorted by the Ming courier service en route back to Korea. Choe observed ferry ships passing by holding officials who were from the Ministries of War, Justice, and Personnel.[2] When he asked what was going on, it was explained to him that the new Emperor Hongzhi was ridding his government of corrupt and incompetent officials, and this was a final gesture of good will by the emperor by providing them with a comfortable passage back home by ship.[2]

Succession crisis[edit]

Unlike almost all of his predecessors who took up many concubines which bore many children to the Emperor, Hongzhi had only one Empress during his lifetime. Coupled with the fact that the Empress Zhang had only 2 sons (one of which died in infancy), Hongzhi was left with only one nominee to succeed him. After Emperor Hongzhi died in 1505 he was succeeded by his son, the Zhengde Emperor. Unfortunately, Zhengde died childless in 1521 and the throne had to be passed to a cousin from Hubei, effectively ending Hongzhi's own line of succession.

Personal information[edit]

Consort[edit]

Formal Title Maiden Name Born Died Father Mother Issue Notes
Empress Xiao Cheng Jing
孝成敬皇后
Family name: Zhang (張) Xingji, Hebei Province 1541 Zhang Luan
張巒
Lady Jin
金氏
Zhu Houzhao, Zhengde Emperor
Zhu Houwei, Prince Dao of Wei
Zhu Xiurong, Princess Taikang
Married then-Crown Prince Youcheng as his wife and crown princess in 1487; was created empress when he succeeded to the throne later that year; remains the only empress to an adult emperor who had no concubines in Chinese history

Sons[edit]

Number Name Formal Title Born Died Spouse Issue Notes
1 Zhu Houzhao
朱厚照
The Zhengde Emperor 26 October 1491 20 April 1521 Lady Xia, Empress Xiao Jing Yi
six concubines
none Created Crown Prince in 1493; succeeded his father at the age of fourteen
2 Zhu Houwei
朱厚煒
Prince Dao of Wei
蔚悼王
1 January 1495 9 March 1496 none none

Daughter[edit]

Number Title Name Born Died Date Married Spouse Issue Notes
1 Princess Taikang
太康公主
Family name: Zhu (朱)
Given name: Xiurong (秀榮)
15 February 1497 1 October 1498 none none none

Ancestry[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 中国历代悬案疑案奇案 page 176, second story
  2. ^ a b Brook, 50.

References[edit]

Hongzhi Emperor
Born: 30 July 1470 Died: 8 June 1505
Regnal titles
Preceded by
The Chenghua Emperor
Emperor of China
1487–1505
Succeeded by
The Zhengde Emperor